Index

A

Abrams tank, 80, 178, 222

Academic research, see University research

Acoustic devices, 47, 109, 133, 134, 145

Acquisitions, see Procurement

Advanced Technology Transition Demonstrations, 232, 236, 258-259

Advisory roles, 29

Aegis antimissile system, 93

Aeromechanics, 109, 111

Affinity chromatography, 153-154

AGM-88C missile, 223

AIM-9 missiles, 223

Air-breathing missiles, 176

Aircraft, engines and propulsion, 176-178, 222

see also Air defense systems;

Air transport;

Helicopters;

Unmanned air vehicles

Air defense systems, 6, 79, 87, 90-94, 224-225, 245, 246, 251-253

directed energy devices, 86, 170-172

of enemy forces, 89, 90

see also Missiles, defense systems

Air Force, 75, 172, 228, 245

Air reconnaissance, 41, 74

Air transport, 38, 73, 75, 76, 77, 221, 251

commercial carrier use, 32, 73, 75, 221-222

Algorithms, 55, 56, 59, 105, 133

Allied countries, see International cooperation

Alloys, 167

Aluminum-based composites, 167-168

AMBER UAV, 133

Ammunition, 76, 96

AMRAAM missiles, 223

Analog-to-digital converters, 128

Antiaircraft, see Air defense systems

Antiarmor weapons, 73, 82, 83-85, 243, 245

Antimissile weapons, see Missiles, defense systems

Antiradiation missiles, 223

Antisensor weapons, 34, 61, 64, 86, 88, 170, 171, 172

Armored vehicles, see Tanks

Arms control agreements, 36, 37

Army Acquisition Executive, 238



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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century Index A Abrams tank, 80, 178, 222 Academic research, see University research Acoustic devices, 47, 109, 133, 134, 145 Acquisitions, see Procurement Advanced Technology Transition Demonstrations, 232, 236, 258-259 Advisory roles, 29 Aegis antimissile system, 93 Aeromechanics, 109, 111 Affinity chromatography, 153-154 AGM-88C missile, 223 AIM-9 missiles, 223 Air-breathing missiles, 176 Aircraft, engines and propulsion, 176-178, 222 see also Air defense systems; Air transport; Helicopters; Unmanned air vehicles Air defense systems, 6, 79, 87, 90-94, 224-225, 245, 246, 251-253 directed energy devices, 86, 170-172 of enemy forces, 89, 90 see also Missiles, defense systems Air Force, 75, 172, 228, 245 Air reconnaissance, 41, 74 Air transport, 38, 73, 75, 76, 77, 221, 251 commercial carrier use, 32, 73, 75, 221-222 Algorithms, 55, 56, 59, 105, 133 Allied countries, see International cooperation Alloys, 167 Aluminum-based composites, 167-168 AMBER UAV, 133 Ammunition, 76, 96 AMRAAM missiles, 223 Analog-to-digital converters, 128 Antiaircraft, see Air defense systems Antiarmor weapons, 73, 82, 83-85, 243, 245 Antimissile weapons, see Missiles, defense systems Antiradiation missiles, 223 Antisensor weapons, 34, 61, 64, 86, 88, 170, 171, 172 Armored vehicles, see Tanks Arms control agreements, 36, 37 Army Acquisition Executive, 238

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century Army Central Command, 218 Army Management Review, 238 Army Space Command, 60 Army 21, see Lab 21 initiatives Artificial intelligence, 9-10, 52, 57, 89, 99, 105, 112-115, 117, 122 Asia, 37, 39 Atmospheric sciences, 14-15, 112 Atom clusters, 106 AWACS, 245 B Batteries, 177-178, 180, 182-183 Battle control language, 117-118 Battle management software, 55-57, 196-197 Binary optics, 146-147 Binoculars, night vision, 61 Biocoupling, 69, 109, 110, 149, 155 Biological warfare, 37, 61, 64, 66-71, 91, 112, 150-151, 155, 157, 159, 198, 244 Bionics, 149, 156 Biotechnology, 11-12, 66, 111-112, 148-159, 169, 198-199 CTBW countermeasures, 67, 69-71, 150-151 and nanoscale processes, 106 Blast-attenuating materials, 66-67 Blood, 69-70 artificial, 67, 112 Body armor, 66, 161 Bridge construction, 73, 77-78 Brilliant munitions, 5, 48, 73-74, 84, 85, 175 Budget constraints, 21, 27, 31, 37, 38, 234-235 and R&D, 28-34, 41, 104, 208, 210, 230, 259 C Camouflage, 66, 96 Career development, 102, 231 Casualties, 30, 67, 71, 215, 225, 249, 256 evacuation of, 67, 71-72 friendly fire, 57 noncombatant, 30, 95, 215 paratroop injury, 220 Ceramics, 159-160, 164-166, 168 Chaparral missiles, 40, 245 Charged-particle beams, 86, 88, 148 Chemical synthesis, 106, 107, 108 Chemical warfare, 37, 64, 66-71, 80, 89, 91, 96, 138, 150-151, 244 Chemistry, 107 Civic assistance, 7, 99 Civil Reserve Air Fleet, 32, 75, 221-222 Climate, see Weather and climate Clothing, 61, 66-67 Combat power enhancement, 73-74, 80-90, 220, 223-225, 263-264 Combat services support systems, 6-7, 94-102, 225-226 Command-and-control systems, 55-59, 114 air defense, 93 tank, 81-82 see also Battle control language; Battle management software Communications systems, 52-55, 123-124, 217, 245 in helmets, 65 networks, 44, 109, 118, 142 satellites, 53-54, 60, 132 security of, 54, 196 Compact accelerator, 148 Competition, 211-212 Complex systems design, 107 Composite materials, 66, 82, 94, 108, 183-184, 199-200 see also Ceramics; Metal matrix composites; Resin matrix composites Computer-aided design (CAD), 66 Computer networks, 118-119 Computers, see specific system types and applications Computer sciences, 9, 105, 112-123 Concept-Based Requirements System (CBRS), 19-20, 234, 236-239, 259, 265

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century Conduct of Fire Trainer, 97 Contingency operations, 30, 36-40, 242-253, 256 Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty, 242 Conversion of industry, see Industrial conversion Cooperation, see International cooperation; Interservice cooperation; Private sector involvement; Technology transfer Corrosive agents, 66 Cost containment measures, 31-34, 209-210, 215-216, 260-261 Counter-insurgency, 29, 100 Counterintelligence, see Misinformation Countermine operations, 87-89, 224 Covert operations, 76 Cruise missiles, 79, 91, 92, CTBW, see Biological warfare; Chemical warfare; Corrosive agents; Nerve agents C3I/RISTA, 3, 45-61, 64, 74, 216-217 D Data base management systems, 122 Data compression, 55 Day-night capabilities, 39 Deception of the enemy, 55, 58-59, 89, 245 Decision-support systems, 40, 44, 56-57, 82, 122-123, 196-197, 217 Decontamination, 70-71, 152 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 60, 133, 143, 148, 212 Defense Board Summer Study, 208 Defense Critical Technologies, 276-291 Department of Energy, 143 Deployment, see Logistics Depots, 210 Desert Shield/Desert Storm, see Persian Gulf war Detection, see Sensor systems Diagnostics, for equipment maintenance, 96, 164, 216 medical, 67, 112, 159, 225 DIAL, 138 Diamond coatings, 166 Diode laser arrays, 143-144, 170-172, 197-198 Directed energy devices, 5, 11, 34, 64, 73, 86, 126, 136, 147-148, 170-175, Display technologies, 142 Doctrine development, 37, 39, 100 Drugs, 69-71, 152 targeted delivery of, 149, 154 E Economic conditions, and force structure, 21, 27, 242, 246 Electrical guns, 82-86, 94, 181 Electric drives, 77, 80-81, 178-180, 199, 222-223 Electric power generation, 170, 181-182 Electromagnetic pulse weapons, see Directed energy devices Electronics technologies, see specific types Electronic systems architecture, 44, 99, 109, 130-132, 145 Electronic Technology and Devices Laboratories, 230 Energetic materials, 159-160, 168-169 Energy storage devices, 170, 180, 182-184 Engines, 77, 79, 164-165, 178-182, 222 Environmental protection, 109, 188 Environmental sciences, 14, 188-191 Europe, 37, 39 Evacuation of casualties, 67, 71-72 Exoskeleton, electromechanical, 71 Experimental test units, 21-22, 254, 263 Expert systems, 65-66, 67, 82, 217 Explosives, 89, 168-169 Eye-movement controls, 65, 71

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century F Fabrics, see Clothing Fiber optics, 54, 142-143, 146 "Flash-bang" grenades, 64 Flywheels, 178, 180, 182-184 Focal planes, 139-140 Focal values, 18, 44, 204-207, 209-211, 213-216, 258, 263, 270-271 Force reductions, 39-40, 246-247, 254 Foreign language and culture instruction, 39, 97-99, 245, 249 Foreign students, 35 Forward basing, 37 Friendly fire, 57, 244 Fuel cells, 182 Fuel supply and tracking, 96, 157 G Gel propellants, 176 Gene technologies, 67, 111-112, 149, 152, 157-159, 198 Geneva protocols, 37 Geopolitical conditions, 20-21, 27, 29-31, 36-37, 234-235, 242, 246, 259 Glass-ceramic composites, 166 Globalization of commerce, see International market economy Global Positioning System, 245 Grenada, 38, 40 Guerilla warfare, 29, 44, 244-245 Guidance systems, 85, 94 Gun propulsion, 180-181 Gyroscopes, 143 H HALE aircraft, 50-51, 217 HAWK missile defense system, 134, 245 Hazardous waste, 109 Heads-up displays, 119 Health care, see Medical technologies Heavy metals, 168 Helicopters, 76, 78-79, 87, 91, 111, 222, 253 Helmets, 61, 65, 141-142 High-impact functions, 25, 204-206, 216-226 High-payoff systems and technologies, 7, 15, 25, 43, 156-159, 194-201, 257-258, 262-263, 270-284 Holographs, 65 Hoseline system, vehicle-based, 96, 97 Hostage-taking, 37, 245 Howitzers, 38, 84 Human intelligence (HUMINT), 39, 245, 249 Hybrid materials, see Composite materials Hypermedia, 119 Hypervelocity projectiles, 85 I Identification of friend, foe, or neutral (IFFN), 48, 57-58, 61, 64, 82, 87, 93, 94, 243-245 Implementation policy, 18-19, 204-209, 239 Independent Research and Development Program, 230 Indirect-fire weapons, 73-74, 79, 84-86 Individual computer-aided instruction (ICAI), 96-98 Industrial conversion, 29, 32, 33, 185, 187-188, 207, 260 Information systems and management, 3, 21, 108-110, 193, 217-218, 247-249 battlefield, 59, 104-105 in manufacturing, 184-185 medical, 225 security of, 114-115 see also C3I/RISTA; Deception of the enemy Infrared sensors, 47, 60, 86, 88, 111, 137-138, 140, 194-195

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century Integrated circuits, 124-132, 185 biocoupling, 155 microwave, 125-126 optoelectronic, 144-145 very-large-scale (VLSIC), 130 Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology program, 177, 182 Integrated propulsion system (IPS), 178-180 Integrated system development, see Systems approach Intelligence systems, 39, 41, 248-249 International cooperation, 90, 97, 99 see also Technology transfer International market economy, 27, 28, 34, 35 Interservice cooperation, 21, 30, 37, 39, 58, 213-215, 223, 224, 234, 235, 243, 246, 250, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265 in air defense, 90, 92-94, 224, 225 in communications, 55, 57, 248-249 in R&D, 28, 34, 46, 209, 226, 227 in space systems, 218-219 Inventory management, 76, 247 J Joint operations, see Interservice cooperation Joint Systems Target Acquisition Radar System, 133 K Klystron devices, 173-174 L Laboratories, 227-228, 261, 265 Laboratory Demonstration Program, 231 Lab 21 initiatives, 226-229 Languages, battle control, 196-197 computer, 57, 115-118, 123 foreign, 39, 98-99, 245, 249 Lasers, 64-65, 86, 137-138, 143-148, 170-172, 197-198 in processing, 108 in sensor systems, 47, 194-195 Lebanon, 244, 249 LH helicopter, 253 LIDAR, 138, 190 LIGHTSAT, 60 Limited combat missions, 30 Logistics, 4, 37-40, 55, 73-79, 84, 96, 114, 213, 220-223, 243, 250-254, 261-264 Long-Term Forecast of Research, 8-9, 103-112 LOSAT, 245 Low-intensity conflict, 29, 99-100 M Macrophages, 71 Maintenance and repair, 31-32, 76, 96, 164, 210, 215-216, 253-254 Manufacturing technologies, 14, 33, 66, 108-109, 157, 184-188, 210 Mapping, 82, 96, 112, 188-189 Mass-spectrum detectors, 69 Materials design, 12-13, 28, 66, 80, 106-108, 185, 199-200 and bioengineering, 152, 157-158, 198 and product reliability, 212 see also Composite materials Mathematics, 105, 117 Mavroules Amendment, 231 Mechanical mastiff, 71 Medical technologies, 6, 67, 69-70, 94-95, 99, 101, 112, 154-155, 157, 215, 225 civilian applications, 94-95 Memory chips, 126-130 Metal matrix composites, 167 Metals, 159-160, 166-168

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century Meteorology, see Weather and climate Microelectronics, 123-126 Microprocessing, 109, 185-186 Microwave devices, 86, 88, 125-126, 146, 170, 173-174, 177-178 Middle East, 37 Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM), 132 Millimeter-wave generators, 170, 173-175 Mines, 5, 6, 71, 73-74, 87-88, 224 and countermine operations, 87-89, 224 robotic, 120-121 Misinformation, see Deception of enemy Missiles, 83, 91, 111, 120, 223, 245 defense systems, 6, 33, 41, 60, 79-80, 86, 90-94, 148, 170, 172, 224-225, 245, 252-253 guidance systems, 40, 54 propulsion systems, 175-176 see also specific types and classes Modeling, 105-106, 112, 117, 122-123 weather forecasting, 190-191 Modular design, 80, 96, 186, 208 Molecular recognition devices, 106 M-1 tank, see Abrams tank, 222 Multidimensional imagery, 47 Multinational corporations, 34 Multiple-launch rocket systems (MLRS), 84 Multitier force structure, 249-251 N Nanoscale processes and devices, 106, 108, 185 National Critical Technologies Panel, 281-284 National Guard, 38, 97, 255 National Science Foundation, 212 NATO, 36, 37, 246 Naval Ocean Systems Center, 231 Naval Research Laboratory, 148, 228 Naval Weapons Station, 231 Navigation systems, 61, 64, 72-73, 82 Navy VX squadrons, 254 Nerve agents, 66, 69 Networks, see Communications systems, networks; Electronic systems architecture, Neural networks Neural networks, 122, 130, 132, 144-145 Night vision, 61, 64, 111 Noncombatant casualties, 30, 95, 215 Nonlethal weapons, 61, 64, 159, 245 Nuclear warfare, 24-25, 36, 37, 126, 243-244 O Office of Naval Research, 212, 228 Office of the Secretary of Defense, 206-207, 235 Operation Desert Storm, see Persian Gulf war Operation Just Cause, 220 Optical devices and systems, 10, 47, 53-54, 60, 64, 109, 136-138, 142-147 Organs, artificial, 112 P Panama, 40, 220 Parachutes, 220 Parts copying, 187 Patriot antimissile system, 93, 134, 245 Pattern recognition, 82 Peace-keeping operations, 39 Performance enhancement, 71, 159 Persian Gulf war, 26-27, 32, 40-41, 60, 218, 241-246, 256-257 Personal computers, 61, 65-66 Personal weapons, 61, 64 Personnel management, 7, 40, 100-102 R&D staff, 229-231, 261 Phosgene, 66 Photon backscatter sensors, 88

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century Photonic devices, 10, 11, 109, 136, 142-144 Photovoltaic cells, 177 Physics, 107 Polymers, see Resin matrix composites ''Pore guards,'' 66 Port facilities, 77 Power supply systems, 13-14, 169-170 Preplanned product improvement (P3I), 63 Prepositioning, 39, 49, 76 Private sector involvement, 18-19, 29, 31, 230, 247, 254 satellites, 218-219 see also Competition; Technology transfer Procurement, 31, 32, 233-239, 260, 264 Product reliability, 210-213 Project Reliance, 34, 227, 230, 246 Proliferation, of advanced technology, 37, 233, 252, 258 of weapons, 33, 89, 90, 256-257 Propulsion, 13, 80, 85-86, 169-170, 175-181 Prosthetics, 67, 152 Prototyping, 231-232, 235-237, 258-259 Provisioning, shipboard, 39 Psychological operations (PSYOPS), 39, 245 Psychometric techniques, 101-102 Public support for combat missions, 30, 114 Q Quantum mechanics, 106 R Radar, 47, 60, 94, 125, 126, 132-134, 136-138, 143, 190 Radio frequencies, 53, 55, 87, 148, 173 R&D, see Research and development Random access memory, 126 Rapid austere prototyping, 19, 231-232, 236-237, 258-259 Rapid deployment, 73 Rations, 61, 71 Recombinant DNA, 67, 152 Reconnaissance systems, 41, 71 Recruitment and retention, 101 of R&D staff, 231, 261, 265 Reduction in forces, see Force reductions Regional conflicts, see Geopolitical conditions Remedial education, 101 Remote sensing, 112, 190 Repair, see Maintenance and repair Required Operational Capability, 236-237 Requirements see Procurement Research and development, 19, 31, 33, 104, 205, 207-208, 226-233, 236-237, 257, 259-262, 264 industrial, 31, 34, 230 university, 35, 208 see also Technology transfer; specific areas and fields Reserve forces, 38, 97, 100-101, 254-255 Resin matrix composites, 159-164 Retention of personnel, see Recruitment and retention Retooling, see Industrial conversion Road construction, 73, 77-78 Robotics, 9, 44, 49-52, 112-115 industrial, 184-485 personal, 62, 71-73, 77, 220 weaponry, 119-121 see also Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs); Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) Rockets, 83, 180-181 S Satellites, 41, 45, 59-61, 64, 93, 126, 134, 170, 218-219 communications, 53-54, 60, 132

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century countermeasures against, 147, 171 meteorological, 190 Schottky-barrier materials, 140 Science, see specific fields Scud missiles, 41 Semiconductors, 124-125, 144-145, 182 Sensor systems, 10, 44, 47-52, 55, 58, 72, 74, 79, 82, 94, 108-109, 120, 124, 132-134, 136, 217, 218 biological, 61, 68-69, 155,157-158, 198 industrial, 185 in mining, 87-88 multidomain, 194-195 optical, 137-140 personal, 61, 64-65, 141-142 Shelter, 96 Shipboard provisioning, 39 Ship transport, 75-77 Sidewinder missiles, 40, 223 Signal intelligence (SIGINT), 39, 53 SIMNET, 97, 100 Simulation systems, 22, 39-40, 56-57, 105-106, 117, 122, 226 enemy deception, 59 mining operations, 88-89 for R&D, 100 training, 96-98, 254, 255, 261 Skin, artificial, 67, 112 protection of, 69, 71 Small business, 209, 259 Smart devices, 108, 164 countermeasures, 173 helmets, 61, 65, 141-142 sensors, 139-140, 194-195, 216 weapons, 48, 54, 87, 88, 120, 175, 262 Software, 212-213 battle management, 55-57, 196-197 Software Engineering Institute (DOD), 212-213 Soil stabilization, 77-78 Soldier support systems, 3-4, 43, 61-73, 219-220 Soldier Systems Research, Development, and Engineering Center, 219 Soldier-as-a-System initiative, 63, 216, 219, 222, 244 Solid state lasers, 143, 170 Soviet Union, 36, 244 Space-based systems, see Satellites Spare parts, 76, 96 Sparrow missile, 211 Special Operations Forces, 76, 157, 250 Statistics, 107 Stealth technology, 47, 79, 82, 138, 214-215 of enemy forces, 91-92, 94, 214-215, 252, 262 Steel, 159, 166-167 Stinger missiles, 40, 245 Strategic Defense Initiative, 90 Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, 33, 90, 128, 143, 147, 224, 225, 245, 252-253, 258 Strategic planning, 100, 114, 240-255 Supercomputers, 130 Superconducting materials, 125 Supply systems, 76 Support systems, 253-254 combat services, 6-7, 94-102, 225-226 cost containment, 215-216 soldier, 3-4, 43, 61-62, 64-73, 219-220 and stealth technologies, 214 Surface-effect ships, 75 Suspension systems, 80-82 Synthetics, see Composite materials; Materials design System applications, 2-7, 42-102 and Technology Forecast Assessments (matrix), 16-17, 201-203 Systems approach, 63, 107, 115-117, 130, 200, 208, 259, 264 to soldier support, 219-220 T Tactical ballistic missiles, 93, 244 Tanks, 5, 38, 79-83, 179, 244 sensor devices, 133, 135 Target acquisition, 86, 133

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STAR 21: Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century Targeted delivery systems, 154, 159 Technology Base Master Plan, 232, 262-263, 270, 272-276 Technology Forecast Assessments, 8-15, 103, 112-191, 260, 270-284 and system applications (matrix), 16-17, 201-203 Technology transfer, 19, 45, 115, 209, 212, 213, 215, 230, 231, 254, 259, 264-265 international, 27, 34-35, 37, 87, 150, 233 of medical applications, 94-95, 225 Telepresence, 54, 142-143, 196 Television frequencies, 55 Terahertz devices, 54-55, 134-136, 195-196 Terrain analysis, 112, 188-190 Terrorism, 37, 89-90 Testing and evaluation, 237, 263 Theater ballistic missiles, 91, 92 Thermoplastics, see Resin matrix composites Tissues, artificial, 67, 112, 152 Topography, 188-189 TOW missiles, 245 Training and Doctrine Command, 236 Training systems, 7, 21, 37, 39-40, 57, 63, 96-101, 254-255, 261 Transport systems, 96, 259-260 battle-zone, 77-79, 222-223 long-range, 73, 75-76, 213, 220-222 robotic, 71, 73 Trauma treatment, 67, 95 research centers, 225 Tungsten alloys, 168 Turbocharged engines, 178 U Uniforms, see Body armor; Clothing University research, 35, 208, 212-213, 225 Unmanned Air Mobility System, 79 Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), 49, 50-52, 73-74, 77-79, 92, 111, 121, 126, 253 meteorological, 190 microwave-powered, 170, 177-178 of enemy forces, 91 radar systems, 132-133 sensor systems, 217-218 Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), 49, 52, 121 mining operations, 87-89 Uranium alloys, 168 USSR, see Soviet Union V Vaccines, 67, 70, 198 Vacuum transistors, 126 Vehicles, see specific types Vertical takeoff and landing craft, 76, 253 Vetronics, 80, 82 Voice controls, 71, 119 Voluntary service, see Recruitment and retention W Wafer-scale technology, 127-128 War games, 57, 100, 122, 244-245 Warsaw Pact, 36, 246 Water purification, 71 Weapons, see Arms control; specific types and classes Weather and climate, 39, 112, 188-191 Wing-in ground-effect vehicles, 75 World War II, 241

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