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Index A Abstinence, 12, 18, 33 Academic performance, 59, 60, 67 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 9, 10, 29-30, 125 Adolescents. See also High school students; Junior high school students alcohol use-depression relationship, 54 drug abuse-delinquency relationship, 37 drug-onset patterns, 14, 32 drug-onset prevention, 14-15 drug-using sequences, 2, 15, 16 peer influences, 47, 66, 67 precursors to drug use, 56-57 prevention studies in, 81, 93, 97, 103-104, 105 problem-behavior development, 58, 59-60 sensation seeking in, 53 sexual behaviors, 30, 57 smoking onset, 19 smoking prevention, 3-4 socioeconomic factors and, 34 suicide in, 54 Adult-child relationships, 60, 61, 62 155 Affective programs, 79, 85, 90 Age of drug-use onset, 14, 32, 51 and drug-use patterns, 17, 23, 32-33 preventive interventions and, 14-15 Alcoholism, 52 Alcohol use age of onset, 14, 51 in children, parents and, 135 cognitive-behavioral analysis, 49 costs of illness from, 10 cultural influences on, 56 developmental analysis, 59 drug-prevention interventions and, 84, 86, 91, 92-93, 94, 100-101 in drug-use sequences, 2, 15-16, 18, 32-33, 51 genetic predispositions, 52 legal status of, 12 patterns of consumption, 27 personality characteristics and, 53, 54 preventive interventions, 96-98, 141 in rebellion patterns, 57 sensation seeking and, 107 ALERT, Project, 64, 65, 8S, 90, 91-94 Animal studies, 52 Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1988), 21 Asian Americans, 111

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156 B Behavioral training, 3 Biological risk factors, 52, 53 Blacks drug-use patterns, 2, 33, 36 female marijuana use, 29 prevention studies in, 111 sexual behaviors, 30 socioeconomic factors and, 55, 56 Bush, George, 9 C Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, vii, 128 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), vii, 133 Child abuse, 61 Child Development Project, 98-99 Children. See also Adolescents alcoholism risk factors, 52 developmental analysis, 4S, 58-59, 60, 63, 99 health education programs and, 133, 135 perinatal drug exposure, 29 prevention studies in, 89-90, 99, 111 relationships with adults, GO, 61, 62 risk factor analysis, 52-53, 57 socialization deficits, 58-59 Cigarette smoking age of onset, 14, 19, 51 children, parental involvement and, 135 community-specific model of prevention, 50 community-wide interventions, 124, 125, 126 continuation patterns, 18 countereffectiveness of interventions, 4 delay of onset of, 3-4 in drug-use sequences, 2, 15-16, 51, 63-64 ethnicity and, 111 INDEX evaluation of prevention programs, 80-81, 84, 86-87, 90-91, 92-93, 94, 98, 100-101, 111 health care professionals and, 140 legal status of, 12 . . . mass media prevention campaigns, 102, 104 problem-behavior development and, 59 public health costs of, 10, 33 school-based prevention programs, 64-65, 86-87, 90-91, 98, 104, 133-134, 141 social influence model of prevention, 49, 64-65, 90, 91 validity of self-reports, 26 Client Data System, 21 Client Oriented Data Acquisition Process (CODAP,, 21, 33 Cocaine use abuse and dependence, 18, 28 age and, 32 crack, 9, 29, 30 and criminal behavior, 31, 35 in drug-use sequences, 16 evaluation of prevention progams, 6- 7, 101, 104, 108 legal status of, 12 patterns of consumption, 2, 23-24, 27-28, 31, 36 perinatal exposure, 29 prevention of onset, 2-3, 15 race and ethnicity and, 33 and sexual behavior, 30 treatment demand, 28 validity of self-reports, 25 Cognitive-behavioral model, 49-50, 85, 87 College students, 23, 105 Communities "community partnership" grants, 142 conceptual approach to prevention, ix, 47, 50, 119 definitions of, 120-122 economic dimensions, 126-127 epidemiologic dimensions, 123-124

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INDEX mass media campaigns in, 122-123, 126, 130-131, 141 perspective on drug problems, 11, 20 prevention strategies, evaluation of, 101, 111, 127-128 research needs on, 3, 5, 128-131, 141-142 social-psychological dimensions, 125-126 Community Epidemiology Working Group, 21 Condom use, 29, 30 Congenital predispositions, 52-53 Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, 91 Costs federal antidrug efforts, 9 of illness, 10 of research, 7 Crack cocaine, 9, 29, 30 Crime, drug-related, 9, 10, 30, 37, 56 Criminal justice system data, 30-32, 33 Cuban Americans, 33-34, 56 D Data collection criminal justice system, 30-32, 33 Drug Abuse Warning Network, 27- 28 population surveys, 20-24, 36 treatment demand, 28-29 validity of surveys, 24-27 Delinquency, 36-37, 56, 57, 107 Dentists, 140 Depression, 53, 54 Development effects of drug use on, 19-20, 33 intervention studies, 98-99 model of preventive intervention, 47, 48, 61-63, 66, 67, 76 predisposing elements of, 46, 48 problem behavior, 58-63, 67 research needs, 5, 63 Developmental theory, 48 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), 11, 13 157 Dropout prevention, 141 Drug abuse. See also Drug abuse prevention; Drug use age and, 32 age of drug onset and, 14, 51 and AIDS risks, 29 consumption patterns, 2, 22, 24, 28, 31-32, 36 defined, 11, 12 and delinquency, 37, 56 race and ethnicity and, 33, 36 research needs, 36 risk factors for, 47, 51 self-esteem and, 54 sequence of development of, 15, 18, 58 socioeconomic factors and, 35 Drug abuse prevention age for intervention relevance, 2-3, 14-15, 32 cognitive-behavioral model, 49-50, 85, 87 community-based approach, 101, 111, 122, 128-131 community-specific approach, 47, 50 community-wide interventions, 120, 121-128, 130-131, 141-142 developmental intervention, 47, 48, 60, 62-63, 66, 67, 76, 98-102 drug-use sequences and, 2-3, 18 ethnicity dimension, 110, 111 evaluation methodologies, viii, 1, 5- 6, 108-109 evaluation research, viii, 1, 3, 4-5, 7, 77, 108-109 evaluations of program effectiveness, 3 - , 6-7, 85, 87-89, 90, 105, 108 gender dimension, 110-111 government spending on, vii, 9 health care setting for, 139-141, 142 life skills approach, 49-50, 85-87 mass media campaigns, 102-108, 122-123 meta-analysis evaluations, 78-85 predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing elements in, 45~6, 66- 67, 125

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58 prevention theory and, 119-120 risk factor reduction, 19, 47-48, 57, 66, 67, 76 school-based curricula, 76-77, 111, 131 school-based programs, 64, 65-66, 87-90, 91-96, 100-102, 141 school health programs, 131-138 school reform in, 63 self-esteem theory, 54 social influence approach, 47, 48-50, 64-66, 67, 76, 89, 90-98, 109-110 theoretical basis for, viii, 1, 2, 5 workplace setting for, 138-139, 142 Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 5, 95-96 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 21, 27-28, 32, 33, 36 Drug dependence. See also Drug use age and, 32 age of drug onset and, 14, 51 and AIDS risks, 29 consumption patterns, 2, 22, 24, 28, 31-32, 36 defined, 11, 12, 13 race and ethnicity and, 33, 36 research needs, 36 risk factors for, 47, 51 self-esteem and, 54 sequence of development of, 18, 58 Drugs illicit, 1, 12, 16 legal, 12 prescription, 1, 15 Drug testing, 139 Drug trade, 30, 55 Drug use. See also Drug abuse prevention age disaggregation, 32-33 age of onset, 14-15, 51 and AIDS risks, 29-30 community diagnostic perspective, 11, 20 costs and consequences of, 10, 18 20, 21 criminal justice system data, 21, 30 32 INDEX DAWN data, 21, 27-28 defined, 11, 12 developmental model, 48, 67 genetic and congenital predispositions, 52-53 individual diagnostic perspective, 11 20 motivations for, 19, 49 patterns of consumption, 2, 21-24, 31-32, 35-36 personality predispositions, 53, 54 population survey data, 20, 21-27 predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing elements, 46 preventive intervention effects on, 4, 80, 81, 82, 85, 94, 95-96, 101, 105 public perceptions of, 9-10, 33 race and ethnicity disaggregation, 33-34 research needs, 36 risk factor model, 47-48, 51, 56-57 sequence and progression of, 2, 15- 18, 36, 51 and sexual behaviors, 30, 57 smoking prevention and, 4, 49 social influence model, 48, 49, 63-64 socioeconomic disaggregation, 34-35 socioeconomic predispositions, 55, 56 treatment demand data, 28-29 validity of self-reported data, 24-27 Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) system, 21,30-31,36 E Ecological fallacy, 105 Economic factors, 34-35 Elderly, 15 Emotional disorders, 54, 59 Enabling elements, 45, 46, 47, 66-67, 125 Environmental exposures, 46, 48, 50 51, 58 Epidemiologic studies, 2 Epidemiology, 20, 47 Ethnicity, 46, 59, 66, 110, 111

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INDEX Ethnographic studies, 35 Etiologic research, viii, 2, 3, 35 F Families in developmental analysis, 46, 48, 59, 61, 67 in school-based interventions, 134- 135 socioeconomic influences, 55-56 Females biological risk factors, 52-53 drug use in pregnancy, 29 drug use and sexual behaviors, 30, 57 prevention programs and, 110-111 work force participation, 138 Franklin Research Institute, 21 G Gateway drugs, 15, 16, 51 prevention research evaluations, 97, 101, 109 Gender differences, 33, 110-111 Genetic predispositions, 46, 52-53 H Health care costs of, 10, 139 education programs, 64, 124, 132- 134, 139 preventive intervention setting, 139- 141, 142 Here's Looking at You, 5, 95, 96-98 Heroin use, 9 age and, 32 and criminal behavior, 35 legal status of, 12 patterns of consumption, 2, 26, 36 High School and Beyond study, 109 High School Senior Survey, 20, 36 drug-use patterns, 21-22, 24, 31 validity of data, 25, 27, 28 High school students. See also Adolescents 159 dropouts, 24, 34-35 drug-prevention interventions and, 80 drug-use patterns, 21-23, 24 problem-behavior development, 59 smoking patterns, 18 smoking-prevention interventions and, 4, 91, 93 Hispanic Americans, 2, 33-34, 36, 111 I Individual characteristics, 46, 50-51 Institute of Medicine, Panel on Opportunities for Research on Prevention of Alcohol Problems, 20 International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD-10), 11, 13 I-STAR, Project (Indianapolis), 95, 100 J Junior high school students. See also Adolescents drug-prevention evaluation research, 80, 88, 91-92, 93 ethnic cultural research, 56 prevention research studies and, 63 problem-behavior development, 59 smoking-prevention evaluation research, 104 social influence programs, 65, 67 "Just Say No" campaign, 64, 104 K Kaiser Family Foundation, 134 L Life Skills Training (LST), 49-50, 77, 85-87, 93 Longitudinal studies, 36, 51-52, 67, 109 Los Angeles Police Department, 95 Los Angeles Unified School District, 95

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160 M Males drug use and sexual behaviors, 30, 57 work force participation, 138 Marijuana use age and, 14 in drug-use sequences, 2-3, 15, 16, 17, 51 legal status of, 12 patterns of consumption, 2, 22, 23, 27, 31, 36 perinatal exposure, 29 preventive intervention evaluations, 86, 91, 92, 93, 94, 98, 100-101 problem-behavior development and, 59 risk factors for, 47-48, 54, 56, 57 self-reporting data, 25, 26 Mass media in community-based interventions, 122-123, 126, 130-131, 141 and drug abuse prevention, 46, 76 preventive intervention evaluations, 102-108 in school-based interventions, 100, 104 Meta-analysis, 78-85 Methodologies of drug-use prevention strategies, viii, 5, 109 in evaluation research, 1, 5, 6-7, 108-110 meta-analysis, 78, 79-80 techniques of measurement, 58 validity of self-reports, 24-27 weaknesses in, 5-6, 79-80, 101-102, 105, 108-109 Metropolitan Life Foundation, 135 Mexican Americans, 33-34, 55, 56, 60 Midwestern Prevention Project, 64, 100-102, 129, 130-131 Minorities, 27, 55, 86 Monamine oxidase neurochemistry, 53 Monitoring the Future, 109 INDEX N Napa Drug Abuse Prevention Project, 85, 87-90 National Cancer Institute (NCI), 64, 130, 134 National Education Longitudinal Study, 109 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHBLI), 130, 131, 134, 136 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1990), 20, 36 drug-use patterns, 14, 16, 23-24 validity of data, 26, 27, 28 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 131 National Institute for Dental Research, 130 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), vii-viii, 1, 6 cocaine hotline, 104 community-wide trials, 130-131, 142 drug epidemiology surveys, 20, 27, 33, 138 National Institute of Justice, 30-31 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 134 National Research Council (NRC), 138 National Youth Study, 37 Native Americans, 33, 34, 60, 87, 111 Neighborhood characteristics, 52, 55 56, 58, 59, 138 Neurochemistry, 53 Nixon, Richard M., 9 North Karelia Youth Project (Finland), 86, 124, 135 o Office of Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP), 130, 142 p Parents in community-wide interventions, 130-131, 135

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INDEX in developmental interventions, 99 and problem-behavior development, 59, 61, 67 Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 104-105 Peers in developmental model, 58, 59 peer-pressure resistance, 3, 96, 106 preventive intervention designs, 65, 79, 80-81, 82-83, 84, 85 in risk factor model, 47 in social influence model, 48, 66, 67 Perinatal drug exposure, 29 Personality characteristics, 52, 53-54, 58 Physicians, 140 Predisposing elements, 45, 46, 66-67, 125 developmental, 48 genetic and congenital, 52-53 risk factors, 47, 57 Pregnancy drug use and, 29, 57 prevention programs, 141 Prevention. See Drug abuse prevention Prison inmates, 35 Problem-behavior development, 58-63, 67 Protective factors, 50-51, 54 Psychoactive Substance Use Disorder, 11 Puberty, 52-53 Public health, 10, 20 Public opinion, 9-10, 33 Public service announcements, 104, 106 Puerto-Rican Americans, 34, 55, 56 Q Quit For Life campaign, 124 R Race and ethnicity, 33-34, 59 RAND Corporation, 64, 91 Reagan, Nancy, 64 161 Reinforcing elements, 45, 46, 47, 66 67, 125 Research. See also Research needs community-based, 128-131 developmental interventions, 98-102 etiologic, viii, 2, 3, 35 evaluation of effectiveness, viii, 1, 5, 6-7, 77 government spending on, vii meta-analysis evaluations, 78-85 methodological standards, viii, 1, 5- 6, 108-109 smoking prevention, 134 workplace health promotion, 139 Research needs community interventions, 120, 126, 127, 129, 142 developmental approach, 5, 63 diffusion research, 130 economic dimensions, 126-127 genetic predispositions, 53 health care setting, 140 longitudinal studies, 36 mass media campaigns, 122 methodological standards, 6, 109, 110 risk factor approach, 5, 58 school-based programs, 4-5, 66, 133, 135, 141 social influence approach, 66, 109- 110 Resistance skills training, 49, 77, 100, 111 Risk factors, 27 defined, 47 genetic and congenital, 52-53 individual and environmental, 50-51 longitudinal studies of, 51-52, 67 personality characteristics, 53-54 prevention strategies based on, 19, 47~8, 65, 66, 67, 76 relationships among, 48, 56-57 research needs, 5, 58 socioeconomic, 55-56 Rutgers longitudinal sample, 53

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162 S School-based interventions alcohol-use prevention, 96-98 cognitive-behavioral model, 87 in community-wide programs, 121 123, 126-127, 130-131, 142 components of, 76-77 developmental model, 61-62, 63, 98 102 drug-use prevention curricula, 76-77, 111, 131 drug-use prevention programs, 64, 65-66, 87-90, 91-96, 100-102, 141 ethnic and gender dimensions, 110 111 health education programs, 64-65, 131-138 Life Skills Training, 85-87 mass media campaigns in, 100, 104 meta-analysis evaluations, 81-82, 83-84 research needs, 4-5, 66, 133, 135, 141 smoking prevention, 64-65, 86-87, 90-91, 98, 104, 133-134, 141 social influence model, 64, 65-66, 67, 90-98 School Health Curriculum Project, 133 School Health Education Evaluation, 133-134 Schools, 3. See also School-based interventions "crack babies" in, 29 influences in child development, 48, 59-60, 61-62, 63 Seattle Social Development Project, 98-99 Self-esteem, 46, 47, 53, 54, 77, 84, 96 97 Sensation seeking, 53, 54, 106-107, 108 Sexual behaviors AIDS risks, 29, 30 drug use and, 36-37, 57 Sexually transmitted diseases, 30 SMART curriculum, 95, 111 Social alienation, 58 Social bonding, 99 Social Economic Index (SEI), 35 INDEX Social environment, 3 Social influence evaluations of effectiveness, 90-98, 102 model of prevention, 47, 48-50, 63- 66, 67, 89 research needs, 66, 109-110 Social inoculation, 65 Social isolation, 54 Socialization deficits, 46, 58, 59, 63 Social learning theory, 65, 76, 125 Socioeconomic factors, 34-35, 46, 52, 55-56 STAR, Project (Kansas City), 64, 65, 95, 100, 101, 129 Street culture, 27, 56, 66 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 21 Suicide, 53, 54 T Teachers influences on children, 59, 62 training programs, 29, 88, 99, 134 Time-lag hypothesis, 2, 32 Tobacco use. See Cigarette smoking Tranquilizers, 16 Treatment data collection, 21, 28, 33 workplace programs, 139 U U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 131 U.S. Department of Justice, vii U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 133 W Waterloo, Ontario, antismoking intervention, 64, 90-91, 92 Whites, 2, 29, 33, 36 Women. See Females Workplace prevention setting, 138-139, 142