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Appendix A Review of World Aquaculture MAJOR WORLD AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS Finfish Culture Table A-1 provides an overview of world aquaculture production in 1987 by region and type of seafood. Marine and freshwater species are combined in the available statistics on world production. Historically, world aquacul- ture has been dominated by the pond culture of freshwater finfish, particu- larly the various species of carp (common, Chinese, Indian) grown through- out Europe and Asia. Together, all varieties of carp still account for approximately 4 million metric tons (mmt), or more than one-quarter of the world's annual production of finfish cultured in fresh water. More recently, other species of finfish have contributed significantly to freshwater aqua- culture, such as tilapia (0.3 mmt), rainbow trout (0.2 mmt), channel catfish (0.2 mmt), and eel (0.1 mmt). These, and minor contributions from crayfish culture (0.03 mmt) and the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium (0.03 mmt), bring the total production of freshwater organisms to nearly 5 mmt, or about one-third of the world's total. The cultivation of marine finfish has lagged far behind that of freshwater species. The oldest such practices are the growing of milkfish in the Philip- pines, Indonesia, and other tropical Asian countries (0.3 mmt) and of the yellowtail (amberjack) in Japan (0.2 mint). Milkfish are grown in shallow estuarine ponds; yellowtail, in net cages. In both cases, rearing technology is relatively crude. Neither species can be matured or spawned routinely in captivity, so the industries are based on the collection of fry (juveniles) from the wild. Both species are still fed primarily natural food. 206
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208 APPENDIX A A more recent development in marine finfish culture is the growth of salmonids in net pens of cages in protected coastal waters. For many years, salmon have been hatchery spawned and reared to small size, at which stage they are physiologically adapted for introduction to salt water; they are then released to the ocean to enhance natural stocks. Beginning about 1970, attempts were made to rear Pacific salmon smelt in cages in the Puget Sound area of Washington. The initial product, a 150- to 250-gram (g) "pan- sized" salmon that could be reared in one growing season, did not prove to be very successful in the marketplace, and the practice gradually dwindled. A decade later, Norwegians initiated the net-cage culture of Atlantic salmon in their large fjord systems, this time holding the fish for two growing seasons, and feeding them a carefully formulated pelleted diet until they reached a size of 4-5 kilograms (kg). The practice proved highly successful, a single 12 x 12 meter cage producing as much as 5-10 tons of salmon over an 18-month grow-out period. Atlantic salmon cage culture has now spread to the United Kingdom, France, Spain, both coasts of the United States and Canada, Chile, Australia, and New Zealand; in 1988, nearly 0.2 mmt were produced worldwide. Several other marine finfish are currently grown successfully in smaller quantities in various parts of the world. These include gilthead sea bream, sea bass, and turbot in Europe; aiyu, flounder, puffer fish, red and black sea bream, and several other species in Japan; and the estuarine grouper in Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Together, annual production of the several marine finfish now in culture probably approaches 1 mmt, only about 20 percent of freshwater finfish culture. Crustacean Culture The culture of crustaceans is almost entirely restricted to two groups of shrimp or prawns: the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium and several species of marine shrimp of the genus Penaeus. After development of the technology for rearing Macrobrachium in Ma- laysia in the early 1960s, there was much interest in growing the species throughout the world's tropics. Interest has flagged during the past decade, due more to marketing than to technical problems and to the inability of the product to compete with marine species. Macrobrachium spp. are still grown successfully in a number of small scattered operations, with produc- tion totaling approximately 0.02 mmt. Marine (penaeid) shrimp culture, on the other hand, is one of the fastest growing and economically most successful forms of aquaculture in practice today. The technology for hatchery spawning of gravid (fertile) female penaeids and controlled rearing of their larvae in captivity, were first devel- oped more than 50 years ago in Japan and rapidly spread throughout Southeast Asia. When it was found that the postlarvae could be grown r
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 209 out quickly and easily to a marketable adult in shallow estuarine ponds, shrimp culture spread to the Philippines and Indonesia. By the late 1970s, the shrimp farming industry had spread to the Western Hemisphere, where it was initially centered in the extensive estuarine sys- tem of Ecuador's Guayas River and Gulf of Guayaquil. Subsequently the industry moved into virtually all of the tropical maritime countries of South and Central America, Mexico, and the southern parts of the United States. However, Ecuador remains the major producer in the Western Hemisphere. As in the case of shrimp farming in Asia, the Latin American industry is based on the collection of postlarvae from the wild, supplemented as neces- sary by hatchery production of young from wild-caught gravid females. Dependence on wild postlarvae or gravid females restricts the location of shrimp farms to coastal regions, where natural populations occur in abun- dance. Even in those locations, supplies may be erratic and undependable, and they may disappear entirely with the onset of unfavorable climatic phenomena such as the South American E1 Nino. Shrimp aquaculture is the production of shrimp involving control of one or more phases of their biological cycle or control of the environment in which they develop. Management systems may be extensive, such as large seminatural or natural marsh impoundments or rice fields (low stocking rates and little or no feeding and water exchange); semi-intensive, such as large drainable ponds (medium stocking, feeding, and water exchange); or intensive, such as small, highly controllable ponds (high stocking rates, water circulation and exchange, and nutritionally complete diets). Indoor raceways would exhibit the highest degree of technology, with control of nutrition and environmental requirements for year-round growth. However, to date no indoor raceways have proved economically viable for commer- cial production of shrimp. Worldwide, the significance of shrimp aquaculture has increased dra- matically over the past decade. In 1980, only about 2 percent of the world's shrimp supply was produced by aquaculture, whereas by 1990 farmers were supplying 25 percent of the market (Table A-2) (Rosenberry, 1991a). Most TABLE A-2 World Shrimp Production, 1991 (heads-on) Amount Percentage of Source (mmt) World Production Fisheries 1.4967 75 (4.327 billion lb) Aquaculture 0.633 25 (1.393 billion lb) SOURCE: Rosenberry ( 1991 b).
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 211 (81 percent) of this production is concentrated in the Eastern Hemisphere (Southeast Asia) (Table A-3. A fairly recent and dramatic entry to shrimp farming has been mainland China, which in just a decade or so has become the world's leading producer of aquacultured shrimp (Table A-4~(Rosen- berry, 1991a,b). Western Hemisphere production is led by Ecuador (Aiken, 1990; Rosenberry, l991a,b), which contributes 75 percent of the region's farmed production, whereas the United States produces only about 1 percent (Table A-5~. China TABLE A-4 Eastern Hemisphere Shrimp Production, 1991 Area in Production Production Yield Number of Number of Country (%) (acres) (lb/acre) Hatcheries Farms China 26.1 345,800 923 1,000 2,000 Indonesia 25.2 494,000 623 250 20,000 Thailand 19.7 197,600 1,255 2,000 3,000 India 6.3 160,550 479 16 2,500 Philippines 5.4 123,500 534 250 3,000 Vietnam 5.4 395,200 167 120 1,000 Taiwan 5.4 19,760 3,340 800 2,000 Bangladesh 4.5 247,000 223 0 1,000 Other 1.4 39,520 445 25 175 Japan 0.6 1,235 6,235 40 165 Total 100 2,024,165 602 4,501 34,840 SOURCE: Rosenberry (199lb). TABLE A-5 Western Hemisphere Shrimp Production, 1991 Area in Production Production Yield Number of Number of Country (%) (acres) (lb/acre) Hatcheries Farms Ecuador 74.9 358,150 615 150 1,700 Colombia 6.7 9,880 2,004 20 30 Mexico 3.7 12,350 891 6 100 Honduras 3.4 17,290 573 2 25 Panama 3.0 9,880 891 6 40 Peru 2.6 9,880 779 3 60 United States 1.2 1,112 3,167 3 25 Other 4.5 11,856 1,113 17 75 Total 100 430,398 683 207 2,055 SOURCE: Rosenberry ( l 991 b).
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212 APPENDIX A has constructed some 1,000 hatcheries to produce juvenile shrimp for stock- ing in aquaculture ponds; Ecuador has 150 hatcheries; the United States has only 3 (Tables A-4 and A-S). Overall, Asia has approximately 4,500 hatcheries, whereas the Western Hemisphere has a little more than 200 (Table Am. Mollusk Culture Bivalve mollusks (i.e., oysters, clams, mussels, scallops) are sessile, grow without confinement, and feed on natural food organisms (i.e., unicellular algae suspended in the water). Their cultivation on privately owned or leased bottom is therefore simple and inexpensive, and differs little from capture fishing on public grounds. In either case, aquaculture is involved if and when natural stocks become depleted and must be enhanced by reseed- ing the bottom. Cultivation of seed in hatcheries is a well-developed technology for most important commercial species of mollusks that was initiated in the United States in the 1920s and is now widely practiced around the world. How- ever, hatchery production of seed is costly; it may often be avoided by collecting natural seed or enhancing the natural set of seed by placing seed or spat collectors at strategic times and locations in the growing area. Shellfish larvae are, of course, most abundant where there are large popula- tions of adult animals, as at major aquaculture sites, most of which may consequently collect their own seed without recourse to hatcheries. The Japanese discovered many years ago that oysters could be grown much more quickly and abundantly in a three-dimensional mode, from sur- face to bottom, on ropes or wires suspended from rafts. The shellfish there- by have access to a much greater supply of food; they are protected from sedimentation and benthic predators; and vastly more animals may be grown per unit area than by traditional bottom culture methods. Raft cul- ture of oysters, mussels, and scallops is now common practice in those countries that are the leading producers of bivalve mollusks (i.e., Japan, China, Taiwan, North and South Korea, Spain). In most if not all such operations, natural seed is collected at or near the culture site. Of the 3 mint of mollusks cultured in 1988, 67 percent were grown in East Asia and another 20 percent in Europe (Table A-11. The Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas), grown most abundantly in Japan but now suc- cessfully introduced around the world, is the leading cultured bivalve spe- cies (0.8 mmtJ. The several species of mussels now grown in many differ- ent countries together yielded 1 mmt; various clam species accounted for another 0.4 mmt; and the Japanese scallop, first grown in that country only about five years ago, had already contributed 0.3 mmt by 1988 (FAO, 1990~. If the Japanese experience is typical, scallops, which grow extremely fast and command a high market price, may overtake other bivalve species as a
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 213 Stake culture of oysters in Japan. Lea I_ __ c" favored culture product. Scallop farms have now been started up in Peru, Chile, Canada, the United States, and China. Bivalve mollusk farming is, by far, the most successful form of marine animal culture; it is more than twice as productive as finfish and crustacean culture combined. Despite the strong emphasis and publicity given to penaeid shrimp culture in recent years, mollusk farming has been advancing much more rapidly, and the value of the product is, in most cases, equally attractive. Seaweed Culture Different species of seaweed have long been regarded as both luxury and staple foods or food supplements in many Asian countries. The red alga Porphyra, grown and marketed as nori in Japan, is among the most costly of seafood. The kelp Laminaria, also grown in Japan, was formerly exported in quantity to China, whose inhabitants are susceptible to the glan- dular disease goiter, caused by an iodine deficiency, a condition remedied by a seaweed dietary supplement. Today, China grows more than 1 mmt (dry weight) of Laminaria annually and now exports part of the crop to Japan (Tseng, 19811. In addition to their direct use as human food, many seaweeds contain the polysaccharides agar, algenic acid, or carrageenan, which, when extracted
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214 APPENDIX A from the plants, have widespread commercial value as emulsifying or sus- pending agents in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries. The dwindling supply of wild stock of these seaweeds has led to their cultivation in several countries. About one-half of the Chinese crop of Laminaria is used for extraction of algenic acid; the other half is consumed as food. The red seaweed Gracilaria is grown in Taiwan and Chile as a source of agar; another red algae, Eucheuma, is cultured in the Philippines for its carrag- eenan content. A total of 4 mmt of seaweed was grown worldwide in 1988, 90 percent in Asia. This is the largest group, by weight but not by value, of cultivated marine organisms, representing 25 percent of the total and about 42 percent of the marine component. It should be pointed out that seaweeds are sometimes not included in aquaculture statistics (an omission that may lead to considerable confusion when comparing data). If seaweed is omitted from consideration, total world aquaculture production for 1988 was 11 mmt., of which only about 5 mmt (43 percent) were from marine aquaculture. TABLE A-6 Value of Aquaculture Production by Leading Countries, 1984-1987 (hundred U.S. dollars) 1984 1985 1986 1987 China 4,O59,465 4,788,214 5,440,725 6,078,454 Japan 2,263,753 2,279,309 3,439,373 3,895,790 Taiwan PC 607,576 631,672 818,655 1,110,282 India 746,300 746,300 746,300 746,300 United States 500,403 429,410 484,211 563,649 Philippines 446,639 468,332 511,182 560,317 USSR 357,279 365,596 464,481 537,767 Ecuador 235,200 211,435 214,781 510,671 France 226,178 243,857 425,298 474,033 Vietnam 327,400 375,600 433,080 459,480 Korea, Republic of 253,278 266,222 327,310 438,560 Korea, Democratic People's Republic 398,700 420,700 420,700 420,700 Indonesia 264,805 351,393 375,427 385,740 Norway 133,357 177,534 233,343 314,348 Italy 140,008 140,247 185,612 238,153 Thailand 105,989 114,848 147,485 237,803 Other Total world production 12,430,634 13,592,725 16,345,988 18,911,991 SOURCE: FAO Fisheries Circular No. 815, Rev. 1, 1989.
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE Economics of World Aquaculture The monetary value of the 1988 world aquaculture crop of 14 mmt is estimated to be $22.5 billion (U.S.), an increase of 19 percent from the $18.8 billion value of the 1987 crop and more than twice that of the 1985 yield ($13.1 billion) (FAO, 1990) (Table A-6~. Of the 144 countries that now report aquaculture statistics to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, only 60 provided information on prices and value, so total value estimates are based just on those reports. How- ever, those 60 include most of the total production. The value of world aquaculture has clearly increased much more rapidly than the size of the crop, probably owing mainly to world inflation. Some of the increased value may result from recent emphasis on high-priced luxury species (i.e., mollusks, shrimp, salmon), but the overall increase in produc- tion has resulted as much from low-value crops, such as seaweed, as from more expensive items. MARINE AQUACULTURE PRACTICES AND POLICIES Throughout the world, the most common form of marine aquaculture is carried out by collecting and growing "wild seed" in ponds, cages, or other enclosures, with the addition of fertilizer and, in some cases, food. Culture practices are primitive, labor and monetary inputs are small, and production is low. Such extensive marine aquaculture is practiced in warm parts of the world in countries that have ample available coastal waters and a traditional marine diet. Even in areas where intensive culture is practiced, the industry often depends on collections from the sea in the form of gravid females, fertilized eggs, spat, postlarvae, or juvenile animals. This practice sooner or later conflicts with fisheries resources and is not a viable alternative for the U.S. aquaculture industry. The trend in developed countries is toward intensive culture, with breeding, rearing, and harvesting in controlled facilities using high stocking densities and formulated feeds. The ultimate objective is regular production of a high quality product at a designated time, independent of season. Examples of marine animals under intensive culture are red sea bream, yellowtail, and Japanese flounder in Japan; sea bream, sea bass, and turbot in temperate Euro- pean countries; European eel and salmon in northern Europe, Japan, North America, Chile, and New Zealand; and the banana prawn in Singapore, as well as the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon' throughout Southeast Asia (Juario and Benitez, 1988; Gousset, 19901. Other species under investigation for intensive culture include cod, halibut, and dolphin (Tilseth, 19901. Bridging the gap between extensive and intensive systems, ocean ranch- ~ng is best known in the production of salmon and is used when the cultured i. 215
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216 APPENDIX A species does not stray, as is the case with oysters and abalone, or when a species can be trained or migrates naturally to return to a site, as with some salmon. Ocean ranching may be the system of choice for most mollusk and algae culture. Similar to ocean ranching is stock enhancement, the pro- duction of large numbers of young that are released to the sea and harvested by ordinary fisheries methods. The value of such stocking programs in in- creasing fisheries production is still under debate, but stocking is being carried out in the United States as well as in Japan and Norway. Aquaculture goals vary from country to country but generally include the following: · generation of needed and inexpensive protein; · reliable production of quality products not readily available from natu- rally occurring sources; · expansion of foreign trade by increasing exports or reducing imports; · development of new industry and jobs; and · enhancement or maintenance of fishery resources through stocking. All but the first of these goals are important in driving aquaculture develop- ment in the United States. ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Government has played a pivotal role in aquaculture development in many countries that have become world leaders in marine aquaculture, in- cluding Norway, Denmark, France, Canada, and Japan. For the most part, these groups are concerned with both fisheries and marine aquaculture, and much of the aquaculture development emanates from a fisheries manage- ment perspective. Long-range planning and a strong commitment by the central government in Norway, and by central and provincial governments in Canada, have been responsible for the rapid growth of marine aquacul- ture in those countries. A good example is the Canadian government's support of the emerging pen-raised salmon industry in New Brunswick. Impressive growth of this industry was in part a result of $5 million in industry development funds from the New Brunswick government, the es- tablishment of a government-funded demonstration farm, and the provision of grants and extension services (Bettencourt and Anderson, 19901. STATUS OF MARINE AQUACULTURE BY REGION Asia The Asia-Pacific region is the center of development of world aquacul- ture and accounts for approximately 80 percent of world aquaculture pro-
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 221 the market price for salmon make it a risky investment venture (Cook, 1990; Egan and Kenney, 1990~. Salmon, oysters, mussels, and marine trout currently dominate the aqua- culture industry, but new species are in the research and development stage. Species expected to make a significant contribution to commercial aquacul- ture in Canada in the next 10 years include arctic char, bay scallops, nori, and Irish moss (Aiken, 19901. Research to develop new products is carried out by federal and provincial scientists, often in cooperation with private companies. A good example of this teamwork is the development of the commercial culture of Irish moss (Chondrus crispus) in Nova Scotia, based on collaboration between the National Research Council of Canada and Acadia Seaplants Ltd. (Isaacs, 19901. During the 1990 World Aquaculture Society meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans announced a government com- mitment to development of a world-class aquaculture industry in Canada in the 1990s. Implementation of this long-term strategy will be achieved by the support of science and technology, provision of an inspection system, assistance with market and commercial analysis, as well as advocacy and dialogue to promote sustained growth and development. Shellfish Two species of oysters are cultivated commercially: the Pacific or Japa- nese oyster (Crassotrea gigasJ and the American or Virginia oyster Crassotrea virginica. A third species, the European (or Belon) oyster Ostrea edulis is under development in Nova Scotia. Oysters are produced by three methods in British Columbia: intertidal bottom culture, near-bottom culture, and off-bottom culture. Three years may be required to grow a marketable oyster on the bottom, but this can be cut to two years off-bottom. Suspen- sion culture will produce more than 25 times the yield per unit area than can be obtained with bottom culture (Aiken, 19901. An estimated 3,900 metric tons of oysters were produced in British Columbia in 1989 (Price Waterhouse Management Consultants, 1990~. Mussel (Mytilus edulisJ culture in Atlantic Canada has expanded consider- ably in the past 10 years, and in 1989 the five Atlantic provinces produced 3,137 tons of mussels valued at $5,520,000 (Muise, 1990~. Cultivation de- veloped in eastern Canada utilizes suspension technology (a long line sys- tem) to produce a premium quality product. Other shellfish considered for commercial culture in Canada are Manila clams (Venerupis japonica J; several species of scallops, including Argopecten irradians and Patino- pecten yessoensis; and the pinto abalone (Haliotis kamchathanaJ (Aiken, 1990~.
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222 Finfish APPENDIX A Finfish aquaculture registered a rapid growth in British Columbia: in 1976- 1977 there were 5 farms licensed for marine trout and salmon, 51 freshwater trout sites, 2 carp sites, and 1 site licensed for carp and trout. In 1988, there were a total of 212 marine finfish sites and 149 freshwater trout sites (Price Waterhouse Management Consultants, 19901. Rainbow trout has been reared since the l950s in freshwater systems such as tanks, ponds, and raceways. Production increased by 10 percent yearly from 1976 to 1986 (when 100.8 metric tons of freshwater trout were sold commercially) (Price Waterhouse Management Consultants, 19901. More recently, rainbow trout has been raised in marine net-pen systems and sold commercially as "salmon trout." Salmon The British Columbia salmon farming industry has grown from 4 com- mercial farms in 1981 to 135 operating farm sites in 1989 and an estimated 120 sites in 1990 (Price Waterhouse Management Consultants, 1990~. In 1989 the industry produced 12,385 metric tons of salmon with a landed value of Can $82.1 million (Egan and Kenney, 1990~. Until 1986, coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was the dominant species cultivated (comprising 76 percent of the total farmed production that year), and the industry was dependent on government supplies of eyed eggs. Since then, the industry has become self-sufficient in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) brood stock supply, and production of this species is now dominant (73 percent of the 1989 production), a shift attrib- uted to early maturation and size problems related to coho production (Egan and Kenney, 19901. Atlantic salmon was first cultivated commer- cially in net pens in 1986 and has since increased to 8 percent of the total 1989 production. Its share is expected to increase further in the future, due to good growth and the higher price commanded in relation to the Pacific species (Egan and Kenney, 19901. The salmon farming industry in eastern Canada is concentrated in the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick, where approximately 49 salmon farms are currently operating. Together these farms have a combined estimated capacity of 8,500 metric tons (Price Waterhouse Management Consultants, 1990~. Latin America The major aquaculture product in Latin America is shrimp. Shrimp farmers in the Western Hemisphere accounted for 11 percent of world production, or 61,000 metric tons in 1989. Ecuador produced 65 percent; countries
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 223 producing about 5 percent each are Mexico, Honduras, Peru, and Colombia; Guatemala, Panama, and Brazil produced slightly less. Much of the pro- duction in the Western Hemisphere comes from extensive farms, but the trend is toward developing semi-intensive farming. Penaeus vannamei ac- counts for 92 percent of the production of farm-raised shrimp, which relies on wild shrimp for the production of seed stock. Disease represents the biggest obstacle to the future of shrimp farming in the Western Hemisphere. In the spring of 1990, Ecuador's $300 million a year industry was near collapse as a weather-induced disease epidemic struck its ponds and hatch- eries (Rosenberry, 1990~. It is not clear what the ultimate result of this epidemic will be, but production in mid-1990 had already been reduced by 40 percent; many of the ponds are not in operation, and no restocking is planned because of disease and reductions in seed stock availability. Despite proximity to the U.S. market, the development of aquaculture in Latin American countries is slowed by government intervention, corruption, regulations, and permitting delays (often of one or two years) "all the products of monumental bureaucracies" (Rosenberry, 19901. Recent changes in the political and economic environments in many of these countries (e.g., Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru) are viewed as encouraging to the prospects for development of the shrimp farming industry. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS Issues of Concern Issues faced by other countries include: · pollution of coastal waters (particularly in Asia), · shortage of coastal areas for expansion in Japan and many parts of the world. · shrimp disease in Ecuador and Taiwan, and · lack of governmental policies or institutional support for mariculture development. Environmental impacts of aquaculture include: · self-pollution through toxic and organic waste discharges; · buildup of suspended solids; · reduction in oxygen levels and introduction or augmentation of disease; · habitat impairment and loss of natural resources; · risks associated with transfers and introduction of exotics (of particu- lar concern in Europe and the United States); and · competitive use of resources, including land, water, and plant and animal resources.
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224 APPENDIX A Biological issues relate to biological and chemical unknowns in the areas of captive breeding, larval rearing, feed production for each life stage and appropriate to specific culture systems, and engineering problems in recir- culating, closed or semiclosed, high-intensity culture systems. Socioeconomic issues involve regulatory and administrative constraints, inadequacy of information and advice to investors, product marketing, and market saturation, to name but a few. Culture systems and practices have been used to overcome constraints to marine aquaculture in other countries. Following is a summary discussion of these issues and their applicability to similar problems in the United States: · Waste is being reduced by the development of methods to utilize prop- erly the diets offered, to remove suspended solids efficiently, to incorporate water treatment and water reuse systems, and to collect waste for use as fertilizer. · User conflicts over coastal resources are reduced by moving fish farms out into deeper water or to land-based facilities, or by zoning and clustering farms in selected sites. · Member countries of the International Council on Exploration of the Seas (ICES) have adopted a Code of Practice to Reduce the Risks of Ad- verse Effects Arising From Introduction of Nonindigenous Marine Species. · Attempts to circumvent disease and contamination of aquaculture prod- ucts are carried out by individual countries. They include requiring health certificates for imports, as in North Sea countries for imported mussels; monitoring for toxic dinoflagellates and toxicity testing in Japan; requiring deputation of bivalves at specified centers in Spain; and maintaining strict quality standards with regular inspection in the Netherlands. Regulations generally pertain only to mollusks; they have been instigated in response to actual or potential health risks associated with eating these products. · Research on controlled spawning to reduce aquaculture's dependence on wild seed, along with the development of larval rearing technology, is given priority in Japan, Norway, and many other countries. · There has been some development toward improved feed quality to increase food conversion and to decrease waste (i.e., phosphorus). · Some examples of solutions to socioeconomic constraints are the de- velopment of planned marketing strategies to promote future growth, gov- ernment regulations that are conducive to growth in Canada (Price Water- house, 1990), and self-imposed restraints on 1989 salmon production in Norway in the face of a world market excess (Folsom and McFetters, 19901. In the latter case, the farming industry, through the Norwegian Fish Farm-
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 225 ers' Sales Organization (NFFSO), is taking strong action to shore up prices. The NFFSO plans to borrow $200 million to finance the purchase and freezing of 20,000~0,000 tons of salmon to keep it off the fresh fish market. EXAMPLES OF AQUACULTURE POLICY IN OTHER NATIONS Several nations have been successful in developing strong aquaculture enterprises that make significant contributions to the national economy. Although such experiences are not directly exportable to the United States because of different social, cultural, demographic, and economic condi- tions, they may suggest some fruitful avenues for U.S. action. Examples of nations that are most similar to the United States in culture and political organization are discussed below in order to maximize the potential ap- plicability of any lessons that can be learned. Canada Status Canada has a long aquaculture history dating back to turn-of-the-century oyster farms. Both the federal government and university structures have supported and encouraged expansion and development. The British Columbia oyster industry began around the turn of the cen- tury and has been growing at a steady pace ever since. Clam aquaculture (primarily the Manila clam) is in the development stage, fueled by strong markets. Present efforts are targeting pseudofarming, which involves col- lecting wild spat and raising them on tidal flats under more optimal condi- tions. Mussel and scallop aquaculture research is also being spurred by strong markets but is hampered by culture problems. Regulations The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries administers the aquaculture lease program, which includes permits, licenses, and reviews. Aquaculture product licenses and permits include the aquaculture license from the Min- istry of Agriculture and Fisheries, a municipal business license, a municipal sewage disposal permit, and a waste management permit. In addition, a shell- fish transport permit is required. Site requirements include a federal water lot lease if operating on federal land and an occupation lease from the Ministry of Crown Lands. In addition, there may be local zoning ordi- nances.
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226 Status APPENDIX A Norway Of the many nations engaged in cold water fish farming, Norway is recognized as a leader in aquaculture development and production. Norwe- gian production of farmed salmon has risen from 4,000 tons in 1979 to 150,000 tons in 1990 (the 1990 figure represents a 25 percent increase compared to 1989~. More than 90 percent of this production is exported. In fact, aquaculture is Norway's fastest growing industry, with an average annual growth rate of 47 percent from 1980 to 1986. This remarkable growth is attributable to good water quality; low but ideal sea temperature owing to the Gulf Stream; sheltered, ice-free sites behind a myriad of coastal islands; innovative technology; and the development of new markets. Cur- rently, about 750 fish farms in Norway provide direct employment to 6,OOO people, with another 9,000 jobs provided indirectly through educational services, research, and public administration. Although salmon aquaculture dominates Norwegian fish farming production, other cultivated species in- clude trout, arctic char, oysters, and mussels. Currently, research is also directed at attempts to farm halibut, Atlantic cod, and ocean wolffish (Tilseth, 1990~. Legislation Fish farming in Norway is regulated under the Fish Farming Act of 1985. The objective of the act is to ensure a balanced development of the industry and to make it profitable and viable. The act applies to both freshwater and saltwater aquaculture, and includes the handling and feeding of fish and shellfish, as well as the geographic allocation of new farms. Under the act, anyone wishing to enter the industry must first receive a license from the government, and since 1977 the government has limited the number of licenses issued. Norway restricts the number of fish farmers because of a desire to adapt production to market demand through balanced de- velopment. The limitation also is associated with the capacity of the nation's veterinary and extension services. The demand for licenses is strong, as was demonstrated in 1986 when 2,500 applicants competed for 150 new licenses. The number of hatchery and smelt operations, however, is not limited, and licenses for cultivating shellfish or other species of fish are granted more liberally. Norway also must consider the fact that aquaculture is growing rapidly in such places as British Columbia and Chile. Internally, the outlook, although promising, will be hampered by the regulations described earlier that prevent Norwegian fish farmers from ex- ploiting economy of scale in production and in the benefits of horizontal and vertical integration. An issue of increasing concern has to do with
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 227 salmon escapes from fish farms. In 1989, 20 percent of the fish caught by fishers had escaped from fish farms. This situation has led to increasing concern about fish from farms breeding with and contaminating wild stocks. The Salmon Act of 1985 makes it illegal to move wild stocks from river to river. Implications for the United States The Norwegian experience in aquaculture illustrates what can be ex- pected with the combined support of formal statutory guidance, intense research, and financial assistance. Of course, the strict regulatory model adopted by Norway may not be appropriate for the United States, but the Norwegian investment in research is consistent with the U.S. approach to agricultural research. In comparing the fish farming experiences of Norway and Canada, government financial assistance seems to be the common fac- tor in assessing the success of aquaculture in these countries. The Norwe- gian experience also indicates that aquaculture growth needs to be balanced with market demand and that, like other commodities (at least in the short run), aquaculture growth has its limits. The United Kingdom Status Aquaculture grew rapidly in the United Kingdom during the 1980s, with total production increasing from 7,000 tons in 1980 to 45,000 tons in 1989. Most of this output has come from salmon and trout production, which amounted to 18,000 and 16,000 tons, respectively, in 1988. (Scotland is the second largest salmon producer in the world after Norway.) The combined wholesale value of the 1988 aquaculture output was 100 million pounds, compared with the total value of all fish and shellfish landings by U.K. vessels of 400 million pounds. The industry provides employment for about 5,000 people and at least a similar number in downstream industries. Fish farming has been especially important in the highlands and western islands of Scotland because the industry provides employment in many isolated and economically depressed areas. Currently, 244 salmon farming businesses are registered in Scotland operating at 459 sites. There are also about 400 sites for raising trout. Other species farmed in the United Kingdom include oysters, clams, and scallops. Legislation Responsibility for aquaculture development in the United Kingdom rests primarily with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and the
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228 APPENDIX A other territorial fisheries departments for Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Aquaculture legislative controls are directed toward the establish- ment and operation of fish and shellfish farms, including disease and movement controls, planning, water abstraction and discharge, and naviga- tion. The primary responsibility of the fisheries departments is stipulated un- der the Diseases of Fish Acts (1937 and 1983) and the Sea Fisheries (Shell- fish) Act (19671. These laws are directed at preventing the introduction and spread of pests and diseased fish. All fish and shellfish operations in the United Kingdom are required to register with the appropriate fisheries de- partment and to maintain records of fish movements. The Sea Fisheries (Shellfish) Act of 1967 also grants the exclusive right to cultivate oysters, mussels, cockles, clams, scallops, and queen conch in designated waters. Activities associated with the release of nonnative fish and shellfish into the wild, the use of pesticides, and the licensing of medicines are regulated under the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981, the Control of Pesticides Regulations of 1968, and the Medicines Act of 1968, respectively. Planning Aquaculture planning control rests with both local planning authorities and central government. Fish farms have to comply with the provisions of the Town and Country Planning Act, 1971, and the Town and Country Planning Act (Scotland), 1972. Also in accordance with EC Directive 85/ 337/EEC, environmental assessments must be undertaken for salmon rear- ing developments that are judged likely to have significant environmental effects. Effluent discharges from fish farms are controlled under the Water Act of 1989. Fish farmers are required to obtain consent to discharge their wastewater and to observe the standards set by the appropriate national river authority (river purification authorities in Scotland). The act also ex- tends the need to obtain a water abstraction license for certain farms in England and Wales. In Scotland, water abstraction for fish farming is based principally on a common law right of riparian owners to use water in rivers and streams. Marine-based fish farms are almost without formal planning control pro- cedures, but their operations normally require the consent of, and a lease from, the Crown Estate Commissioners (CEC). The role of the CEC in planning and approving marine-based aquaculture projects is under review by the Agriculture Committee of the House of Commons. Marine fish farms must obtain navigation consents from the Department of Transport to ensure that cages and other anchored equipment do not interfere with navigation of vessels. Under the Shetland County Council
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 229 Act and the Orkney Council Act, both of 1974, the Shetland and Orkney Islands councils have jurisdiction over the waters surrounding the islands and are responsible for issuing work licenses, which are necessary for es- tablishing fish farms. Financial Assistance Financial assistance for fish farming in the United Kingdom is available from several sources. The first is the regional selective assistance program operated by the Industry Department under the Industrial Development Act of 1982. A second source is government agencies such as the Highlands and Islands Development Board, the Scottish Development Agency, the Welsh Development Agency, and the Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas. The EC also provides aid for the establishment, extension, and modernization of fish farms. Since 1978 the EC has assisted 125 projects in the United King- dom at a total cost of 10 million pounds (mostly for salmon farms). To qualify for EC aid a project must also be in receipt of national assistance of at least 10 percent of the eligible costs. The EC has also given assistance to capi- tal investments concerned with the processing and marketing of farmed fish, including processing, packaging, freezing, chilling, and storage facilities. In addition, national assistance has been made available directly for promotional and marketing initiatives by contributions to such bodies as the Scottish Salmon Farmers' Marketing Board and the British Trout Association and, indirectly, through Food From Britain and the Sea Fish Industry Authority. Outlook The outlook for aquaculture in the United Kingdom is dependent on the availability of suitable sites and growing conditions, the costs of fish meal, competition from other countries, disease, environmental considerations, and judgments as to the benefits of aquaculture compared to tourism and other coastal uses. Future growth also varies by species. Farmed salmon production could increase by more than 50,000 tons by the mid-1990s, with most of this expansion coming from existing farms or those already planned. With increasing pressure on coastal siting, offshore salmon farm- ing is likely to develop. Trout production is also expected to increase, perhaps reaching 25,000 tons by the mid-199Os, but further growth is likely to be limited by the availability of adequate freshwater supplies. Mollusk production is expected to increase significantly. There are about 10,000 hectares of productive ground in estuaries and inlets. These lands could produce 15 tons of oysters, 30-50 tons of mussels, or 10-25 tons of clams a year.
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230 Implications for the United States APPENDIX A Aquaculture development in the United Kingdom offers interesting in- sights, including both similarities and differences with the U.S. aquaculture experience. Despite the lack of formal statutory guidance in the United Kingdom for the development of aquaculture, this sector has developed into a significant industry. Domestic factors in the United Kingdom responsible for this growth include financial support, favorable growing conditions (i.e., water quality, temperature), and minimum resistance from other coastal us- ers. The inherent international factor (i.e., international capital and eco- nomic competition) of the European environment has also had an important role in furthering the U.K. aquaculture industry. Continued expansion of the industry, however, faces challenges in siting, planning, and public ac- ceptance. Yet, despite these difficulties, aquaculture in the United King- dom has gained a more recognized status as a legitimate coastal area enter- prise than it currently enjoys in the United States. REFERENCES Aiken, D. 1990. Commercial aquaculture in Canada. World Aquaculture 21(21:66-75. Bettencourt, S.U., and J.L. Anderson. 1990. Pen-Reared Salmonid Industry in the Northeastern United States. Department of Marine Resource Economics, Univer- sity of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I. 147 pp. Cook, R.H. 1990. Salmon farming in the Bay of Fundy The challenge of the future. World Aquaculture 21(2~:46. Egan, D., and A. Kenney. 1990. Salmon farming in British Columbia. World Aquaculture 21~21:6-11. Folsom, W.B., and B.D. McFetters. 1990 World salmon aquaculture. Proceedings of a Marine Technology Society Conference "Science and Technology for a New Oceans Decade" 623-628. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1989. Fisheries Circular No. 815 Rev. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAG). 1990. A new definition of aquaculture. Fisheries 15~41:54. Gousset, G. 1990. European eel (Anguilla L.) farming technologies in Europe and in Japan: Application of a comparative analysis. Aquaculture 87:209-235. Isaacs, F. 1990. Irish moss aquaculture moves from lab to marketplace. World Aquaculture 21 (21:95-97. Juario, J.V., and L.V. Benitez, eds. 1988. Perspectives in Aquaculture Develop- ment in Southeast Asia and Japan. Aquaculture Department SEAFDEC, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Mito, I., and J. Fukuhura. 1988. Aquaculture development in Japan. Pp. 39-72 in Perspectives in Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Japan, J.V. Juario and L.V. Benitez, eds. Aquaculture Department SEAFDEC, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Muise, B. 1990. Mussel culture in Eastern Canada. World Aquaculture 21~21:12-23.
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REVIEW OF WORLD AQUACULTURE 231 Needham, T. 1990. Canadian aquaculture let's farm the oceans. World Aquacul- ture 21~2~:76-80. Price Waterhouse Management Consultants. 1990. Long term production outlook for the Canadian aquaculture industry (1990 edition) an overview. Report pre- pared for Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, Ontario. Rosenberry, R. 1990. Shrimp farming in the Western Hemisphere. Presented at Aquatech 90, Malaysia, June. Rosenberry, R. 1991a. World shrimp farming. Aquaculture Magazine (September/ October):60-64. Rosenberry, R. l991b. World shrimp farming. 1991. Aquaculture Digest, San Diego, Ca. Tilseth, S. 1990. New marine fish species for cold-water farming. Aquaculture 85:235-245. Tseng, C.K. 1981. Commercial Cultivation. Pp. 680-725 in Biology of Seaweeds, C. Lobban and M. Wyne, eds. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Representative terms from entire chapter: