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Surmounting the Barriers Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP Published through a collaboration between: THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: This joint publication of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Society for Engineering Educa- tion has been reviewed according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the National Academy of Engineering or the American Society for Engineering Education. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of au- thors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering or the board, officer, or staff of the American Society for Engineering Education. This project was supported by the National Science Foundation under award EEC-1256000 to the American Society for Engineering Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Numbers ISBN-13: 978-0-309-30785-7 ISBN-10: 0-309-30785-6 Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested Citation: National Academy of Engineering. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop. Washington: National Academies Press, 2014.

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The American Society for Engineering Education is a The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, global society of individual, institutional, and corporate self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars en- members founded in 1893. We are committed to further- gaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to ing education in engineering and engineering technology the furtherance of science and technology and to their use by promoting excellence in instruction, research, public for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter service, professional practice, and societal awareness. granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government ASEE seeks to more fully engage with high school students, on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is parents, teachers, engineering faculty and business leaders president of the National Academy of Sciences. to enhance the engineering workforce of the nation. The National Academy of Engineering was established ASEE is the only professional society addressing oppor- in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of tunities and challenges spanning all engineering disci- Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- plines, working across the breadth of academic education, neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the research, and public service. selection of its members, sharing with the National Acad- emy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal We support engineering education at the institutional government. The National Academy of Engineering also level by linking engineering faculty and staff to their sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national peers in other disciplines to create enhanced student needs, encourages education and research, and recogniz- learning and discovery. es the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. We support engineering education across institutions, by identifying opportunities to share proven and prom- The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the ising practices. National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the exam- We support engineering education locally, regionally, ination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the and nationally, by forging and reinforcing connection public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given between academic engineering and business, industry, to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional and government. charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, www.asee.org research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the Na- tional Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Acad- emy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communi- ties. The Council is administered jointly by both Acade- mies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respective- ly, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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MEETING ORGANIZERS Bevlee Watford Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Director, Center for Enhancement of Engineering Diversity Virginia Tech Norman L. Fortenberry Executive Director American Society for Engineering Education Catherine Didion Senior Program Officer National Academy of Engineering Lance Davis Executive Officer National Academy of Engineering REPORT EDITOR Lance Davis Executive Officer National Academy of Engineering PUBLICATION STAFF Peter Meredith, Writer Nicola Nittoli, Designer Michelle Bersabal, Designer Mark Matthews, Copy Editor

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report reflects the views of the individuals who par- ticipated in the plenary and breakout groups. It has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academy of Engineering’s Re- port Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The re- view comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of the report: Mary Juhas, Ohio State University; Sheila Edwards Lange, University of Washington; Noe Lozano, Stanford University; and Nancy R. Martin, General Electric. Although the reviewers listed provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the con- tent of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Norman L. Fortenberry, Executive Director of the American Society for Engineering Education, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Re- sponsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the editors and the institutions. V

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CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SECTION VI—INVITED SPEAKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 SECTION I—WORKSHOP OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Day One. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 SECTION II—FRAMING THE ISSUE: A LONG, SLOW TREK . . . . . . 3 Keynote—Freeman Hrabowski: We Need to Look in the Mirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 SECTION III—PRE-WORKSHOP PREPARATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Morning Speaker—Robert Teranishi: Challenging Pre-Workshop Surveys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Assumptions about Minorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Analysis of Historical Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Luncheon Speaker—Eric Jolly: We Need to Change Who Asks the Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Day Two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 SECTION IV—WORKSHOP DISCUSSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Keynote—Karan Watson: Taking a Strategic Approach. . . . . . 22 A Regional Scale-up Initiative: The Florida Example. . . . . . . . . 10 Morning Speaker—Amir Mirmiran: Action Steps Understanding the Key Underlying Impediments to toward Increasing Diversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Implementing Prior Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Luncheon Speaker—Patricia Campbell: We Know Strategies for Surmounting Impediments: so Many of the Answers Already. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 13 Suggestions for Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 SECTION V—POST-WORKSHOP COMMENTARY AND ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix A: List of Workshop Attendees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Reality Check: What Impediments Have Tripped Up Appendix B: Workshop Agenda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Similar Recommendations in the Past?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix C: Highlights of Pre-Workshop Surveys. . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Appendix D: Highlights of Breakout Sessions and Their Plenary Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix E: Post-Workshop Evaluation Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 VII

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