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Marine Aquaculture Opportunities for Growth Committee on Assessment of Technology and Opportunities for Marine Aquaculture in the United States Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Acad- emy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technol- ogy and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its adminis- tration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The program described in this report was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Cooperative Agreement No. 14-35-0001-30475 between the Minerals Management Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Assessment of Technology and Opportunities for Marine Aquaculture in the United States. Marine aquaculture: opportunities for growth: report of the Committee on Assessment of Technology and Opportunities for Marine Aquaculture in the United States, Marine Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-04675-0: $24.95 1. MaricultureUnited States. 2. MaricultureGovernment policy United States. I. Title. SH 1 38.N38 1992 338.3'71'0973dc20 This book is printed with soy ink on acid-free recycled stock. ~` Copyright (it) 1992 by the National Academy of Sciences S-512 Printed in the United States of America 92-7308 CIP

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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES ROBERT B. FRIDLEY, NAE, Chairman, University of California, Davis JAMES L. ANDERSON, University of Rhode Island, Kingston JORDAN N. BRADFORD, Bradford Seafood, Inc., Pass Christian, Mississippi BILIANA CICIN-SAIN, University of Delaware, Newark PAMELA HARDT-ENGLISH, Pharmaceutical and Food Specialists, San Jose, California BILL L. MARRIOTT, R&D Consultant, Las Cruces, New Mexico (to March 1990) G. JOAN MOLT, The University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas JAMES E. LANNAN, JR., Oregon State University, Newport (to August 1990) RONALD D. MAYO, J. M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Bellevue, Washington PETER G. PIERCE, Ocean Products, Inc., Portland, Maine (to January 1990) KENNETH J. ROBERTS, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge JOHN H. RYTHER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (ret.), Woods Hole, Massachusetts PAUL A. SANDIFER, South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Charleston EVELYN S. SAWYER, Sea Run Holdings, Inc., Kennebunkport, Maine R. ONEAL SMITHERMAN, Auburn University, Alabama (to March 1990) Liaison Representatives MERYL BROUSSARD, U.S. Department of Agriculture (since July 1991) BEN DRUCKER, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA (to September 1990) JAMES P. McVEY, Sea Grant College Program, NOAA (to December 1990) JAMES MEEHAN, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA (since September 1990) JOAN R. MITCHELL, National Science Foundation JOHN G. NICKUM, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (from January 1991) R. ONEAL SMITHERMAN, U.S. Department of Agriculture (to July 1991) ROBERT E. STEVENS, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Staff Susan Garbini, Staff Officer (since July 1990) Paul M. Scholz (Staff Officer to August 1990), Consultant Delphine D. Glaze, Project Assistant

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MARINE BOARD BRIAN J. WATT, Chairman, Joy Industries, Inc. JERRY R. SCHUBEL, Vice-Chairman, State University of New York at Stony Brook ROBERT G. BEA, NAE, University of California at Berkeley JAMES M. BROADUS, III, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution WILLIAM M. EICHBAUM, World Wildlife Fund LARRY L. GENTRY, Lockheed Advanced Marine Systems ROBERT T. HUDSPETH, Oregon State University MARCUS J. JOHNSON, Sea-Land Service, Inc. ROBERT KNECHT, University of Delaware BERNARD LE MEHAUTE, NAE, University of Miami HENRY S. MARCUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology J. BRADFORD MOONEY, NAE, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution PAUL A. SANDIFER, South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department STEPHEN F. SCHMIDT, American President Lines PETER R. TATRO, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory GEORGE P. VANCE, Mobil Research and Development Corporation DON WALSH, International Maritime, Inc. JUDITH S. WEIS, Rutgers University Stab CHARLES A. BOOKMAN, Director DONALD W. PERKINS, Associate Director SUSAN GARBINI, Project Officer ALEXANDER B. STAVOVY, Project Officer WAYNE YOUNG, Project Officer DORIS C. HOLMES, Staff Associate AURORE BLECK, Administrative Assistant DELPHINE D. GLAZE, Administrative Secretary GLORIA B. GREEN, Project Assistant CARLA D. MOORE, Project Assistant IV

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Preface BACKGROUND Marine aquaculture the farming of marine finfish, shellfish, crustaceans, and seaweed, as well as ocean ranching of anadromous fishis a rapidly growing industry in many parts of the world. In some countries, such as Norway and Japan, that have invested in technology development and appli- cations, the marine aquaculture industries represent a substantial sector of the economy. In many developing countries, aquaculture plays an impor- tant role in rural development projects and as a commercial enterprise for export markets. The culture of marine organisms is projected to increase as new tech- nologies are developed that improve the economic feasibility of these op- erations, as better understanding of the biology and ecology of target spe- cies is obtained, and as harvests of wild fish stocks level off or decline. Demand for fish, shellfish, and marine plant products is increasing rapidly in the United States. Domestic per capita consumption is anticipated to continue to grow at about 3 percent per year. Alternatives for meeting in- creasing demand include more imports, development of nontraditional fish- ery resources, and expansion of domestic marine aquaculture operations. Another area of significant potential for marine and freshwater aquaculture is an expanded public role in mitigation for loss of habitat or for restoring threatened or overfished wild stocks. v

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Vl PREFACE SCOPE OF THE STUDY The National Research Council (NRC) convened a committee under its Marine Board to assess technology and opportunities for marine aquaculture in the United States. Biographies of committee members appear in Appen- dix E. The committee was asked to define the national interest in marine aquaculture; to assess the state of practice; and to identify opportunities, establish requirements, and recommend strategies for the appropriate ad- vancement of marine aquaculture in the United States. The membership of the committee included expertise in aquacultural en- gineering, aquacultural production, civil engineering, sanitary engineering, fisheries biology, fisheries management, economics, and ocean and coastal policy. Three individuals from private sector marine aquaculture operations served on the committee. Care was taken to ensure a balance of experience in different regions, with different species, and with different aquaculture technologies. The committee was assisted by liaison representatives from federal agencies with related programs or missions: the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the National Science Foundation. The prin- ciple guiding the committee, consistent with NRC policy, was not to ex- clude any information, however biased, that might accompany input vital to the study, but to seek balance and fair treatment. The primary objective of the study was to identify and appraise opportu- nities for technology development that can optimize cost-effectiveness and productivity, mitigate environmental constraints, or resolve institutional and policy issues that present obstacles to the advancement of marine aquacul- ture in the United States. Such an approach does not imply that all problems are susceptible to technological solutions. It seeks only to identify those that might be and to describe possible technological solutions. The committee reviewed national, state, and local policies that regulate or otherwise affect marine aquaculture to determine changes that might be appropriate. STUDY METHOD The committee obtained information for the assessment through several approaches. First, it held.regional meetings at which members heard formal presentations by practitioners of marine aquaculture business and research activities and those with policy or management oversight. In these work- shops, the engineering state of practice of various regional and species- specific marine aquaculture systems was described, along with the eco- nomic and institutional factors. These investigations consisted of presentations by invited guests from the West Coast, the Northeast, the South Atlantic, and the Gulf regions on issues specific to these areas. Participants included

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PREFACE . . V11 representatives from industry and government, as well as from institutions conducting relevant research in each region. A second approach to gather- ing information was through participation of committee members at na- tional meetings of aquaculture organizations. Working groups were con- vened by the committee, and individuals with specific expertise were invited from around the world to focus on specific technologies and issues of impor- tance to the study. Participants in these sessions are listed in Appendix F. Individual committee members prepared substantial review papers on all the major areas of information addressed in the study. A bibliography of reference material used in these preliminary papers is included at the end of this report. Additional information on specific topics was solicited by the committee from environmental and conservation organizations, and organi- zations representing traditional fisheries industries. Representatives of the major government agencies with responsibilities for oversight of marine aquaculture also participated in the committee's deliberations. ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT The final report represents a synthesis of information gathered by the committee, aimed at focusing this wide-ranging material into an examina- tion of the present status of marine aquaculture in the United States and the major obstacles to its emergence as a successful industry. The report is not intended as a comprehensive survey, although overviews of world (Appen- dix A) and U.S. (Appendix B) aquaculture are presented in the appendixes. Appendix C is an authored paper examining the sociocultural aspects of U.S. marine aquaculture. Chapter 1 introduces the major issues to be addressed in the report. Chapter 2 reviews the status of world and U.S. aquaculture, with an empha- sis on marine aquaculture and comparisons between world and U.S. produc- tion and with a focus on the economic contribution. Chapter 3 presents an overview of the federal and state policy framework in which marine aqua- culture has operated over the past 15 years, and addresses continuing and newly emerging problems that constrain the growth of this industry in the United States, including conflicts among various users, coastal management issues, and the role of state and local governments. Environmental issues are examined separately in Chapter 4. Chapters 5 and 6 provide a detailed examination of the scientific, technical, and educational base that is needed to build a successful marine aquaculture industry, both for resolving envi- ronmental problems and for achieving economic feasibility. The major conclusions and recommendations that follow from the findings of this in- vestigation are presented in Chapter 7. An Executive Summary provides a synopsis of the report. An extensive bibliography of reference material on the subject matter is also included.

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. ~ ~ Vllt PREFACE This report is intended to serve as a guide to federal and state govern- ment agencies and the private sector in making decisions about appropriate policy, regulatory, and economic actions that are needed to improve the prospects for success of the U.S. marine aquaculture industry. It is hoped that the report will also serve as an educational document for the public, the media, and those who are involved in any aspects of marine aquaculture. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee appreciates greatly the valuable input and insight that was provided by participants in two of its regional meetings and in two committee meetings that were convened at gatherings of inteMationa1 tech- nical societies. Participants in these sessions are listed in Appendix F. The committee chair wishes to extend a particular thanks to Professor Raul Piedrahita of the Agricultural Engineering Department at the Univer- sity of California, Davis for significant and valued input, particularly to Chapter 5. Special thanks are due to Lucy Garcia, principal staff assistant for the Aquaculture and Fisheries Program, University of California, Davis, for exceptional support and liaison activities on behalf of the committee chair during the conduct of this study. The committee also wishes to thank Jean-Pierre Ple, doctoral student in the College of Marine Studies at the University of Delaware, for his assistance in the preparation of Appendix A (Review of World Aquaculture) and Appendix C (Federal Marine Aquacul- ture Policy). The rewards for committee service are not great; however, the rewards of working with and getting to know a group of knowledgable and dedicated people who are willing to voluntarily support and provide input to such a committee are very much worthwhile. Finally, the committee wishes to acknowledge the valuable input of re- viewers who did an exceptionally good job of providing specific sugges- tions and corrections, of the liaisons from federal agencies who provided extensive information about the public sector's efforts, and of Marine Board staff, whose support was invaluable.

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION World/U.S. Aquaculture Production, 10 The National Interest in Marine Aquaculture, 10 Problems and Constraints, 14 References, 19 2 STATUS OF AQUACULTURE An Overview of Aquaculture and Fisheries Worldwide, 20 Status of U.S. Marine Aquaculture, 23 Marine Fisheries Enhancement, 49 Economic Issues, 56 Notes, 59 References, 60 3 POLICY ISSUES The Federal Government and Marine Aquaculture, 64 Fisheries Enhancement Concerns and Policy Issues, 77 The States and Marine Aquaculture, 79 Management Framework for Marine Aquaculture, 84 Summary of Policy Issues and Options, 87 Conclusion, 89 References, 90 fix 1 9 20 64

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x 4 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Environmental Impacts of Marine Aquaculture, 92 Environmental Requirements of Marine Aquaculture, 108 Resolving Environmental Problems, 109 References, 110 5 ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH Role of Science and Technology in Addressing Major Constraints, 116 Interdisciplinary Systems Design, 118 Other Research and Engineering Opportunities, 144 Summary, 150 Note, 151 References, 151 6 INFORMATION EXCHANGE, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, AND EDUCATION Overview, 158 Information Exchange, 161 Technology Transfer, 163 Education, 165 Marine Aquaculture Technology Centers, 166 Summary, 168 References, 168 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions, 169 Recommendations, 171 Conclusion, 177 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIXES A Review of World Aquaculture B Freshwater Aquaculture in the United States C Federal Marine Aquaculture Policy D Sociocultural Aspects of Domestic Marine Aquaculture by Shirley J. Fiske and Jean-Pierre Ple E Committee Biographies F Participants in Special Sessions INDEX CONTENTS 92 116 158 169 178 206 232 241 253 269 274 277

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Marine Aquaculture

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