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Index A Abalone cultivation of, 38, 39, 132 Japanese production of, 217, 218 Acadia Seaplants, Ltd., 221 Acanthopagrus schelegi (black sea bream), 217 Acipenser brevirostrum (shortnose sturgeon), 54, 240. See also Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens (lake sturgeon). 54. See also Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhynchus (Atlantic sturgeon), 54. See also Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (white sturgeon), 46, 54, 146, 239. See also Sturgeon Aesthetic issues, 17 Agricultural products development model for, 158 fishery imports compared with importa- tion of, 25, 26 Agricultural Research Service, 241 Agriculture Committee, House, 8 Agriculture industry economic programs for, 75 federal support for, 65-66, 158 Aiyu, 208 Alaska pollack production in, 24-25 salmon ranching in, 259-261 277 Algae. See Seaweed Alligators, 237 American Fisheries Society position regarding transgenic fish, 147- 148 role in information exchange, 166 American lobster (Homarus americanus), 35, 37-38. See also Lobster American Norwegian Fish Farm, Inc., 72, 86 American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), 29-30. See also Oysters Ammonia, 96, 98 Anadromous species. See also Salmon/ Salmonids; Striped bass; Sturgeon environmental requirements for, 109 stock enhancement efforts with, 5, 50- 54, 102 Anarhichas lupus (wolffish), 218 Anchovetta, Peruvian, 21 Anguilla anguilla (European eel), 218 Antibiotics administration of, 150 impact on environment, 106-107 impact on human consumers, 107 Antifoulants, 77 Aquaculture. See Marine aquaculture; Marine aquaculture industry Aquaculture Development Plan (Hawaii), 82 Aquaculture parks, 167

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278 Aquaculture Policy Act (Florida), 83 Aquaculture Situation and Outlook Reports (USDA), 162 Aquaculture Special Grant Program, 242 Aquaculture systems. See Interdisciplinary systems Aquariums, 135 Aquatic plant culture. See Seaweed Arctic char, 221 Argopectin irradiens (bay scallops), 32. See also Scallops Artificial reefs, 139 Asia, 216-218. See also individual countries Aspen report (1980), 79-80 Australia, 144 Australian barnacle, 102 Auxiliary systems; See also Interdisciplinary systems development of, 58, 119 expert, 126-127 for feed, 121-123 for hatcheries, 120-121 sensor and monitoring, 125-126 for waste treatment, 124, 125 B Bacteria, 109 drug-resistant, 106-107 Baitfish cultivation of, 23, 261, 262 U.S. production of, 236-237 Bangladesh, 22 Bay scallops (Argopectin irradiens), 32, 221. See also Scallops Benefit-flow strategy, 255 Benthic ecosystem, 98-99, 130 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 94, 95, 97 Biotechnology, 147-149 Black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schelegi), 208, 217 Blood ark shell (Scapharca broughtonii), 217 Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), 38 Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), 33-34, 221. See also Mussels Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources study (1978), 15 Bridgestone cage, 138 Broodstock domestication, 146-147 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 49 INDEX C Cage systems dispersal or dilution of wastes for, 124 environmental issues related to, 97-98, 130 offshore, 137-138 used in salmon farming, 96 Cages. See also Net pens California aquaculture development policy in, 83-84 broodstock collection program in, 146 California Aquaculture Association, 84 California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), 53 Callinectes sapidus (blue crab), 38 Canada aquaculture industry in, 220-222 cage use in, 138 governmental policy in, 59, 216, 221, 224, 225 import policies of, 73 scallop culture in, 213 Capital expenses, 56-57 Capture fisheries present yields from, 12 state involvement in conflict resolution regarding, 17 world harvest from, 20-21 Carassius auratus (goldfish), 236 Carbon dioxide, 136 Catfish, 23, 45, 75, 206, 232-233 Channel bass. See Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus), 206, 232. See also Catfish Chesapeake Bay pollution in, 29, 100, 108 striped bass in, 54 Chile China salmon production in, 215 scallop culture in, 213 aquaculture production in, 21-22, 217 scallop culture in, 213 seaweed production in, 47, 213, 214 shrimp production in, 34, 211-212 Chinese mitten crab, 102 Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 222 Chlorination, 150 Chondrus crispus (Irish moss), 47, 221

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INDEX Clams. See also Mollusk culture; Mollusks cultivation of, 23, 30-33 European production of, 220 stocking of hatchery-reared, 55 Clean Water Act of 1977, 100 Clean Water Act of 1972 (P.L. 95-217), 71 Coastal zone federal role in planning and regulating, 70-73, 87-88 legislation concerning, 84-86 policy framework regarding, 18-19, 176 recommendations for Congress regarding, 7, 176 Coastal Zone Enhancement Grants, 85 Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (P. L. 92-583, amended as P.L. 101-508), 5, 7, 71, 84-86, 88, 173 Cod as candidate for aquaculture, 47 production in Europe, 218 stock enhancement with, 55 Cognitive anthropology, 256 Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 222 Colombia, 223 Commission of Fish and Fisheries, U. S., 246 Congress, U.S. committee recommendations for, 3, 6-8, 11, 175-177 development of committee or subcommit- tee within, 8, 70, 170-171, 177 Conservation Law Foundation, 81 Consumers attitudes of, 256-257 health concerns of,10,12,24, 29 need for public awareness, 160 policies of, 75-77 Control of Pesticides Regulations of 1968 (United Kingdom), 228 Cooperative Extension Service (CES) educational activities of, 165 functions of, 158, 241, 242 involvement in information exchange, 161, 164 Cooperative Research Service, 68 Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS), 241, 242 Coos Bay, Oregon, 30 Coryphaena hippurus (mahi mahi), 27, 47 Crabs 279 Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster), 30, 212, 221. See also Oysters Crassostrea virginica (American oyster), 29-30, 153, 221. See also Oysters Crayfish, 23, 206, 220, 233-234 Crown Estate Commissioners (CEC) (United Kingdom), 228 Crown Zellerbach, 78 Crustacean culture overview of, 34-35 by region, 22 world production of, 207-212 D in Mid- and South Atlantic, 264-265 stock enhancement of, 55 technology used for, 38 Delaware, 82-83 Delaware Aquaculture Act, 82-83 Delaware Aquaculture Advisory Council, 83 Delaware Aquaculture Task Force, 82 Denmark, 218-219 Dennis Wildlife Center, 53 Department of Agriculture (USDA) aquaculture programs of, 68, 241-243 expenditures on aquaculture, 243, 244 jurisdiction of, 3, 17 recommendations for, 4-5, 171-173 Regional Aquaculture Centers, 161, 164, 242-246 research role of, 65, 68 study of state laws and regulations, 79-80 support for role of, 70, 89 on therapeutic drug use, 150 Depuration, 130 DeVoe, Richard, 81 Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), 131 Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass), 219 Diet. See Feed; Nutritional requirements Disease affecting oysters, 29, 30 assessment and treatment of, 149-150, 224 cost of transmission of, 58 knowledge regarding shrimp, 95 from nonindigenous marine species, 81, 103-105 substances used to prevent, 77 Diseases of Fish Acts (United Kingdom), 228 Dolphin (mahi mahi). See Mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) Drug-resistant bacteria, studies finding, 106- 107

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280 Dunaliella salina, 49 Dworshak steelhead hatchery (Idaho), 135 E Economic development aquaculture as type of planned change for, 255-256 Farming Systems Research approach to, 256 technological advances and, 116-117 Economic Development Agency, 75 Economic issues affecting aquaculture, 18, 75 capital costs as, 56-57, 136 foreign competition and trade as, 59, 88 marketing factors as, 58-59 operating costs as, 57-58 regulatory costs of, 56 Ecuador, 34, 209, 211 Education programs availability of aquaculture, 160, 165-166 needs for improved, 160 pre-university, 166 state, 242-243 Eel, 215, 218-219 Effluents. See also Pollution; Wastes; Water pollution management of, 100-101 regulation of, 99-100 Employment opportunities, 13 Endangered Species Act of 1973 (P.L. 93- 205), 53, 71 Enhancement. See Stock enhancement Environmental issues. See also Pollution; Wastes; Water pollution; Water quality affecting aquaculture, 17, 92-96 feed additives as, 106-107 interest in coastal and ocean-related, 72- 73 introduction of nonindigenous species as, 81, 101-106 and regulation of discharges, 99-100 resolution of, 109-110 technology needs to resolve, 18-19 waste as, 96-101 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) actions related to coastal water quality, disease treatment approved by, 150 role of, 76 water quality standards, 98 INDEX Environmental protection legislation, 74. See also Legislation Environmental requirements of aquaculture, 108 of finfish and shrimp, lO9 of mollusks, 108-109 Eucheuma (seaweed), 214 Europe. See also individual countries aquaculture in central and southern, 219- 220 aquaculture in northern, 218-219 aquaculture production in, 22 protective trade barriers in, 59 research and monitoring of net pens in, 96 transfer of nonindigenous species to, 102 European Community (EC). See also individual countries aquaculture production in, 220 import policies of, 73 European eel (Anguilla anguilla), 218 Eutrophication, 122 Expert systems, 126-127 Export Enhancement Program, 73-74 Eyed larvae, oyster, 30 F Farm Credit Bureau, 75 Farmer's Home Administration, 57, 75 Farming Systems Research (FSR), 256 Faroe Islands, salmon production in, 219 Fatty acid composition analysis, 149-150 Fecal coliform test, 109 Feces, 130 Federal agencies. See also individual agencies coordination and promotion of aquacul- ture by, 4, 17, 241 enhancement issues and, 50, 77-79 recommendations for, 4-6, 70, 87, 172- 175 Federal Coastal Zone Management Act, 176 Federal Coordinating Council on Science, Engineering, and Technology, 6 Federal government aquacultural policy strains in, 64-65 development and promotion of aquacul- ture by, 65-70, 87-88, 216 role in planning and regulating coastal commons, 70-73 role in seafood quality and safety, 76-77

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INDEX Feed additives environmental impact from, 106-107 types of, 122 Feeding systems development, 123 Feeds cost of, 57, 58 diversity of, 123 nutritional requirements for, 121-122 as source of pollution, 58, 106-107, 130 Finfish. See also individual fish Canadian production of, 222 environmental requirements for' 109 European production of, 220 world production of, 206-208, 217 Finfish culture environmental impact of, 96 nearshore systems for, 128-130 overview of, 38-47 present state of, 27, 29 by region, 22 Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) expenditures on aquaculture, 250 function of, 65, 69, 104, 172, 249-251 jurisdiction of, 4 recommendations for, 5, 22, 174 on therapeutic drug use, 150 Fish Farmers Sales Association, 218 Fish Farming Act of 1985 (Norway), 226 Fisheries management, 74 Florida alligator production in, 237 ornamental fish production in, 236-237 Flounder as candidate for aquaculture, 47 stock enhancement with, 55 world production of, 208, 215, 217 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 20-22, 106, 162, 215 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) disease treatment approved by, 150 policy for drug use in aquaculture, 107 role in seafood safety, 76 Food Securities Act (1985), 73-74 Foreign investments in U.S., 57, 73 France aquaculture production in, 220 governmental support in, 216 Freshwater aquaculture. See also Finfish culture overview of, 1 world production of, 206-208 281 G Gadus morhua (cod), 218 Gelatin capsule implants, 150 Genes coding, 149 Genetic engineering, 147-149 Genetic impact, from transfer of nonindigenous species, 102-103 Geoduck clam (Panopea generosa spp.), 33. See also Clams Georgia, 83 Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), 208, 219 Golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), 236 Goldfish (Carassius auratus), 236 Government policies. See Federal govern- ment; State policies Gracilaria (red seaweed), 214 Greece, 220 Grouper, 47 Guatemala, 223 Gulf of Mexico, 54 H Haddock, 55 Halibut as candidate for aquaculture, 47 European production of, 218 Hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), 30, 33. See also Clams Harvest technology, 140-142 Hatchery technology advances in, 55, 144-145 systems using, 120-121 Hawaii aquaculture plan in, 79, 82 environmental restrictions in, 109 use of ocean water in, 139-140 Health concerns regarding oyster consumption, 29 seafood consumption increases due to, 10, 12, 24 Hepatitis A, 109 Herring, North Atlantic, 21 Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Atlantic hali- but), 218 Honduras, 223 Hormone use, 77 House Agriculture Committee, 8, 177 House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, 8

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282 Human pollution. See also Pollution; Water pollution closure of shellfish beds due to, 29, 108 fecal, 130 Hybridization, 101, 148 Hydrodynamic mariculture, 138 Icatalurus punctatus (channel catfish), 206, 232 Immunization, 150 Imports. See Seafood imports India, 22 Indonesia aquaculture production in, 22 shrimp culture in, 209 shrimp production in, 34 Industrial pollution. See also Pollution; Water pollution affecting oyster beds, 30 vulnerability of aquaculture to, 108 Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus, 104 Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHN) virus, 81, 95, 106 Information exchange methods of, 159-160 need for structured system for, 160 overview of aquaculture, 161-163 Institutional strategy, 255 Interdisciplinary systems auxiliary systems for fish culture Korea expert systems, 126-127 feed and feeding systems, 121-123 hatcheries, 120-121 water treatment systems, 124, 125 harvest and postharvest technology harvest, 141-142 preprocessing, 142-143 processing and packaging, 143 transport to market, 143-144 overview of, 118-119 production grow-out systems nearshore, 127-131 offshore, 135-140 onshore, 131-135 International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES), 105-106 International Fisheries Office, 162 Ireland. See also United Kingdom governmental support in, 59 salmon production in, 219 INDEX Irish moss (Chondrus crispus), 47, 221 Italy, 220 J Japan anoxic sediment accumulation in, 98, 99 aquaculture production in, 21, 208, 215- 218 governmental support in, 59, 216 mollusk culture in, 212, 213 research and monitoring of net pens in, 96 seaweed production in, 47-48, 213, 217 shrimp culture in, 34, 56, 208-209, 217 study of drug-resistant bacteria in, 106 transport technology in, 144 use of artificial reefs in, 139 Japanese Bridgestone cage, 138 Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), 217. See also Flounder Joint Subcommittee on Aquaculture (JSA) effectiveness of, 70 establishment of, 17, 67 function of, 3, 8, 69, 87 recommendations for, 5, 7, 171, 173-174 review of aquaculture industry by, 9 K aquaculture production in, 21 seaweed production in, 47 Kuruma prawn (Panaeus japonicus), 217 L Labeling legislation regarding, 76-77 quality and safety assurance through use of, 143 requirements for, 76 Labor costs, 58 Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 (Title 16, U.S.C. 3371), 74 Lacey Act (P.L. 97-79), 5 evaluation of impact of, 174 provisions of, 74, 105 recommendations regarding, 7, 177 USDA/USDI conclusions regarding, 75 Laminaria, 213

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INDEX Latin America, 222-223. See also various countries Leasing operations, 86-87 Legislation affecting aquaculture industry, 7, 66-68, 74-75, 170 dealing with coastal zone use, 71-72, 80 impeding development of aquaculture, 177. See also Lacey Act problems regarding application of, 170 state aquaculture development, 81-84 License acquisition. See Permit acquisition Living Seas Aquarium (Florida), 135 Lobsters cost of, 37-38 cultivation of, 35, 37-38 stock enhancement of, 55-56 Louisiana, 237 Louisiana State University, 160 M Macrobrachium (giant freshwater prawn), 206, 208 Macrobrachium rosenberghii (large freshwater prawn), 206, 208 Macroscopic algae, 47-48. See also Seaweed Magnunson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-265), 71, 87 Mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), cultivation of, 27, 47 Maine aquaculture development policy in, 82 salmon and mussels in, 265-266 Malaysia, prawn culture in, 208 Manila clam (Tapes japonica), 30, 33. See also Clams Marine Advisory Service, 69 Marine aquaculture in developing countries, 257 environmental requirements of, 108 establishment of technology centers for, 166-167 foreign competition and trade issues and, 59 goals of, 216 management framework for, 84-87 management of leasing offshore sub- merged lands and waters for, 86- 87 national interest in, 10-14, 87 283 nearshore, 127-131 offshore, 135-140 onshore, 131-135 opposition to, 81-82 role of federal government in, 64-73 Marine aquaculture industry conclusions regarding, 2-3, 8, 169-171 consumer policies affecting, 75-77 economic issues and policies affecting, 18, 56-59, 75. See also Economic Issues importation of nonindigenous marine species for, 81 international and interstate trade policies affecting, 73-75 legislation affecting, 7, 66-68, 74-75. See also individual legislation; Legislation overview of, 1-2, 9-10 problems and constraints on, 14-15, 17- 19, 34-35 recommendations for congressional actions, 6-8, 175-177 for federal agency responsibilities and actions, 4-6, 87, 172-175 for technology and engineering, 3-4, 171-172 sociocultural aspects of, 253-267. See also Sociocultural issues status of, 23-29 summary of policy issues and options affecting, 87-89 Marine aquaculture production economics of world, 214, 215 trends in world, 215-216 U.S., 10, 22, 23, 29 world, 10, 20-22, 34, 47, 207 Marine aquaculture systems. See Interdisci plinary systems Marine fisheries management, 145 Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-532), 71 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (92-532), 71 Marine species. See Nonindigenous marine species; Transgenic species Marketing costs of, 58-59 identification of consumer attitudes through, 256 impact of technology on, 117 Marking systems, 145

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284 Medicines Act of 1968 (United Kingdom), 228 Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam), 30, 33. See also Clams Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, House, 8 Mexico, 209, 223 Michigan, 262 Minnesota, 261 Minnows, 236 Mitchell Act (1937), 246 Mitochondrial DNA analysis, 147 Mollusk culture environmental impact of, 93-94, 98-99 overview of, 29-34 by region, 22 support systems for, 128, 129 Mollusks environmental requirements for, 108- 109 ocean ranging of, 216 selective breeding of, 148 world production of, 207, 212-213 Moncks Corner hatchery, 53 Monosex populations production of, 148 of tilapia, 239 Morone chrysops (white bass), 46, 238 Morone mississippiensis, 46 Morone saxatilis (striped bass), 45, 46, 238. See also Striped bass Morrill Act of 1862, 158 Mullet, 55 Mussels. See also Mollusk culture; Mollusks Canadian production of, 221 cultivation of, 23, 33-34 European production of, 220 Mytilus edulis (blue mussel), 33-34, 221. See also Mussels N National Agricultural Library, 68, 69, 80, 162 National Aquaculture Act (P.L. 96-362), 2, 8, 15, 70, 249 implementation of, 170 provisions of, 9, 66-67, 241 National Aquaculture Association, formation of, 69 National Aquaculture Development Plan (NADP), 9, 17, 67-68, 249 National Aquaculture Forum (1987), 69 INDEX National Aquaculture Improvement Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198), 2, 4, 70, 89, 170 National Aquaculture Information Center (NAIC), 69, 161-162, 241 National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center, 251 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 148 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) aquaculture expenditures of, 246, 248 International Fisheries Office, 162 jurisdiction of, 4 recommendations for, 5-6, 166, 174-175 role of, 65, 68-69, 76, 246-247 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin- istration (NOAA). See also National Marine Fisheries Service; National Sea Grant College Program jurisdiction of, 4 recommendations for, 5-6, 174-175 role of, 65, 68, 172, 246-249 National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permits, 100 - National Research Council (NRC) report (1978), 9, 66 National Research Council of Canada, 221 National Research Initiative, 242 National Science Foundation (NSF) role of, 68, 172, 251-252 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, 69 National Sea Grant College Program jurisdiction of, 4 recommendations for, 6 role of, 68, 69, 159, 247, 249 National Sea Grant College Programs, 247, 249 National Wetlands Research Center, 251 Nearshore aquaculture systems technology needs for, 127-128 typesof,l28-131 Net pens. See also Cage systems environmental impact of, 98-99 Norwegian use of, 103, 208 offshore, 137-138 research and environmental monitoring of, 96 salmonids in, 208, 219 New Zealand salmon production in, 215 transport of live fish from, 144

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INDEX Nitrogen, 96-98, 122 No-net-loss policy, 73 NOAA Aquaculture Plan (1977), 66 Nonfood products, 13 Nonindigenous marine species controversy over importation of, 81 disease transfer from, 81, 103-105 environmental issues regarding, 94-95, 101-102 genetic impact of, 102-103 regulation of movement of, 105-106 Nordicus discus (abalone), 217 Nori (Porphyra), 47-48, 213, 221 North Atlantic herring, 21 North Carolina, 83 Northern pike, 50 Norwalk viruses, 109 Norway governmental policy in, 59, 216, 226-227 restraints on salmon production in, 224 salmon production in, 27, 39, 41, 43, 73, 103, 208, 219 study of drug-resistant bacteria in, 106 Norwegian Fish Farmers' Sales Organization (NFFSO), 224-225 Norwegian Fisheries Research Council, 218 Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner), 236 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, 76-77 Nutritional labeling, 76-77 Nutritional requirements for marine species, 121-122 o Ocean policies assessment of, 72-73 federal role in, 87-88 legislation dealing with, 71-72 Ocean Products, Inc., 73 Ocean ranching. See also Offshore aquacul- ture systems; Stock enhancement advances in, 144 interactions with hatchery fish and, 53, 102 opposition to, 81-82 policy issues regarding, 77-79 salmon, 50-52, 77-78, 215-216, 259-261 Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), 139, 140 Oceanic Institute, 160, 166 Office of Coastal Resources Management, 85 285 Office of Sea Grant, 65, 161 Offshore aquaculture systems artificial reefs for, 139 cage systems for, 137-138 deep ocean water, 139-140 examples of, 137 factors effecting use of, 135-137 Onchorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), 23, 40, 206, 220, 222, 235 Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho), 222 Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon), 222 Onshore aquaculture systems characteristics of, 131-133 water supply systems for, 133-135 Open-ocean production systems. See Offshore aquaculture systems Operating costs, 57-58 Orkney Council Act, 229 Ornamental fish cultivation of, 13, 23, 27 U.S. production of, 236-237 Ornamental reef fish, 16 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amend- ments of 1978 (P.L. 95-372), 71 Oxygen levels, monitoring of, 125, 126 Oxytetracycline (OTC), 106, 107 Oyster industry federal financing programs for, 75 in Washington State, 258-259 Oysters. See also Mollusk culture; Mollusks Canadian production of, 221 consumption of, 29 cultivation of, 23, 29-30, 129 disease epidemics affecting, 29 enhancement programs with, 55 European production of, 220 production of pearl, 217 Ozonation, 150 p Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), 30, 212, 221. See also Oysters Packaging technology, 143 Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), 54 Paddlewheel aeration, 126 Pagrus major (red sea bream), 208, 215, 217, 218 Panama, 223 Panopea generosa spp. (geoduck clam), 33. See also Clams

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286 Panulirus (Spiny lobster), 38. See also Lobster Paralichthys olivaceus (Japanese flounder), 217, 218. See also Flounder Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), 34, 108, 131 Pathogens, transfer of human, 109 Peer review, institution of, 167 Penaeus, 208 Penaeus japonicus (Kuruma prawn), 217 Penaeus merguiensis (banana prawn), 217 Penaeus monodon (tiger prawn), 215 Penaeus setiferus (white shrimp), 95 Penaeus vannamei (shrimp), 34, 94, 223. See also Shrimp; Shrimp culture People's Republic of China. See China Permit acquisition, 56, 80 Peru scallop production in, 213 shrimp production in, 223 Peruvian anchovetta, 21 Pesticide use, 76, 77 Pharmaceuticals, 13 Philippines aquaculture production in, 21 seaweed production in, 47, 214 shrimp culture in, 209 INDEX Prawn. See Shrimp; shrimp culture Predation, 101 Preprocessing technology, 142-143 President's Office of Science and Technol- ogy Policy, 70 Price supports, in Norway, 59 Product information, 117 Product quality effect of water pollution on, 76 issues regarding, 75-77 testing methods to enhance, 141-142 Production grow-out systems nearshore, 127-131 offshore, 135-140 onshore, 131-135 types of, 127 Production technology advances in, 55 for shrimp cultivation, 95 Property rights issuance of, 17 salmon ocean ranging and, 52 Protein, 122 Psychometrics, 256 Public awareness, 160 Public waters A , Phosphorus, 96, 122 Phytoplankton (unicellular algae), 48-49, 96, 7 98, 130. See also Seaweed Pike, 50 Pilchard, South Atlantic, 21 Plankton, 94, 98 Planned change, 255-258 Polio, 109 Pollution. See also Human pollution; Industrial pollution; Water pollution closure of shellfish beds due to, 29, 108 feed as source of, 58, 130 public knowledge of aquaculture-based, 72 Polyodon spathula (paddlefish), 54 Polyploidy, 148 Pompano, 47 Pond systems, 131 - 132 Porphyra (nori), 47-48, 213, 221 Portugal, 220 Potentials of Aquaculture: An Overview and Bibliography (Hanfman, et al.), 162 Poultry egg protein, 122 privatization issues surrounding, 17 recommendations for Congress regarding, Puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes), 208, 217 Pygmy angels, 16 R Raceways, 131-132 Rafting techniques, 29, 93, 212 Rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), 23, 40, 206, 220, 222, 235 Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) cultivation of,.15, 27, 28, 43-45, 132 environmental requirements for, 109 stock enhancement efforts with, 54-55 Red sea bream (Pagrus major), 208, 215, 217, 218 Red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) cultivation of, 46 stock enhancement with, 55 Redfish. See Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Reef fish, 16 Reefs, artificial, 139 Regional Aquaculture Centers (USDA), 161, 164, 242-246

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INDEX Regulatory Constraints Plan, 67 Regulatory issues/actions regarding coastal zone, 70-73, 87-88 regarding discharges, 99-100 regarding effluents, 99-100 regarding fisheries management, 74 regarding movement of nonindigenous marine species, 105-106 regarding wastes, 99-100 regarding water quality, 75 related to protection of wild populations, 74 USDA study of state laws and, 79-80 use of technology to address, 117 Research activities federal role in, 65, 68-69, 87 foreign public support for, 59 needs for, 59 on net pens, 96 in offshore aquaculture, 137 public support for, 18 recommendations regarding, 3-4, 6 of Regional Aquaculture Centers, 245- 246 university-based, 18 Reuse systems. See Water reuse systems Rockfish, 47 Romet 30, 106 S Salmon/salmonids breeding programs for, 148 Canadian production of, 222 from capture fisheries, 27 cultivation of, 16, 23, 38-44, 132 enhancement efforts with, 50, 51, 77-78 European production of, 220 hybridization among, 148 importation of, 25, 27 methods to distinguish male from female, 141 mixing gene pools of, 102, 103 ocean ranging with, 50-52, 77-78, 144, 259-261 price of, 41~3, 73 sensitivity to ammonia, 98 U.S. production of, 234-236, 259-261, 265 world production of, 42, 208, 215 Salmon/salmonids culture costs of, 56-58 287 environmental issues related to, 96, 98 environmental requirements for, 109 opposition to, 81, 86 Saltonstall-Kennedy funds, 166-167 San Francisco Bay pollution in, 29, 108 stock enhancement efforts in, 53 Scallops. See also Mollusk culture; Mollusks cultivation of, 32, 33 stocking of hatchery-reared, 55 world production of, 212-213 Scapharca broughton~i (blood ark shell), 217 Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum). See Red drum Scophthalmus maximus (turbot), 219 Scotland. See also United Kingdom governmental support in, 59 salmon production in, 219 Sea bass, 208, 215, 219 Sea Fisheries Act (United Kingdom), 228 Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service educational activities of, 165, 243 involvement in information exchange, 161, 164 Seafood consumption in U.S., 1, 10-13, 23-24, 59, 170 feed composition to provide nutritionally beneficial, 122 harvesting technology for, 140-142 packaging of, 143 per capita expenditures for, 10, 12, 13, 24. See also Economic issues prices of U.S., 12, 23, 58-59. See also Economic issues processing of, 142-143 transport of, 143-144 world consumption projections for, 21 world production of, 21 Seafood imports extent of, 12, 24-27, 36 policies regarding, 59, 73, 88 Seafood industry inspection programs in, 77 labeling requirements for, 76 processing function in, 13 product quality issues in. See Product quality Seaweed blooms of toxic, 29, 98, 108, 130-131 cultivation of, 22, 47-49, 129, 218 environmental impact of, 93

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288 extracts derived from, 22, 47, 213 hybridization among, 148 ocean ranging used for, 216 research on replacements for, 32 stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide through open ocean farming of, 136 world production of, 207, 213-214 Seining equipment, 142 Sensor and monitoring systems, 125-126 Seriola guinqueradiata (yellowtail flounder), 217. See also Flounder Shark, 47 Shelf life, 143 Shellfish. See also individual types of shellfish; Mollusks disease in, 29, 30, 34, 95 environmental requirements of, 108-109 studies of antibiotics in, 107 technology for shucking, 142, 143 Shellfish culture in Canada, 221 contamination of, 130-131 environmental impact of, 29, 93-94 offshore structures for, 137 Shetland County Council Act, 228-229 Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), 54, 240 Shrimp cultivation of, 14, 23, 34, 36, 132 disease in, 106 factors constraining production of domestic, 34-35 importation of, 25, 26, 36, 81 Latin American production of, 222-223 stock enhancement of, 55, 56 technology for peeling and deveining, 142-143 world production of, 208-212, 217 Shrimp culture environmental impact of, 94-95 environmental requirements for, 109 Taiwan interests in U.S., 57 in Texas, 262-264 Shucking technology, 142, 143 Singapore, 217 Sludge formation, effects of, 97 Small Business Administration, 75 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, 69 Snapper, 47 Snook, 55 INDEX Sociocultural issues and aquaculture promotion as example of planned change, 255-258 conclusions regarding, 266-267 examples of baitfish, trout and yellow perch pro- duction in Great Lakes, 261-262 salmon and mussel production in Maine, 265-266 salmon ranching in Alaska, 259-261 shrimp farming in Texas, 262-264 soft-shell crabs in Mid- and South Atlantic, 264-265 overview of, 253-255 oyster growing in Washington State to illustrate, 258-259 Socioeconomic issues, 118, 224 Soft-shell crabs, 264-265 Sole, as candidate for aquaculture, 47 South Atlantic pilchard, 21 South Carolina aquaculture development policy in, 83 importation of nonindigenous marine species in, 81 South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, 83 Soybean meal cost of, 57, 58 to replace animal protein, 122 Sparus aurata (gilthead sea bream), 208, 219 Spiny lobster (Panulirus), 38. See also Lobster Spirulina, 49 Spottail bass. See Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Spotted sea trout, stock enhancement with, 55 State policies aquaculture industry and, 79-81 assessment of, 81-84 concerning interstate trade, 74-75 concerning ocean ranching, 77-78 federal role in, 88-89 Stock enhancement. See Stock enhancement economic concerns for, 145 genetic impact on straying anadromous fish released for, 102, 145 overview of, 49-56 policy action in area of, 65, 89 policy issues affecting, 77-79 recommendations regarding, 5-6 technological advances in, 144- 146 value of, 216

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INDEX Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) cultivation of, 45, 46, 132, 146, 238 state regulations to protect wild population of, 74 stock enhancement efforts with, 53-54 Sturgeon cultivation of, 45, 46, 132, 147 stock enhancement efforts with, 53, 54 U.S. production of, 239-240 Subcommittee on Aquaculture, 8, 70, 170- 171, 177 Sulfamerazine, 106 Swordfish, 47 Systems design. See Interdisciplinary systems T Taiwan aquaculture production in, 21 seaweed production in, 47 shrimp production in, 34 Takifugu rubripes (puffer fish), 208, 217 Tank characteristics, 131 Tapes japonica (Manila clam), 30, 33. See also Clams Tarpon, 55 TBT (tributylin), 30 Technological advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering, 147-149 in broodstock domestication, 146-147 in disease assessment and treatment, 149-150 economic feasibility through, 116-117 harvest and postharvest, 140-144 and interdisciplinary systems design, 118-119 in marine fisheries enhancement, 144- 146 marketing and product, 117 to reduce production and marketing costs, 59 related to auxiliary systems for fish culture, 119-127 related to production grow-out systems, 127-140 socioeconomic issues related to, 118, 224 Technology benefits of improved, 150- 151 international developments regarding, 223-225 289 planned change and use of appropriate, 255 recommendations regarding, 3 - , 171- 172 systems design. See Interdisciplinary systems used to address environ- mental and institutional issues, 117-118 Technology transfer explanation of, 159-160 international, 164-165 need for structured system of, 160 overview of aquaculture, 163-164 Tetraselmis chuil (algae), 48. See also Seaweed Texas, 262-264 Texas A&M University, 160 Thailand, 22 Therapeutic drugs, 76, 77 Tilapia, 46-47, 206, 238-239 Town and Country Planning Act (United Kingdom), 228 Trade deficit, 25 Trade issues international, 73-74 interstate, 74-75 Trade policies, 59 Transgenic species, 147, 256 Transport technology, 143-144 Trout cultivation of, 23, 261, 262 production in U.S., 234, 235 production of rainbow, 23, 40, 206, 220, 222 stock enhancement with, 55 Turbot, 208, 215, 219 Tuskeegee Institute, 242 U Ultraviolet irradiation, 150 Unicellular algae, 48-49, 96, 98. See also Seaweed United Kingdom, 227-230 United Nations. See Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) United States aquaculture development in U.K. and implications for, 230 aquaculture production in, 10, 22-27, 29, 232-240 production of shrimp in, 211

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290 seafood consumption in, 1, 10-13, 23-24 seafood expenditures in, 10, 12, 13, 24 sociocultural aspects of aquaculture in, 253-267. See also Sociocultural issues Universities aquaculture programs in, 160, 165-166 research grants for, 69 support for agriculture industry by, 158 support for aquaculture industry by, 18, 159 technology transfer through, 160 University of Delaware, 83 University of Texas, Marine Science Institute, 160, 166 University of Washington, 160, 166 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 72 USSR aquaculture production in former, 22 stock enhancement efforts with sturgeon in former, 54 V Vaccines, 150 Vibrio spp., 109, 150 Vietnam, 22 W Waddell Mariculture Center, 160, 166 Walleye pike, 50 Washington State, 258-259 Waste treatment systems, 122, 124 Wastes. See also Pollution; Water pollution benthic ecology alterations due to, 98-99 effect on water quality, 17, 96-98 INDEX management of, 100-101, 224 regulation of, 99-100 Water Act of 1989 (United Kingdom), 228 Water Column Leases for Aquaculture (North Carolina), 83 Water pollution affecting oysters, 29 from aquaculture system wastes, 17 seafood quality and, 76 Water quality changes from introduction of nonindigenous species, 101 as concern in shrimp cultivation, 95 effect of wastes on, 17, 96-98 Water reuse systems definition of, 134- 145 for onshore culture, 133-135 for private ranching of salmon, 144 treatment of wastes as part of, 124 Waters. See also Ocean policies policy framework for federal, 176-177 use of deep ocean, 139-140 Weakfish, 47 Western Regional Aquaculture Consortium, 162-163 White bass (Morone chrysops), 46, 55, 238 White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), 46, 54, 146, 239. See also Sturgeon Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 (United Kingdom), 228 Wolffish (Anarhichas lupus), 218 y Yellowtail flounder (Seriola guinquera- diata), 217. See also Flounder