CATALYSIS LOOKS TO THE FUTURE

Panel on New Directions in Catalytic Science and Technology

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1992



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Catalysis Looks to the Future CATALYSIS LOOKS TO THE FUTURE Panel on New Directions in Catalytic Science and Technology Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992

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Catalysis Looks to the Future NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bondurant is acting president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG05-90ER14103; the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CTS-8921829 and CHE-8921664; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Catalytica, Inc.; Chevron Research Company; Dow Chemical USA; Exxon Research and Engineering Company; E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Incorporated; Mobil Research and Development Corporation; UOP Inc.; and the National Academy of Engineering. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 91-66333 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04584-3 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 S447 Printed in the United States of America

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Catalysis Looks to the Future PANEL ON NEW DIRECTIONS IN CATALYTIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Alexis T. Bell, University of California, Berkeley, Chair Michel Boudart, Stanford University Burt D. Ensley, Envirogen David Estell, Genencor Robert H. Grubbs, California Institute of Technology L. Louis Hegedus, W. R. Grace & Co. Leo E. Manzer, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. Jule A. Rabo, UOP Tarrytown Technical Center Julius Rebek, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology James F. Roth, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Gabor A. Somorjai, University of California, Berkeley Vern W. Weekman, Mobil Research & Development Company William Spindel, Study Director

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Catalysis Looks to the Future BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY L. E. Scriven, University of Minnesota, Co-Chairman Peter B. Dervan, California Institute of Technology, Co-Chairman Paul S. Anderson, Merck Sharp & Dohme Alfred Bader, Aldrich Chemical Corporation Alexis T. Bell, University of California, Berkeley Michael P. Doyle, Trinity University Bruce A. Finlayson, University of Washington Jeanette G. Grasselli, Ohio University L. Louis Hegedus, W. R. Grace & Company Richard H. Holm, Harvard University Kendall Houk, University of California, Los Angeles Lester C. Krogh, 3M W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado James W. Mitchell, AT&T Bell Laboratories Jeanne E. Pemberton, University of Arizona Edwin P. Przyblylowicz, Eastman Kodak Company Julius Rebek, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stuart A. Rice, University of Chicago Dotsevi Y. Sogah, Cornell University Daniel I-Chyau Wang, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Douglas J. Raber, Staff Director Peggy J. Posey, Staff Officer William Spindel, Consultant Sybil A. Paige, Administrative Assistant Maria P. Jones, Administrative Secretary

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Catalysis Looks to the Future COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Norman Hackerman, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Chair Peter J. Bickel, University of California, Berkeley George F. Carrier, Harvard University Dean E. Eastman, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center Marye Anne Fox, University of Texas, Austin Phillip A. Griffiths, Institute for Advanced Study Neal F. Lane, Rice University Robert W. Lucky, AT&T Bell Laboratories Claire E. Max, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Christopher F. McKee, University of California, Berkeley James W. Mitchell, AT&T Bell Laboratories Richard S. Nicholson, American Association for the Advancement of Science Alan Schriesheim, Argonne National Laboratory Kenneth G. Wilson, Ohio State University Norman Metzger, Executive Director

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Catalysis Looks to the Future Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   10     What Are Catalysts?   11     The Battle of Britain: Catalysts for Victory   11     An Immobilized Enzyme as an Industrial Catalyst   14     The Function of Research   15     Summary and Perspective   17 2   NEW OPPORTUNITIES IN CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGY   18     Societal Impact of Catalytic Technology   18     Catalytic Cracking: Major Impact on the U.S. Balance of Payments   19     Production of Chemicals   21     Existing Products   21     New Products   25     A Strong Point for the Future   26     Production of Fuels   32     Existing Fuels   32     New Fuels—Methanol Dissociation to Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen   33     Environmental Protection   34     Catalysis for Energy Independence   35     Alkylation Catalysts   36     Replacements for Chlorofluorocarbons   36

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Catalysis Looks to the Future     Emission Abatement   37     Auto Exhaust Catalysts   38     Biodegradation of Organic Waste   40     Dining on Pollution   41 3   RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN CATALYTIC SCIENCE   43     Introduction   43     Synthesis of Catalytic Materials   44     The Polyethylene Story: Cut-Resistant Surgical Gloves and Laundry Bags   47     Catalyst Characterization   49     Studies of Ammonia Synthesis over Iron Single Crystals   50     Mechanism and Dynamics of Catalytic Reactions   53     Controlling Bugs with Bugs   54     Theory of Catalysis   58     Solid-State High-Temperature Fuel Cells   62     Conclusions   64 4   NATIONAL RESOURCES FOR CATALYTIC RESEARCH   65     Industry   65     Universities   66     National Laboratories   68 5   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   70     Industry   71     Academic Researchers   72     National Laboratories   73     Federal Government   74     APPENDIX   77     INDEX   83

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Catalysis Looks to the Future CATALYSIS LOOKS TO THE FUTURE

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