Page 491

Index

A

Acetylene, 289, 290

Acid deposition and oxidant model (ADOM), 315-316

Acid rain, 78, 109, 119-120, 177

models, 315-316, 318

NAPAP, 238, 244, 245-246, 254, 255-256, 259-260, 261, 280-281, 318, 364, 365

Acids, 194, 199

see also Nitric acid

Advection, 309, 318

Aerometric data bases, 312-314, 316, 320, 341, 347, 348

Aerometric Information Retrieval System, 316, 320

Aerosols, 26, 177, 208, 310

Air quality models, see Models

Alabama, 207

Alcohol fuels, 14

see also Ethanol; Methanol

Aldehydes, 171, 194, 197, 198-199

see also Formaldehyde

Algorithms, 8, 10, 272

Alkanes, 124, 130-132, 151, 158, 160, 173, 296

Aikenes, 124, 132-134, 151, 157-158, 160, 381

Alternative fuels, 13-14, 135-138, 162, 379-411

California, 388, 390, 395, 399, 405-406, 408

carbon monoxide emissions, 379, 381, 386, 388, 389, 399, 401, 403, 404, 405, 410

history, 393

models, emissions, 393, 394-395

nitrogen dioxide emissions, 399

nitrogen oxides and nitric oxide, 379, 381, 386, 389-390, 399, 401, 403, 410

regulations, 405-409

standards, 388, 390

sulfur compounds, 392

urban areas, general, 13, 14, 381, 395-399, 409-410

VOC emissions, 386-388, 394, 399, 401, 403-405, 410

see also specific fuels

Altitude

mixing height, 340, 346

troposphere, 19-20

American Petroleum Institute, 3, 87

Ammonia, 178, 192, 197

''AP-42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors,'' 252-253, 259

Antarctic ozone hole, 22, 416

Atlanta, Georgia, 31, 105, 234-236, 270

Atmospheric chemistry, 109-162

Atmospheric Utility Signatures, Predictions, and Experiments, 11, 207, 314-315, 343

Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program, 386, 400-401

Automobiles, see Motor vehicles

B

Baltimore, Maryland, 62, 328



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Page 491 Index A Acetylene, 289, 290 Acid deposition and oxidant model (ADOM), 315-316 Acid rain, 78, 109, 119-120, 177 models, 315-316, 318 NAPAP, 238, 244, 245-246, 254, 255-256, 259-260, 261, 280-281, 318, 364, 365 Acids, 194, 199 see also Nitric acid Advection, 309, 318 Aerometric data bases, 312-314, 316, 320, 341, 347, 348 Aerometric Information Retrieval System, 316, 320 Aerosols, 26, 177, 208, 310 Air quality models, see Models Alabama, 207 Alcohol fuels, 14 see also Ethanol; Methanol Aldehydes, 171, 194, 197, 198-199 see also Formaldehyde Algorithms, 8, 10, 272 Alkanes, 124, 130-132, 151, 158, 160, 173, 296 Aikenes, 124, 132-134, 151, 157-158, 160, 381 Alternative fuels, 13-14, 135-138, 162, 379-411 California, 388, 390, 395, 399, 405-406, 408 carbon monoxide emissions, 379, 381, 386, 388, 389, 399, 401, 403, 404, 405, 410 history, 393 models, emissions, 393, 394-395 nitrogen dioxide emissions, 399 nitrogen oxides and nitric oxide, 379, 381, 386, 389-390, 399, 401, 403, 410 regulations, 405-409 standards, 388, 390 sulfur compounds, 392 urban areas, general, 13, 14, 381, 395-399, 409-410 VOC emissions, 386-388, 394, 399, 401, 403-405, 410 see also specific fuels Altitude mixing height, 340, 346 troposphere, 19-20 American Petroleum Institute, 3, 87 Ammonia, 178, 192, 197 ''AP-42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors,'' 252-253, 259 Antarctic ozone hole, 22, 416 Atlanta, Georgia, 31, 105, 234-236, 270 Atmospheric chemistry, 109-162 Atmospheric Utility Signatures, Predictions, and Experiments, 11, 207, 314-315, 343 Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program, 386, 400-401 Automobiles, see Motor vehicles B Baltimore, Maryland, 62, 328

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Page 492 Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 238, 241, 242 Beaumont, Texas, 173-174 Bias, see Errors and error analysis Biogenic emissions, 8-9, 24, 29, 139-149, 158, 224-225, 233-234, 411, 421 biomass burning, 273 control strategies, 244, 364, 365, 377 definition, 2 errors and uncertainty, 271-273, 302, 411 inventories, 252, 263-280, 289, 290-291, 302, 411 isoprene, 139-149, 158, 160, 231, 238, 241, 263, 272-273, 291, 316, 364 models, 272, 316, 318, 365 monoterpenes, 139-144, 146-147, 160 seasonal factors, 9, 263, 264, 278, 289, 302 soil, 218, 277-280 solar radiation and, 272 temperature factors, 263-264, 267, 268, 272 terpenes, 263, 272-273, 291 time factors, 268-269 urban areas, 242, 243-244, 270, 290-291, 302 Boston, Massachusetts, 63, 217, 328 Boundary and initial conditions, 10, 11, 94, 96, 99, 211-214, 221 marine boundary layer, 95, 97, 212, 218, 222-224, 230, 248, 421, 423 models, 304-306, 309, 310-311, 316, 320, 339-340, 341, 348 rural areas, 212-214 stratospheric incursions into troposphere, 23, 414, 421 urban areas, 212, 214, 310-311 winds, 95 C California, 30, 37, 49 alternative fuels, 388, 390, 395, 399, 405-406, 408 emission control strategies, 82 emission inventories, 254, 263, 284 monitoring, general, 44, 52-55, 56, 238, 244-245 SCAQS, 11, 285-286, 314-315, 343 SJVAQS/AUSPEX, 11, 207, 314, 343 see also Los Angeles Canada, 261, 316, 320 Carbon compounds biomass burning, 273 emission control, 5 global trends, 421 see also Fossil fuels; Hydrocarbons; Volatile organic compounds; specific compounds Carbon monoxide, 96, 111, 144, 159 alternative fuels, 379, 381, 386, 388, 389, 399, 401, 403, 404, 405, 410 global trends, 416, 421 measurement, 193, 194-195, 201, 205, 206, 209, 251, 284-288, 296-299, 300-301 Carbonyl compounds, 135, 135, 161, 170, 197, 208 Catalytic conversion, 193, 194, 389 Chemiluminescence, 189, 190-191, 201, 202, 203 Chlorine, 184-185, 419 Chlorofluoroearbons, 15, 22, 417, 425-426 Chromatography, 146, 193, 195-197, 198, 199, 259 California Institute of Technology Model, 359 Classification techniques meteorological, 51, 55-58, 65 NAAQS nonattainment areas, 68-76 VOC inventories, 259 Clean Air Act, 1-4, 5, 29, 30, 67-74, 304, 426 acid rain, 78 historical perspective, 67 indoor air pollution, 36 mandated NAS study on ozone precursors, 3 research, 15, 426 see also National Ambient Air Quality Standards; State Implementation Plans Clean Air Science Advisory Committee, 30 Cleveland, Ohio, 216 Clouds, 93, 95-96, 113, 178, 203, 310, 316 Coal, 253, 392 Combustion chemistry, 1, 24, 253, 261 biomass burning, 273 Computer simulation, 304 atmospheric chemistry, 109, 145, 149, 151, 156, 160, 207-208 motor vehicle emissions, 254, 285 see also Models Condensed phase measures, 203-204, 316 Connecticut, 99 Cost factors emission control technology, 86 NAAQS attainment, 80 Convective forces, 94-97 D Data bases, aerometric, 312-314, 316, 320, 341, 347, 348 Decision trees, 58, 65 Demography, of exposure, 34-36, 68-69 Department of Energy, 3, 15, 427 Detroit, Michigan, 104 Diesel fuel, 261, 392, 400

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Page 493 Differential optical absportion spectra, 198 Diffusion scrubbing fluorescence, 197, 198 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, 197-198 Dynamometers, 7, 284, 288 E Eastern Regional Air Quality Study, 99, 100 Economic factors, 262 cost factors, 80, 86 funding, research, 15 Educational measures, 86 Electricity power plants, 1, 262, 294, 392, 402-403 vehicles, 14, 381, 383, 384, 392, 402-403 Electrochemical sondes, 201, 202 EMFAC7E, 254 Emission controls, 5, 7-8, 10, 31, 43, 74, 82-86, 87, 284 computer simulation, 254, 285 biogenic emissions, 244, 364, 365, 377 emissions inventories and, 281, 300 EPA, extraordinary measures, 74, 86 isopleths, 173-175, 186, 359 models, 351-377 nitrogen compounds, 5-6, 7, 10, 244, 351-377 regional trends, 5, 362-373 sulfur compounds, 5 temperature factors, 86 urban areas, 359-377, 381 VOC, 11-13, 8-88, 173-185, 351-377, 403 Emission factor models, 254 EMFAC7E, 254 MOBILEE4, 254 Emissions inventories, 49, 78, 79-81, 87, 90, 351-302 atmospheric measurements versus, 288-299 biogenic, 252, 263-280, 289, 290-291, 302, 411 California, 254, 263, 284 emission controls and, 281, 300 EPA, 252-255, 279-280, 299-300 error and uncertainty, 261, 262, 271-273, 280-283, 288, 289-290, 294-296, 377 hydrocarbons, general, 269-270, 285-286 lightning and nitrogen compounds, 273-277 meteorological factors, 262 methodology, 79-81, 90, 251-302 motor vehicles, 253-255, 283-288, 261, 300-302 nitrogen compounds, 252-253, 261-262, 273-280, 282, 285, 286, 288, 289-290, 296-301 OTA, 256-257 regulations, general, 251, 283 rural areas, 294-297 SIPs, 78, 79-81, 87, 90, 290, 293, 294 soil, 218, 277-280 spatial factors, 261, 262 urban areas, 289-294, 284, 289-294 VOCs, 252, 255-261, 284, 285-302 Empirical kinetic modeling approach (EKMA), 81, 82, 90, 164, 173, 175, 186, 304, 348-350, 351-357, 401, 408 Enclosure techniques, biogenic inventories, 265-266 Environmental chambers, 150-153, 160, 164, 211, 393-395 Environmental Protection Agency, 1-2, 3, 6, 29, 30, 67 CFCs, 425-426 emission controls, extraordinary, 74, 86 emission inventories, 252-255, 279-280, 299-300 meteorological data, 309-310 models, including EKMA, 81, 82, 90, 164, 173, 175, 186, 304, 315, 348-350, 351-357, 401, 408, 423 monitoring, 7, 30-32, 43-49, 61, 64, 69, 78-89, 98-99, 309-310, 320 motor vehicle emissions, 253-254 research, 15, 16 see also National Ambient Air Quality Standards; State Implementation Plans Enzymatic fluorometry, 197, 198, 203 Errors and error analysis biogenic emission inventories, 271-273, 302, 411 emission inventories, 261, 262, 271-273, 280-283, 288, 289-290, 294-296, 377 models, 8, 10, 310, 312, 320-321, 345-346, 329-346, 350 Ethane, 386 Ethanol, 14, 136-138, 385, 391, 401-402, 411 Europe, 22, 23, 94, 261 F Federal government, 2, 15, 150, 423, 425-427 see also Environmental Protection Agency Federal Implementation Plan, 76, 83-84 Federal Test Procedure, 7, 254, 288 Field studies, 205-208, 287

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Page 494 Finite-difference techniques, 309, 318 Flame ionization detectors, 195-197, 198 Fog, 177-178, 203, 419 Forests, 272, 294 soils, 280 tropical, 212, 218, 229, 247-248, 266, 272 Formaldehyde, 111, 115, 144, 146, 147, 194, 197-198, 208, 343, 411 Fossil fuels coal, 253, 392 combustion chemistry, 1, 24, 253, 261, 392 Fourier transform infrared spectra, 144, 146, 147, 191, 195, 198 Fuels diesel, 261, 392, 400 see also Alternative fuels; Gasoline Funding, 15 G Gas chromatography, 146, 195-197, 198, 199, 259 Gasoline, 13-14, 82, 83, 162, 261, 381, 383, 385-386, 400-401, 407, 408, 411 Geoecology Data Base, 268 Geographic factors, 5 tropospheric ozone, 1-2 see also Regional trends; Rural areas; Suburban areas; Urban areas Global trends, 97-98, 413-424 carbon monoxide, 416, 421 greenhouse effect, 22, 98, 109, 413-417 models, 97-98, 419, 422-424 soil emissions, 278 VOCs, 416, 417, 422 Global Tropospheric Chemistry Program, 15, 427 Goddard Institute for Space Studies/Harvard Chemical Transport Model, 423 Greenhouse effect, 22, 98, 109, 413-417 Grid-based models, 10, 79, 81, 164, 297-298, 304-306, 309-311, 315-350, 359-377, 395, 401, 408-409 H Halocarbons, 22 Health issues, 2, 5, 22, 31-37, 41, 55 aromatic hydrocarbons, 184 demography of exposure, 34-36, 68-69 historical perspectives, 23 models, urban areas, 33-34 occupational exposures, 35-36, 44 regulatory, 29 respiratory system, 32-33 skin cancer, 19 Historical perspectives of air pollution, 4 alternative fuels, 393 Clean Air Act, 67 Eastern U.S., 98-99 Europe, 23 meteorological factors, 50-61 models, 350 precursor emissions, 48-50 regulatory, 2, 4, 6 research, 19, 21-22, 23-24, 163, 204-205, 263, 285 tropospheric ozone concentrations, 21-22, 23-24, 30-32, 41-65 HONO, 178-179, 182 Houston, Texas, 60 Hybrid models, 306, 309 Hydrocarbons, 23, 49, 132 emission inventories, 269-270, 285-286 measurement, 195-197, 202, 203, 204, 206-207, 208-209 see also Volatile organic compounds; specific compounds Hydrogen fuels, 14, 381, 391 Hydrogen peroxide, 202-203 Hydroxyl radical, 26, 110, 111, 113, 115, 117-118, 120-122, 124-162, 168, 178, 182, 200, 201, 231-237, 247, 417, 418, 419, 420-421 I Indoor air pollution, 25-36 tunnels, 284-286 Industrial plants, see Stationary sources Infrared spectra, 144, 146, 147, 191, 195, 198, 287-288 Isopleths, 163-173, 186, 247, 340, 350-353, 359 Isoprene, 139-149, 158, 160, 231, 238, 241, 263, 272-273, 291, 316, 364 International perspectives Montreal Protocol, 16, 22, 419 see also specific countries K Ketones, 143, 145, 147, 149, 197, 198-199 L Laboratory studies, 15 see also Environmental chambers Lake Michigan Ozone Study, 11 LANDSAT, 268 Laser-induced fluorescence, 189, 190-191, 195, 197, 200 Laser spectra, 190-191, 192, 203 Laws Clean Air Act, 1-4, 5, 15, 29, 30, 36, 67-74, 78, 304, 426 Montreal Protocol, 16, 22, 419 Lightning, 95-96, 273-277 Lightning Data Base, 277 Light scattering, 178 Liquefied petroleum gas, 391, 402 Los Angeles, California, 49, 52-55, 56, 82,

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Page 495 83, 86, 87, 94-95, 175, 185, 206-207, 238, 239-240, 242, 244-246, 359-362 alternative fuels, 395, 399, 405-406 SCAQS, 11, 285-286, 314-315, 343 SJVAQS/AUSPEX, 11, 207, 314, 343 M Marine areas, 95, 97, 212, 218, 222-224, 230, 248, 423 temperature, 97, 421 Mass fluxes and budgets, 286, 306, 344 Mass spectroscopic techniques, 146 Measurement and measurement techniques, see Methodology Meteorological factors, 4-5, 8-9, 50-61, 93-107 advection, 309, 318 classification, 51, 55-58, 65 clouds, 93, 95-96, 113, 178, 203, 310, 316 convective forces, 94-97 emission inventories, 262 EPA, 309-310 field studies, 205, 207-208, 287 fog, 177-178, 203, 419 historical perspectives, 50-61 lightning, 95-96, 273-277 micrometeorology, 267 models, 10, 20, 23, 60, 76-77, 149, 206-208, 286, 305, 306-310, 315-318, 346, 347-348 NAAQS, 52, 55-56, 214 orographic meteorology, 318-319 precipitation, 205; see also Acid rain pressure, 20, 60, 93-94, 97, 98, 112 regional scale, 28-29, 96-97, 98-105 urban areas, 23, 218 see also Boundary and initial conditions; Seasonal factors; Temperature factors; Winds Methacrolein, 143-149 Methane, 109, 111-115, 118, 121, 125-127, 224, 232, 273, 416, 417, 421 see also Natural gas Methanol, 14, 135-136, 384, 385, 388-390, 393-400, 401, 410-411 Methodology, 6-8, 187-210, 288-302 balloons, 312 carbon monoxide, measurement of, 193, 194-195, 201, 205, 206, 209, 251, 284-288, 296-299, 300-301 chemiluminesence, 189, 190-191, 201, 202, 203 chromatography, 146, 193, 195-197, 198, 199, 259 classification techniques, 51, 55-58, 68-76, 259 committee study, 3, 38-39 condensed phase techniques, 203-204, 316 electrochemical sondes, 201, 202 environmental chambers, 150-153, 160, 211, 393-395 enzymatic fluorometry, 197, 198, 203 field studies, 205-208, 287 flame ionization detectors, 195-197, 198 historical development of, 21-22, 23 isopleths, 163-173, 186, 247, 340, 350-353, 359 laser-induced fluorescence, 189, 190-191, 195, 197, 200 laser spectra, 190-191, 192, 203 motor vehicle emissions, 403-405 NAAQS: development of, 68 nitrogen compounds, measurement of, 6-7, 9, 188-194, 211-212, 215-224, 289 oxidants, measurement of, 199-203 remote sensing, 287-288, 300-301 sampling, general, 79, 191-192, 208 spectroscopic measurements, 144, 146, 147, 190-191, 192, 195, 198, 200-201, 203, 287-288 VOCs, measurement of, 6-8, 9, 48, 81-82, 195-199, 209, 211-212, 224-249 see also Emissions inventories; Errors and error analysis; Models; Statistical programs and activities Methyl t-butyl ether, 138, 385 Methyl vinyl ketone, 143, 145, 147, 149 MIESR, 200-201 MOBILE3, 286 MOBILE4, 254 Models, 6, 8, 9-11, 15, 16, 160, 303-350, 425 acid rain, 315-316, 318 ADOM, 315-316 aerometric data bases, 312-314, 316, 320, 341, 347, 348 air quality, 303-350 algorithms, 8, 10, 272 alternative fuels, emissions, 393, 394-395 atmospheric chemistry, 109-162, 164, 169, 207-208, 305, 307-308 biogenic emissions, 272, 316, 318, 365 boundary and initial conditions, 304-306, 309, 310-311, 316, 320, 339-340, 341, 348 chemical transport models, 422-423, 424 clouds, 310, 316 EKMA, 81, 82, 90, 164, 173, 175, 186, 304, 348-350, 351-357, 401, 403-

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Page 496     404, 408 emission controls, 351-377 emission estimation, general, 253-254, 272, 286, 290, 300-302, 395-399 errors and error analysis, 8, 10, 310, 312, 320-321, 345-346, 329-346, 350 finite-difference techniques, 309, 318 global, 97-98, 419, 422-424 grid, 10, 79, 81, 164, 297-298, 304, 314, 315-350, 357, 359-377, 395, 401, 408-409 health effects and, 33-34 isopleths, 163-173, 186, 247, 340, 350-353, 359 mathematical relations, general, 304, 309, 318, 393, 394-395 meteorological factors, general, 10, 20, 23, 60, 76-77, 149, 206-208, 286, 305, 306-310, 315-318, 346, 347-348 multispecies comparisons, 342 NAAQS/SIP-related, 10, 76-80, 81, 82, 90-91, 303, 304, 305, 311-312, 314, 328, 334, 348, 350, 353-357 natural gas, as motor vehicle fuel, 14 NEM, 34 nitrogen compounds, 303, 305, 316, 320, 328-329, 334, 341, 343, 350, 353-357, 361, 365, 422, 424 numerical procedures, 304, 305, 306, 309, 318, 338-339, 426 RADM, 315-316 regional, 10, 11, 95, 106-107, 109, 311, 315-329, 425 regulations and, 346, 365 ROM, 95, 309, 315, 316-329, 364-368, 372 ROMNET, 87 rural areas, 316, 320, 321 spatial factors, general, 309-310, 328, 335 SURE, 99-100, 315 temperature factors, 309 time factors, 309-310, 321, 335, 346 urban areas, 151, 164, 173-175, 186, 305-306, 310-311, 335, 346-347, 353-377, 401 VOC/nitrogen compound ratios, 12-13, 79, 91, 163-173, 186, 206, 288, 290, 296, 340, 353-358, 361 VOCs, 303, 316, 320, 329, 334, 336, 341, 343-344, 348, 350, 353-358, 365, 376, 422, 424 water and water vapor, 306 wind, 10, 69, 106-107, 286, 306, 309-310, 316, 320-321, 365 see also Computer simulation; Statistical programs and activities Moisture, see Water and water vapor Monitoring, 2, 5, 44, 187-210 ambient air, 78-79 California, 44, 52-55, 56, 238, 244-245 EPA/SIP, 7, 30-32, 43-49, 61, 64, 69, 78-89, 98-99, 309-310, 320 nitric acid, 191-193, 208, 224 nitrogen compounds, 6-7, 9, 188-194, 211-212, 215-224, 289 sampling. general, 79, 191-192, 208 statistical programs, regulatory 44, 50-51 vegetation effects, 37-38 VOCs, 6-8, 9, 48, 81-82, 195-199, 209, 211-212, 224-249 see also Emissions inventories Monoterpenes, 139-144, 146-147, 160 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 16, 22, 419, 426 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, 3 Motor vehicles, 1, 7, 24, 28, 31, 82 computer simulations, 254, 285 dynamometers, 7, 284, 288 electric, 14, 381, 383, 384, 392, 402-403 emissions controls, 85-86, 87, 284 emissions inventories, 253-255, 283-288, 261, 300-302 emissions methodologies, other, 403-405 emissions projections, 379, 395 EPA, 253-254 heavy-duty, 392, 400 remote sensing, 287-288, 300-301 temperature factors, 254 tunnels, 284-286 see also Alternative fuels; Diesel fuel; Gasoline Mountains, 318-319 N National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), 238, 244, 245-246, 254, 255-256, 259-260, 261, 280-281, 318, 364, 365 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 15, 150, 425-427 National Air Monitoring Systems/State and Local Air Monitoring Systems, 78 National Air Pollution Background Estimate, 99-100 National Air Pollution Emission Estimates: 1940-1988, 80 National Ambient Air Quality Standards,

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Page 497 1-5, 9, 29-32, 41, 43-46, 61, 64-65, 67, 89, 100, 164, 244, 351, 375-376, 413, 424 classification, nonattainment areas, 68-76 cost, 80 defined, 43-44 development, 68 meteorology and, 52, 55-56, 214 models, 10, 76-80, 81, 82, 90-91, 303, 304, 305, 311-312, 314, 328, 334, 348, 350, 353-357 nitrogen oxides, 75-76, 77 photochemical oxidation, general, 68, 305 time factors, 44-47, 52, 56, 68, 74-75 urban areas, general, 46-47, 68, 69-74 VOCs, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82-83 see also State Implementation Plans National Crop Loss Assessment Network, 37 National Emissions Data System (NEDS), 252, 255 National Exposure Model, 34 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, 15, 423, 427 National Science Foundation, 15, 427 National Weather Service, 312, 315 Natural gas, 14, 384, 386-388, 402, 411 see also Methane; Propane New Jersey, 31, 99 New York City, 31, 60, 63, 99, 328, 369, 370, 372, 373-375 Nitric acid, 29, 118, 120-121, 151, 177, 178, 343, 399 measurement and monitoring, 191-193, 208, 224 Nitrogen compounds, 1, 23, 26 ammonia, 178, 192, 197 emission control, 5-6, 7, 10, 244, 351-377 emission inventories, 252-253, 261-262, 273-280, 282, 285, 286, 288, 289-290, 296-301 global trends, 417, 421 measurement and monitoring, 6-7, 9, 187-210, 211-212, 215-224, 289 in models, 303, 305, 316, 320, 328-329, 334, 341, 343, 350, 353-357, 361, 365, 422, 424 radical, 24-25, 29, 116-162 rural areas, 12, 192-193, 218-223, 248, 296-299, 363-364 urban areas, 212, 214-218, 221, 222, 290, 351-377, 382, 417 Nitrogen dioxide, 23, 25, 116, 118, 167, 177, 182, 184 alternative fuels, emissions, 399 measurement, 188, 189-191, 201, 207, 208, 277-278, 280, 296 Nitrogen oxides and nitric oxide, 23, 24, 48, 49, 112-113, 114-116, 167, 189 atmospheric observations of, 211-249 alternative fuels, emissions, 379, 381, 386, 389-390, 399, 401, 403, 410 biomass burning, 273 emission control, 244, 351-377 emission inventories, 252-253, 261-262, 273-280, 282, 285, 286, 288, 289-290, 296-301 global trends, 417, 421, 422 lightning, 95, 273-277 measurement, other than inventories, 187-210, 215-220, 221, 224, 247, 248, 251-252, 289-290, 296-301 models, 303, 305, 316, 320, 328-329, 334, 341, 343, 350, 353-357, 361, 365, 422, 424 NAAQS, 75-76, 77 reactive, measurement of, 187-210 relationship to ozone and associated pollutants, 163-186 soil emissions, 218, 277-280 VOC ratios, 11-13, 79, 81-82, 91, 116-118, 121-186, 206, 211-212, 258-259, 286, 288, 290, 296-299, 340, 351-377, 340, 361, 376, 399, 404-405, 410 North America, 14-15, 279-280 eastern U.S., 98-105 lightning, 274-277 see also specific U.S. states and cities North American Consortium for Atmospheric Modeling of Regional Air Quality, 425 Northeast Regional Oxidant Study, 320 NOx, see Nitrogen oxides and nitric oxide; Nitrogen dioxide Numerical procedures, 304, 305, 306, 309, 318, 338-339, 426 O Occupational exposures, 35-36, 44 Occupational Health and Safety Administration, 44 Oceans, see Marine areas Office of Technology Assessment, 80, 82, 83 emission inventories, 256-257 Organic peroxy radicals, 112, 135 Orographic meteorology, 318-319 Oxygen, 134, 136-138 P Particulates, 177-178, 180, 184, 185, 392,

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Page 498 399-400 aerocsols, 26, 177, 208, 310 Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode, 320 Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), 128, 170, 182, 189-191, 208, 215, 224, 343, 391, 402, 417 Peroxy and peroxy radicals, 25, 111, 112, 113-115, 124, 145 measurement, 200-201, 209 organic, 112, 124-125, 135 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 60, 62, 215-216, 328 Photochemical oxidation, general, 1, 2, 8, 23, 24-29, 95, 98, 99, 109, 109-162, 184, 185, 294-295 models, general, 10, 305-306, 307-308, 310-311, 335-337 NAAQS, 68, 305 smog, 1, 2, 153, 211, 419 Photofragmentation, 190 Photolyric measurements, 189, 190, 191 Point-source pollution, see also Stationary sources Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 183-184 Portland, Maine, 105 Precipitation, 205 see also Acid rain Precursors of ozone, general, 6, 8, 26-28, 109-162 regulation of, 38, 75 trends, 48-58 see specific ozone compounds Pressure effects and measurements, 20, 60, 93-94, 97, 98, 112 Procedures for Emissions Inventory Preparation, 79 Projections, 82, 83, 84, 86, 89 emissions inventories, 300 global, 97-98, 419 greenhouse effect, 417 motor vehicle emissions, 379, 395 see also Errors and error analysis; Models Propane, 386, 391, 392 Propylene, 232-233, 236-247 R Radicals, 25, 110-120, 343 hydroxyl, 26, 110, 111, 113, 115, 117-118, 120-122, 124-162, 168, 178, 182, 200, 201, 231-237, 247, 417, 418, 419, 420-421 nitrogen, 24-25, 29, 116-162 see also Peroxy and peroxy radicals Radio tracers, 200 Real time, 251, 252, 287 Regional acid deposition model (RADM), 315-316 Regional Oxidant Model (ROM), 95, 309, 315, 316-329, 364-368, 372 Regional ozone monitoring for northeast transport (ROMNET), 87 Regional trends, 24, 27-29, 42, 96-97, 98-105 biogenic emissions, 268 demography of exposure, 34-36, 68-69 Eastern U.S., 98-105 emission controls, 5, 362-373 grid models, 311, 315-329, 359-377 lightning, 274-277 mesoscale transport, 28, 96-97, 318 meteorology, 28-29, 96-97, 98-105 models, 10, 11, 95, 106-107, 109, 311, 315-329, 425 synoptic transport, 28-29, 212 Regression techniques, 51, 58-61, 191 Regulations, 2, 29-30, 38, 41, 43 alternative fuels, 405-409 emissions inventories, 251, 283 models, general, 346, 365 statistical programs, 9, 31, 205 see also Emission controls; Environmental Protection Agency; Standards; State Implementation Plans Remote sensing, 287-288, 300-301 Research program, 14-16, 425-427 Respiratory system, 32-33 Rural areas, 2, 8, 93, 99, 106, 207-208, 248, 294-297, 421 boundary layers, 212-214 emissions inventories, 294-297 models, 316, 320, 321 nitrogen compounds, 192-193, 218-223, 248, 363-364 seasonal factors, 99-100, 103, 104 time factors, 99, 213 VOC/nitrogen compound ratios, 12, 296-299 VOCs, 224, 228-229, 248-249, 363-364 see also Forests; Vegetation S Sampling, 79, 191-192, 208 see also Emissions inventories San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study/Atmospheric Utility Signatures, Predictions, and Experiments, 11, 207, 314, 343 SAROAD, 320 Seasonal factors, 9, 101, 203, 205 biogenic emissions, 9, 263, 264, 278, 289, 302 lightning, 274-277 rural areas, 99-100, 103, 104 temperature, general, 9, 31, 205

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Page 499 winter, 9, 416 see also Summer Sensitivity-uncertainty analysis, 345-346, 348 Skin cancer, 19 Smog, 1, 2, 153, 211, 419 see also Environmental chambers Soil, 218, 277-280 Solar radiation, 19, 22, 64, 94, 98, 110, 200, 205 biogenic emissions, 272 see also Photochemical oxidation Solvents, 258-259 South Coast Basin, see Los Angeles, California Southeastern Regional Oxidant Network, 207 Southern California Air Quality Study, 11, 285-286, 314-315, 343 Southern Oxidants Study, 11, 207 Spatial factors, 217, 299-300 lightning, 274-277 models, 309-310, 328, 335 nitrogen oxides, inventories, 261, 262 VOC/NOx ratios, 361 see also Grid-based models; Isopleths Spectroscopic measurements, 144, 146, 147, 190-191, 192, 195, 198, 200-201, 203, 287-288 Standards, 1-2, 30, 82, 251 alternative fuels and, 388, 390 evaporative emissions, 390 see also National Ambient Air Quality Standards State Implementation Plans, 5-6, 30, 67, 74-91 emissions inventories, 78, 79-81, 87, 90, 290, 293, 294 models, 10, 76-80, 81, 82, 90-91, 303, 304, 305, 311-312, 314, 328, 334, 348, 350, 353-357 State-level issues, other alternative fuels, 388, 390, 395, 399, 405-406, 408 emission inventories, 260 see also specific states Stationary sources, 1, 258, 261-262, 296, 392, 402-403, 411 Statistical programs and activities, 3, 4-5, 50-61 algorithms, 8, 10, 272 classification techniques, 51, 55-58, 68-76, 259 decision trees, 58, 65 graphs, 337-339, 346 isopleths, 163-173, 186, 247, 340, 350-353, 359 regression techniques, 51, 58-61, 65, 191 regulatory monitoring, 44, 50-51 see also Errors and error analysis St. Louis, Missouri, 105 Storms, 96 Stratosphere, 19, 21, 110, 414, 416, 422-423, 425-426 Antarctic ozone hole, 22, 416 halocarbons, 22 Montreal Protocol, 16, 22, 419 tropospheric incursions by, 23, 414, 421 Suburban areas, 2, 22, 205, 214, 221, 239-246 Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE), 99-100, 315 Sulfur compounds, 96, 178, 180, 190, 251, 286 alternative fuels, 392 emission control, 5 Summer, 9, 31, 94, 98, 100-102, 104-105, 206-207, 212, 214, 244, 296 biogenic emissions, 264, 289 urban, nitrogen compounds, 214-218 T Temperature factors, 50, 59-60, 62-64, 93-94, 103, 112, 128, 212, 225, 241 biogenic emissions, 263-264, 267, 268, 272 emission control effectiveness, 86 greenhouse effect, 22, 98, 109, 413-417 lightning, 95, 273-274 marine boundary layer, 97, 421 models, 309 motor vehicle emissions, 254 seasonal, 9, 31, 205 soil emissions, 280 stratosphere, 19-21 urban areas, 59-60, 62-63 VOC/nitrogen oxide ratios, 152 Terpenes, 263, 272-273, 291 Texas City, Texas, 216 Time factors, 3, 105, 281 biogenic emissions, 268-269 formaldehyde, 198 models, general, 309-310, 321, 335, 346 NAAQS, 44-47, 52, 56, 68, 74-75 real time, 251, 252, 287 rural areas, 99, 213 suburban areas, 245 urban areas, 216-217, 244, 293 VOCs, 224-225, 240, 242, 244-245, 293, 299-300 Time series analysis, 335, 346 Tropical forests, 212, 218, 229, 247-248, 266, 272 Tropical soils, 278

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Page 500 Tropospheric ozone (effects of meteorology on), 93-107 global change and, 413-427 reduction strategies, 67-69 trends in concentration of, 41-65 Tunnel studies, 284-286 U Ultraviolet radiation, 22, 25, 201, 203 Uncertainty, see Errors and error analysis United Kingdom, 319 Upper Atmosphere Research Program, 15, 426 Urban airshed model (UAM), 335, 346-347, 352, 359, 361, 373-375 Urban areas, 2, 5, 8, 22, 23, 94, 99, 104-107, 194, 419-421 alternative fuels, motor vehicles, 13, 14, 381, 395-399, 409-410 biogenic emissions, 242, 243-244, 270, 290-291, 302 emission controls, 359-377, 381 emissions inventories, 289-294, 284, 289-294 health effects of ozone exposure, 33-34 measurement techniques, other than inventories, 194, 198, 206-207, 289-294 meteorology, 23, 218 models, 151, 164, 173-175, 186, 305-306, 310-311, 335, 346-347, 353-377, 401 particulates, 180 NAAQS, 46-47, 68, 69-74 nitrogen compounds, 214-218, 212, 214, 221, 222, 290, 351-377, 382, 417 photochemical oxidation, 27-28, 121 size factors, 99 temperature factors, 59-60, 62-63 time factors, 216-217, 244, 293 VOCs, 7, 194, 224-228, 231-246, 290, 382, 417 VOC/NOx ratios, 11-13, 14, 81-82, 151, 164, 173-175, 186, 206, 290, 340, 359-362, 373-375, 376, 381, 399, 410 see also specific cities V Vegetation, 97, 139, 238, 263, 268, 272 effects of ozone on, 37-38 forests, 272, 294 tropical forests, 212, 218, 229, 247-248, 266, 272 see also Biogenic emissions Virginia, 37 Volatile organic compounds, 1, 2, 6-7, 23-24, 26, 130-138, alternative fuels, 386-388, 394, 399, 401, 403-405, 410 atmospheric observations of, 211-249 biogenic, 8-9, 139-149, 265-273, 290-291 chlorofluorocarbons, 15, 22, 417, 425-426 emission controls, 11-13, 8-88, 173-185, 351-377, 403 emissions inventories, 252, 255-261, 284, 285-302 global trends, 416, 417, 422 hydroxyl radical and, 111, 124, 168 measurement of, 187-210 modeling, 303, 316, 320, 329, 334, 336, 341, 343-344, 348, 350, 353-358, 365, 376, 422, 424 monitoring and measurement, 6-8, 9, 48, 81-82, 195-199, 209, 211-212, 224-249 motor vehicle emissions, 379-381, 386-388, 403-405 NAAQS, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82-83 nitrogen compound ratios, 11-13, 79, 81-82, 91, 116-118, 121-186, 206, 211-212, 258-259, 286, 288, 290, 296-299, 340, 351-377, 340, 361, 376, 399, 404-405, 410 relationship to ozone and associated pollutants, 163-186 rural areas, 224, 228-229, 248-249, 363-364 time factors, 224-225, 240, 242, 244-245, 293, 299-300 urban areas, 7, 194, 224-228, 231-246, 290, 382, 417 versus NOx controls, 351-377 see also specific compounds W Washington, D.C., 31, 60, 173-174, 328 Water and water vapor, 60, 119 acid rain, 78, 109, 119-120, 177 clouds, 93, 95-96, 113, 178 fog, 177-178, 203, 419 global trends, 417, 419 models, 306 photochemistry, 26 precipitation, 205 Weather, see Meteorological factors Winds, 64, 93, 94, 97, 104-105, 106 biogenic emissions, 267 models, 10, 69, 106-107, 286, 306, 309-310, 316, 320-321, 365 oceanic, 95 Winter, 9 stratospheric ozone, 416