ment. Research programs should not be closely tied to proprietary industrial needs but could easily supplement those needs. Universities must continue to provide an environment in basic science for developing new and leading-edge technologies. This is a long-range process, and so sufficient time and funding should be provided to ensure continuing progress.

Support for university research on catalysis comes primarily from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Defense (DOD), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and, to a much lesser extent, from the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Petroleum Research Fund (PRF) of the American Chemical Society. The distribution of support is listed in Table 4.1.

During the past five to seven years, the level of federal funding in catalysis has remained constant in dollars. However, inflation and rising overhead costs have reduced the purchasing power of this support. If the United States is to retain its leadership position in the field of catalysis, its level of support for academic research in catalysis must increase. This investment will pay off not only through the provision of well-educated young talent for industrial and other research organizations, but also through a continuing expansion of the reservoir of fundamental knowledge on which all researchers depend for new ideas and concepts.

In recent years, federal support of university research has been supplemented to a small degree by industrial grants and contracts. The incentive for this support has been industry's growing awareness of global competition and the resulting pressure to control R&D expenses. These pressures have necessitated a reduction in the level of long-range, fundamental research done in industry. To offset this trend, several companies have undertaken the support of such research at universities. This support of university research by industry has led to a very good leveraging of resources. In some states there is money available, dollar for dollar, to match industrial

Table 4.1 Funding for Catalysis-Related Research at Universities (millions of dollars—1989)

Research Funded

Source of Funding

Total Funding

NSF

DOE

DOD

NIH

GRI

EPRI

PRF

Chemical catalysis

11.7

14.3

1.2

0.0

2.4

1.2

1.0

31.8

Biocatalysis

1.6

1.5

3.7

17.0a

0.0

0.1

0.0

6.9b

aSupport for basic enzymology.

bExcluding NIH support for enzymology.

SOURCE: Data provided by staff officers of the agencies and organizations.



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