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5 Engineering and Research ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ADDRESSING MAJOR CONSTRAINTS A broad range of economic, institutional, environmental, and social con- cerns can, to some extent, be addressed through advances in the science and technology base supporting marine aquaculture. Problem areas that are susceptible to mitigation through technological approaches include economic feasibility, market structures and product form, the regulatory framework for leasing and permitting, land and water use, ecological impacts, aesthetic issues, use conflicts, and public attitudes. Summaries of the major issues follow, with examples of where science and technology can contribute to the resolution of related problems. Economic Feasibility Advances in technology can improve economic feasibility through (1) the creation of new capability, (2) the design of more productive (higher- yield) operations, and (3) the reduction of expenditures through more effective and efficient operations and the substitution of cost-effective capi- tal investment for labor. Specific opportunities for improving marine aqua- culture in these areas include: · new culture systems that make possible the production of marine spe- cies in environmentally sound ways; · improved technology for culture operations to utilize inputs more effi- ciently, increase productivity, and reduce costs of production and waste 116
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH 117 disposal (e.g., water use and reuse, feeding technology, product inventory, product handling, waste disposal); · technology that improves the cost-effectiveness of operations through intensification of culture systems, reduced operating costs, and increased productivity; and · technology that reduces production uncertainty (e.g., through disease detection and treatment, inventory monitoring systems, and design of more seaworthy facilities), thereby reducing risk and the associated costs of capital, insurance, and other nonoperational factors. Marketing and Product Information Technology can enhance the quality and value of products in addition to increasing productivity and reducing costs. Examples are: · harvest, transportation, processing, and packaging technologies that will allow aquaculture to deliver high-quality products in good condition to appropriate markets; · technologies that can maintain high-quality standards and ensure wholesome and safe products; and · new product forms for new and traditional aquaculture species. Institutional and Regulatory Issues Technology can be used effectively to address many institutional issues. Opportunities include: · technology to diminish the amount of water or land necessary for cul- ture and auxiliary systems, thus minimizing land/water use conflicts; · information systems to improve communication with the public, pro- vide relevant facts, make information more accessible, and generally in- crease understanding of the benefits and constraints of aquaculture; · technology that will resolve issues associated with access to brood A.' _ ... .. . .. ~ a ~ ~ . - , 1 ~ _ _ 1_ · _ stock and seed/juvenile production from wild populations through achlev- ing controlled reproduction, an understanding of improved nutritional requirements, and better knowledge of species life cycles; · technology to better identify and control disease-related problems; and · technology for the identification of cultured fish in order to differenti- ate among stocks for marketing and management purposes. Environmental Issues Marine aquaculturists must be sensitive to issues of common resource use and must seek ways to reduce pollution and other environmental im- pacts. Science and technology can contribute significantly to this goal by
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118 MARINE AQUACULTURE · achieving waste treatment and removal, and water and feed delivery, that alleviate pollution and discharge problems in culture and auxiliary systems; · providing means to minimize disease transmission in culture operations and thereby improve disease prevention and management; · providing improved culture and auxiliary systems (for open ocean pro- duction, closed systems, and ocean ranching) that mitigate the ecological impacts; · providing alternative, nearshore, culture systems that can mitigate con- flicts with recreational, commercial, and navigational use; · providing innovative culture systems that address the aesthetic issues associated with nearshore operations (i.e., by use of submerged cages, off- shore production, closed systems, and ocean ranching); · developing analytical techniques and computer models to simulate the environmental impact of aquaculture operations (Brune, 1990~; · improving stock sterilization capability that prevents reproduction in cultured animals and prevents genetic dilution of wild stocks from escaped fish; · improving harvest, packaging, and transportation systems to alleviate potential sanitation and public health concerns; and · providing the capability to identify genes that control growth (a capa- bility that has been achieved with nonfish food species). Socioeconomic Issues The development of technology for marine aquaculture not only can im- prove the economic situation for producers but can contribute to the year- round economic health of rural communities as well. Specific examples include (1) providing employment for laborers who work on aquaculture farms, and (2) creating or augmenting the need for suppliers and processors that, in turn, provide employment. INTERDISCIPLINARY SYSTEMS DESIGN Marine aquaculture systems require individual elements designed so that each can function effectively alone and can also function in concert with other elements to comprise an interactive system. For example, a simple home aquarium may be viewed as a system made up of a few common elements- a tank, air pump, air diffuser, water pump, and filter. Aquaculture systems, although conceptually similar, are much more complex in terms of design, operation, and management. The biological functions of the fish must be taken into account, including special requirements associated with intensive culture operations. Consequently, the design of a commercially viable system
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH 119 involves considerations beyond purely engineering criteria for integrating the elements into a working physical system (Huguenin and Colt, 1989~. Design, operation, and management are further complicated by the need for profitability, the risks and challenges associated with the intensive pro- duction of animals, and the necessity of working in a frequently hostile environment—the ocean. The project team must select an adequate site; establish the physical, chemical, and biological requirements for the species in culture; and also design a system that is economically viable. An inter- disciplinary approach is needed to achieve all these objectives. The engineer, the biologist, and the entrepreneur must collaborate effectively in order to solve problems and develop improved technology for marine aquaculture, an arrangement not easily achieved in an era of increasing specialization. Although technology development is needed for the commercial success of marine aquaculture, research on the biology of potential cultivars is also essential. One of the principal constraints to economic viability is the lack of sufficient biological information necessary as design criteria for fish culture. Too little is known about life cycles, the means of controlling reproduction, the environmental and nutritional requirements of larvae, the causes and effects of stress, and biological and environmental requirements in general. Effective interdisciplinary systems design can be realized only if the biological criteria for design are well understood. Following are discussions of the major areas in which interdisciplinary research and developments can make significant contributions to the ad- vancement of marine aquaculture and to the resolution of many outstanding issues that presently constrain the industry. First, auxiliary systems that are an essential part of all types of culture systems are discussed. Then culture and confinement systems are discussed in the context of those that are adaptable to nearshore locations, those that can be used onshore, and sys- tems compatible with offshore production. Auxiliary Systems for Fish Culture Improvement and development of the various auxilliary systems that are required for culturing fish are essential to the establishment of commer- cially viable marine aquaculture. Aquaculture systems must ensure the con- finement or physical support necessary to hold the animal, as well as pro- vide the auxiliary elements required for healthy aquatic life (Fridley et al., 19881. Key needs are adequate water with adequate oxygen, effective feed and feeding systems for marine species, waste treatment, and sensors and monitoring capability. Expert systems, including computer monitoring and prediction capability, can be very helpful as well. Most of these needs are provided by auxiliary systems and are basic to the cultivation or husbandry of any animal, terrestrial or aquatic.
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120 Hatchery Systems MARINE AQUACULTURE The culture of most species requires a hatchery in which to collect, incu- bate, and hatch eggs and/or rear larval fish and young juveniles. Hatcheries require rigorous controls and careful management. The young animals are intolerant of adverse water temperature and quality, and often are difficult to feed. A variety of jars, racks, sacks, and other containers have been developed to hatch eggs and to set the spat of shellfish. Special diets and Hatchery tank with a Macdonald jar an incubation container that provides an en- vironment conducive to egg development with minimum stress and minimum opportunity for disease.
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH 121 special ways of presenting the feed have been created. Each species tends to have some unique requirements that lead to continual innovation as advances are made with current species and as new species are cultured. Hatchery development can be a limiting factor in attempts to culture new species. Hatchery limitations generally tend to be more biological than technological. The intensive practices (high population density) of hatcher- ies and the relatively short time that animals are in the hatchery generally result in lower water requirements and smaller facilities than for the grow-out stage of development. This smaller scale of operations tends to limit the level of environmental and public concern. However, in the future, the pursuit of offshore systems may present technology problems related to the design of offshore hatcheries or to the transport of juveniles from an onshore. h~tc.herv to an offshore culture facility. In anv case. the biologi- cat information needed to produce high-quality stock consistently and eco- nomically is often a limiting factor in achieving cost-effective hatchery production. Feed and Feeding Systems The feeding habits and the morphology and composition of feed vary greatly by species. Consequently, different artificial diets and feeding sys- tems need to be developed in each kind of culture operation. A large body of information is available on feeds and feeding systems for salmonids and catfish (NRC, 1974a,b, 1977; Halver, 1988; Lovell, 1989~. Considerable in- formation is also available regarding the nutritional and feeding require- ments of oysters and lobsters (Conklin et al., 1983~. Future efforts should build on existing knowledge and focus on the special needs of different marine species. Of particular importance are nutritional requirements, ef- fective feeding systems, improved efficiency of feed utilization, and alter- native protein sources, especially in relation to protein quality and specific requirements during different periods of the life cycle. The larval and juvenile stages of many marine species are relatively small perhaps 2-3 millimeters (mm) at the time initial feeding is required. This factor presents unique problems with regard to the size of food of- fered, the acceptability of prepared food versus live food and the delivery system (Bromley and Sykes, 1985; Holt, 1990, 19921. Microencapsulated diets have been under development to replace live feeds for larval and juvenile stages, but they are not yet entirely sufficient (Kanazawa et al., 19891. Research on better attractants to promote feeding or on improved feed palatability should lead to lower feed conversion ratios (weight of feed consumed to weight of fish produced generally between 1 and 31. Nutritional requirements of a given species change with the transitions from larval to juvenile to adult stages. Nutritional requirements need to be
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22 MARINE AQUACULTURE better defined for each species and for each life history stage so that rations can be tailored to meet the precise dietary requirements of the spe- cies and stage (Ratafia and Purinton, 1989~. In the future, rations will be tailored not only to the requirements of the species under culture but also to the characteristics of the culture systems (e.g., pond system, water reuse system). Protein is the single most expensive and essential component of fish feeds. Consequently, the substitution of less expensive sources of protein for fish and other animal meals in feed could substantially reduce produc- tion costs. Use of soybean meal to replace animal protein has been moder- ately successful with some species (Cowery et al., 1971; Cho et al., 19741. Other researchers have used poultry egg proteins (Davis et al., 1976; Conrad et al., 1988) or nematodes (Biedenback et al., 1989) to replace fish protein. Researchers have investigated a number of feed additives, including anti- biotics and other medications (Strasdine and McBride, 1979; Marking et al., 1988~; vaccines (McClean and Ash, 1990~; growth hormones (for review, see Donaldson et al., 1978), drugs to increase metabolic efficiency (Santulli et al., 19901; and synthetic reproductive hormones (Yamazaki, 1983~. Feed formulations are being developed to provide natural or synthetic pigments (Yamada et al., 1989) and to deliver stable and water-insoluble forms of necessary vitamins (Shigueno and Itoh, 1988; Grant et al., 19891. Because feed can release large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, and thus cause localized eutrophication in some areas, improved feeds could mitigate concerns about eutrophication. Ketola and his associates have investigated the problem of phosphorous enrichment of receiving waters via salmon feeds and the effects of feed improvements in reducing such re- leases (Ketola, 1975, 1982, 1985, 1988, 1990; Ketola et al., 1985, 1990~. Feeds that result in more efficient assimilation of nutrients are needed to reduce the waste treatment requirements and limit environmental impacts. Consideration should be given to the design of feeds that, if uneaten, can contribute to other links in the food chain. Waste products from feeds, for example, could serve as a primary source of nutrition in a serial polyculture system (i.e., in which water and nutrients pass from one containment vessel with one species to another vessel containing a different species) (Wang, 1988; 1990~. The feasibility of altering the nutritional value of aquaculture products for humans or of enhancing other components to improve the marketability or palatability of farmed aquatic products is also under investigation. As- sessments of the relative fatty acid profiles of farmed and wild fish are already under way, partly as a result of interest in nutritional information (Nettleton, 19901. This information will serve as a guide to the develop- ment of "finishing diets" that will provide consumer-ready products with the most nutritionally healthful compositions possible.
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH 123 The diversity of feeds pellets, algae, seaweed, small and large- re- quired for different species in culture creates the need for a diversity of feeding systems. Feeding systems in need of development include systems for increasing the efficiency of utilization of the nutrient, decreasing waste production (in terms of feed that is not consumed and feces production of the culture species), delivering micronutrients and medications, and pro- moting by-product usage. The development of feeds and feeding systems that can provide feed at a rate consistent with the ability of the fish to consume it would enhance the cost-effectiveness of all feeding systems. Such systems would also provide environmental benefits from reduced waste and water pollution in both the rearing and the effluent receiving waters, including reduced release of additives such as antibiotics. Design parameters that need to be understood include presentation of the food, frequency and rate of feeding, physical properties of feed particles, and impact of feeds and feeding methodology on wastage, growth, feed utiliza- tion, and predator species. For example, broadcasting feed over the water surface for juvenile finfish can be advantageous in getting the feed to the fish, but the presence of the fish at the water surface may attract bird predators. Broadcast feeding of shrimp in lined seawater ponds.
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124 Waste Treatment Systems MARINE AQUACULTURE Treatment of wastes must be an integrated part of water reuse systems (discussed later in this chapter) and also may be required in flow-through and cage systems (Alabaster, 19821. Water disinfection and removal of solid (excess feed and fecal material) and dissolved (ammonia and dis- solved organics) wastes are essential in any onshore water reuse system. In most cases, proper site selection for onshore or nearshore systems can minimize problems associated with waste. Dispersal or dilution of wastes for cage culture can be facilitated by proper site selection, but mech- anical means of dispersing or treating wastes and filtering effluents are needed for some situations. A fanlike pumping systems placed below cages reportedly can flush large quantities of water through the system (Aase, 1985~. In other cases, collection of wastes is required. Waste collec- tion systems vary greatly for different culture systems. For intensive cul- ture in ponds and tanks, solid waste collection sometimes can be accom- plished with the simple addition of a settling tank or pond. However, more cost-effective methods of waste collection and dispersal need to be developed. Reuse systems employ a wide variety of treatments to achieve the de- sired water quality changes. These may include the following components: filters, screens, clarifiers, oxygen injection, aeration, biofilters for dissolved organics and ammonia removal, chemical ammonia removal, heat exchang- ers, ultraviolet light disinfection, ozone disinfection, and chlorine disin- fection (Miller and Libey, 1985; Malone and Burden, 1988~. Biofilters are a critical component in the development of commercially viable recircu- lating systems, and research in this area continues to be very active (e.g., Brune and Piedrahita, 1983; Kruner and Rosenthal, 1983; Miller and Libey, 1985; Rogers and Klemetson, 1985; Malone and Burden, 1988; and Kaiser and Wheaton, 1991). Dead and diseased organisms present another waste disposal issue faced by marine aquaculturists. Management of this waste may be significantly different from that of fish processing plants because the risk of disease transmission to other cultured fish and to wild fish must be minimized in aquaculture operations. However, it is also essential that processing plants and other facilities take the steps necessary to ensure that diseases are not transferred to wild populations. Clearly, both commercial fish processing facilities and aquaculture processing facilities have to dispose of animal wastes. The technical issue of disposal can be accomplished by utilizing current land-based disposal methods including landfills or incineration. However, the continued use of landfills and incineration in the future may be problematic because of limits on their availability or environmental con- cerns. Alternative means of disposal need to be developed.
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH Design for a larval fish-rearing tank with an internal biofilter. Sensors and Monitoring Systems 125 A sensor and monitoring system can provide valuable information and thereby improve the chances of success for marine aquaculture. For ex- ample, oxygen levels fluctuate in response to different internal or external factors, and these variations can stress or even kill the animals if adequate aeration is not provided. When fluctuations are not fatal, unsatisfactory fish health and growth, inefficient feed utilization, and poor reproduction can result (Wyban and Antill, 19891. Oxygen concentrations in ponds are particularly troublesome and difficult to measure and predict (Losordo et al., 1988; Piedrahita, 19914. Seemingly identical ponds within a single farm often have different oxygen conditions. Oxygen levels are changing constantly and can vary significantly even in the same pond.
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Paddlewheel aeration of an earthen aquaculture pond. MARINE AQUACULTURE Accurate and reliable sensors to monitor basic water quality parameters in seawater are not presently available. Existing automatic systems for continual in situ oxygen measurements are costly to install, require frequent and skilled maintenance, and typically have a short operating life. The marine environment causes rapid deterioration of equipment; metabolic by- products and other impurities in seawater interfere with the measurement process; and the cost for the multitude of measuring points needed is high. Oxygen is just one of many parameters that are currently difficult to monitor and control with available instrumentation (Kaiser and Wheaton, 1991~. Others parameters of special significance and technical challenge are ammonia, carbon dioxide, pH, salinity, light transmission, and biomass. Even when measurements are not especially complex technically- such as the determination of flow, water level, and temperature existing equip- ment is subject to biofouling and corrosion. Improved instrumentation and automatic monitoring systems are needed to solve these problems. Expert Systems The widespread availability of relatively inexpensive computers, together with the development of improved sensors and monitoring equipment, is
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH 147 fundamentals of breeding and a long-term commitment of people, facilities, and funding (Doyle, 1983; Gjerdem, 1983; Kinghorn, 1983; Lester, 1983; Refstie, 1990~. Systems have to be developed for the long-term husbandry, selection, and special requirements of each broodstock, with precaution to include escape-proof features to allay concerns over genetic impacts of escapees on wild stocks. Broodstock domestication for the future is likely to include a wide range of species. Finfish species for which broodstock domestication is im- perative include striped bass and its hybrids, Pacific salmon, sturgeon, red drum, dolphin, snapper, grouper, and flounder for food fish, as well as ornamentals. The shellfish species include penaeid shrimp, clams, and oys- ters (particularly for disease resistance). Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Production of Improved Strains The United States has been the leader in the development of transgenic species (species carrying introduced genes) for culture purposes. Transgenic organisms may possess a variety of potential advantages including increased growth rates, disease resistance, decreased aggression, sterile progeny, in- creased tolerance of temperature, or other environmental conditions, and improved market characteristics. According to Kapuscinski and Hallerman (199Oa), a total of 14 species of transgenic fish had been produced as of July 1989. Other countries are already making use of the (largely American) tech- niques of transgenic production. In the United States, advances in this area await the establishment and implementation of a regulatory system that provides for the use of transgenic organisms in aquaculture (Hallerman and Kapuscinski, 1990; Kapuscinski and Hallerman, l990b). Kapuscinski and Hallerman (199Ob) point out that the introduction of nonnative genes into fish is likely to affect nontarget traits as well and that the phenotypic performance of transgenic fish is virtually unknown. This is in large part due to regulatory constraints on the release of transgenic fish into outdoor production systems for cultural trials. Further, Tiedje et al. (1989) note that uncontrolled introduction of transgenic fish into natural aquatic communities should not be allowed because their ecological impacts are entirely unknown. Thus, Kapuscinski and Hallerman (199Ob) recom- mend that the American Fisheries Society take the following positions with regard to transgenic fish: 1. Support research in such areas as "phenotypic characterization of trans- genic lines, evaluation of the performance of transgenic lines, improvement
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148 — —1 ~ _ _, MARINE AQUACULTURE of sterilization techniques, and development of ecological risk assessment models and protocols" to provide data for rational policy decisions. 2. Advocate caution in the use of transgenic fish. No introductions of transgenic fish into production-scale aquaculture facilities should be al- lowed until risk assessments and demonstrations of little possibility of envi- ronmental impact have been completed. Further, "stockings of transgenic fishes into natural waters should be barred unless and until a body of re- search strongly indicates the merits of and ensures the ecological safety of stocking a particular transgenic fish into a particular receiving natural system." 3. Advocate regulations improving the comprehensiveness of the Coor- dinated Framework (National Institutes of Health (NIH) and U.S. Depart- ment of Agriculture (USDA) guidelines) in the United States. This recom- mendation would require that all production of transgenic species to take place under NIH guidelines and would establish mandatory federal regulatory review and authority over proposed releases and transport of transgenic fish. The application of selected or directed breeding to aquatic organisms has been reviewed by a variety of authors (e.g., Doyle, 1983; Gjerdem, 1983; Lannan and Kapuscinski, 1986; Shultz, 1986; Gall, 19901. Breeding pro- grams in aquaculture are generally in their infancy, but efforts have been initiated in a number of groups, especially finfish: Atlantic salmon (Friars et al., 1990; Refstie, 19901; and coho salmon (Hershberger et al., 19904. Selective breeding of mollusks has been limited principally to bivalves (Purdom, 1987; Wada, 19871. Hybridization and polyploidy may produce culture-adapted strains. Hy- bridization has been documented among salmonids (for review, see Chevassus, 1979, 1983) and several groups of algae (Sanbonsuga and Neuschal, 1977, 1978; Cain, 1979; Guiry, 1984~. Another biotechnical op- tion with potential for aquaculture is the production of monosex populations (Purdom, 1983; Yamazaki, 1983; Billard, 19871. Gynogenetic or androge- netic (all female or all male) offspring can be produced, resulting in non- reproducing populations. A drawback is that the population may lack vigor due to inbreeding (Thorgaard, 1986~. Clearly, the United States has sufficient capabilties to make substantial progress in the areas of biotechnology and genetic engineering for aquacul- ture. Discussions among leading researchers suggest that application and adaptation of such technologies in the culture of marine species could be expected to result in numerous advances in marine aquaculture, including the following: · accelerated growth and maturation of brood animals via ploidy manipu- lation, gene insertion, hormonal treatment, or other methods;
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH 149 · improved culture characteristics (growth, food conversion efficiency, body composition, disease resistance, fecundity, hardiness, etc.) via selec- tive breeding, hybridization, ploidy or sex manipulations, or transgenic techniques; · production of 100 percent sterile organisms for commercial grow-out on farms or in pens, while reproductively competent organisms serve as brood stock; · use of mitochondrial DNA methods or other analyses to detect low- level genetic change in cultured stocks to permit assessments of potential impacts of released hatchery animals on wild populations; and · insertion of genes coding for particularly desirable traits (e.g., homing in salmon) into other species of cultured or "sea-ranched" animals. Hedgecock and Malecha (1990) conclude that "it is very unlikely that genetic engineering by direct genomic intervention and modification will contribute to shrimp and prawn aquaculture in the next decade," due to the lack of basic knowledge of genes that affect production characteristics and of methods for inserting these genes into crustaceans. Biotechnology is more likely to be employed as a tool in more traditional programs, espe- cially for establishing genetic markers, manipulating gametes via cryopre- servation and chromosome number, and controlling sex. Disease Assessment and Treatment Disease Diagnosis The development of diagnostic tests has been identified as one of the principal means of improving aquaculture productivity (Ratafia and Purinton, 1989~. Rapid, accurate, and inexpensive techniques for disease assessment and certification for marine organisms in culture are essential prerequisites to screening large numbers of fry, fingerlings, postlarvae, or spat rapidly for certain critical diseases. Biotechnical methods, when applied to marine aquaculture, should allow the establishment of meaningful, effective state and national disease certification programs, which are critical for advance- ment of the industry. Some types of diagnostic tools have improved markedly in recent years, and further advances are likely. Isoelectric focusing (Shaklee and Keenan, 1986) and mitochondrial DNA analyses (Brown and Wolfinbarger, 1989; Palva et al., 1989; Reeb and Avise, 1990) permit detailed analyses of fish and shellfish stocks and detection of minute genetic differences, sometimes even within a limited geographic area. Fatty acid composition analysis provides another way by which wild aquatic organisms can be differentiated from cultured individuals of the same species. This effectively eliminates
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150 MARINE AQUACULTURE the possibility of poaching protected wild stocks for sale as aquaculture products. Therapeutics Disease treatment represents another as yet underdeveloped research area. Currently, only six chemotherapeutics are approved for aquaculture use by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the FDA. Seven other chemicals, either EPA approved for aquaculture uses and exempt from FDA registration or exempt from EPA registration entirely, are also being used as chemotherapeutics (for review, see Williams and Lightner, 1988~. The most comon approach to the administration of antibiotics and other therapeutic agents is immersion (osmotic), injection, or oral intake with feed (DeCrew, 1972; Strasdine and McBride, 1979; Austin et al., 1981; Marking et al., 19881. Few vaccines have been developed for aquaculture use. Immunization against Vibrio spp. and related bacteria genera has been practiced among finfish culturists for several years, with treatment by immersion or intraperitoneal injection (Cipriano et al., 1983; Schiewe et al., 1988~. Similar methods of immunization are now being explored for shrimp (Itami et al., 19891. Experimental work also has been conducted on the use of gelatin capsule implants for some antibiotics (Strasdine and McBride, 1979) and on various types of water treatment, including ozonation (Wedemeyer et al., 1978; Tipping, 1 987), ultraviolet irradiation, and chlorination (Bedell, 1 97 1; Sanders et al., 19721. Formal actions by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the USDA have ensured that federal and state animal scientists, the pharmaceutical industry, and the USDA collaborate on determining needs and developing research protocols for aquaculture-related drugs, which fall under the category of minor-use animal drugs (Schmick, 1988~. As the above discussion suggests, the need and potential for improve- ments in disease treatment are substantial. The development of medications and immunizations is badly needed, as are improved delivery systems for antibiotics that will not result in the release of antibiotics to the rearing waters. The cost of obtaining FDA approval is a major barrier, however. SUMMARY Advances in technology and an improved understanding of the biology of relevant species are essential for marine aquaculture to overcome many of the major constraints on future development. Some new and improved technologies would solve specific technical problems directly and thereby improve economic feasibility; other technologies would alleviate environ- mental concerns and diminish conflicts with other coastal zone activities.
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ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH 151 Many of the technical constraints on marine aquaculture can be reduced or eliminated by developing new and improved onshore and nearshore sys- tems; developing new and improved auxiliary systems; and establishing the biological, ecological, and engineering knowledge base required for making sound decisions. NOTE 1. The term cages and pens have been defined by Beveridge, 1987 as follows: cages are enclosed on the bottom as well as the sides, typically by mesh or net screens, whereas the bottom of pens is formed by the seabed. REFERENCES Aase, H. 1985. Effect of the use of flow developers in fish-rearing cages for salmon, Fisherdirektoratets, Havforskningsinstitutt, Bergen, Norway. Alabaster, John S. 1982. Report of the EIFAC Workshop on Fish-Farm Effluents. EIFAC Technical Paper No. 41. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commis- sion, FAG. 186 pp. Arnold, C.R., B. Reid, and B. Brawner. 1990. High density recirculating grow out systems. Pp. 182-184 in Red Drum Aquaculture. University of Texas, Austin, TAMU-SG-90-603. Austin, B., D.A. Morgan, and D.J. Alderman. 1981. Comparison of antimicrobial agents for control of vibriosis in marine fish. Aquaculture 26:1-12. Balchen, J.G. 1987. Bridging the gap between aquaculture and the information sciences. In Automation and Data Processing in Aquaculture, J.G. Balchen and A. Tysso, eds. IFAC Proceedings 1987. No. 9. Pergamon Press. Bedell, G.W. 1971. Eradicating Cerotomyxa Shasta from infected water by chlori- nation and ultraviolet irradiation. Prog. Fish-Culturist 33:51-54. Beveridge, M.C.M. 1987. Cage Aquaculture. Farnham, England: Fishing News Books, Ltd. 332 pp. Bevin, D. 1988. Problems of managing mixed-stock salmon fisheries. In Salmon Production, Management, and Allocation Biological, Economic and Policy Is- sues, William J. McNeil, ed. Oregon State University Press. Biedenback, J.M., L.L. Smith, T.K. Thomsen, and A.L. Lawrence. 1989. Use of the nematode Panagrellus redivivus as an Artemia replacement in a larval penaeid diet. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 20~21:61-71. Billard, R. 1987. The control of fish reproduction in aquaculture. Pp. 309-305 in Realism in Aquaculture: Achievements, Constraints, Perspectives, M. Bilio, H. Rosenthal, and C. Sindermann, eds. Breden, Belgium: European Aquaculture Society. Bromley, P.J., and P.A. Sykes. 1985. Weaning diets for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), sole (Solea solea) and cod (Gadus morhua L.) Pp. 191-211 in Nutrition and Feeding in Fish, C.B. Cowery, A.M. Mackie, and J.G. Bell, eds. New York: Academic Press. Brown, B.L., and L. Wolfinbarger. 1989. Mitochondrial restriction enzyme screen-
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Representative terms from entire chapter: