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lv An Evaluation of Activated Carbon for Drinking Water Treatment This chapter contains the findings of the Subcommittee on Adsorption of the National Research Council's Safe Drinking Water Committee, which studied the efficacy of granular activated carbon (GAC) and related absorbents in the treatment of drinking water. Some attention is given to an examination of the potential health effects related to the use of these absorbents, but detailed toxicological and epidemiological implications resulting from the presence of organic compounds in drinking water are considered in separate chapters of Drinking Water and Health, Volume 3. The development of standards for GAC and the economic aspects of its use was not a part of this study. The subcommittee defined "activated carbon" as a family of carbona- ceous substances that are characterized primarily by their surface area, pore size distribution, and sorptive and catalytic properties. Different raw materials and manufacturing processes produce final products with different adsorption characteristics. The use of GAC under specified conditions was proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the option of choice for the control of "synthetic organic chemicals" in drinking water. During the subcommittee's study, the EPA held hearings and received written comments regarding this treatment. The subcommittee reviewed the pertinent literature and rigorously assessed the scientific data base. Its scope of work included a review of work on: 251
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252 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH adsorption efficiency · microbial activity on absorbents · physiochemical interactions · regeneration ofadsorbents · analytical methods to monitor adsorption processes The subcommittee considered the ability of absorbents to remove organic compounds of concern to health and the possible products of the adsorption process. A large and diverse segment of the scientific literature, particularly that concerning recent European experience, was scrutinized. Studies that met established criteria for quality assurance and completeness of data were used as primary sources by the subcommittee. Where possible, stress was placed on studies of chemicals at nanogram to microgram per liter concentrations, which are typically found in drinking water. The subcommittee was confronted by a continual flow of new data and the need for postulation and interpreta- tion. To ensure a thorough review of each topic, the data for each type of adsorbent were considered and reported separately. Carbon and other absorbents in various forms have been used for the treatment of water and as detoxifying pharmaceutical agents in medicine for many centuries. There has been an uninterrupted use of carbona- ceous absorbents since biblical times (Old Testament, Num. 19:9; Maimonides, 1 185) and there have been marked changes in the nature of the adsorbent since that time (Kunin, 1974a,b). During the twentieth century, GAC and powdered activated carbon (PAC) have been used in the United States to control taste and odors in drinking water (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1978a). During the past 20 yr, research on the use of absorbents to treat drinking water has emphasized the removal of specific organics. The removal of organic compounds from drinking water has been based primarily on the measurement of organic matter as measured by carbon chloroform extract (CCE), total organic carbon (TOC), or other group parameters. However, it has long been recognized that these group parameters provide only estimates of performance for target compounds. Studies beginning with those of Middleton and Rosen (1956) began to identify the specific organic compounds in drinking water and their removal by the carbon adsorption. Over 700 volatile organic compounds have been identified in drinking water (U.S. Environnmental Protection Agency, 1978c). These com- pounds make up only a small fraction of the total organic matter (National Academy of Sciences, 1977~. Approximately 90% of the volatile organic compounds that can be analyzed by gas chromatography
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An Evaluation of Activated Carbon 253 have been analyzed, but this represents no more than logo by weight of the total organic material. Only 5~o logo of the nonvolatile organic compounds that comprise the remaining 90% of the total organic matter have been identified. The EPA (1978c) has categorized the organic compounds in drinking water into five different classes. Each class has distinctly different characteristics of concern to those involved in water treatment. Class I: organic compounds that cause taste and odor and/or color problems; Class II: synthetic organic chemicals that are present in source waters from upstream discharges or runoff; Class III: organic compounds (precursors) that react with disinfec- tants to produce "disinfection by-products"; Class IV: organic chemicals that are the disinfection by-products themselves; and Class V: natural (non-Class III) organic compounds of little direct toxicological importance. Today there are GAC beds in U.S. water treatment plants for removal of Class I compounds. Consideration is being given to the use of GAC for removal of Class II, III, and IV compounds as data become available. Class V compounds are of interest because they may compete for adsorption sites, thereby lessening the removal of other compounds. This report identifies the compounds that may be removed and/or added to drinking water by the adsorption process with its attendant chemical and microbial processes. It focuses on recently published lists of organic chemicals of concern to health (Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group, 1978; National Academy of Sciences, 1977, 1979; National Cancer Institute, 1978~. Each section deals with complex subjects in which there are uncertain- ties, inconclusive or incomplete data, and, thus, conflicting opinions. The length of each section represents only the number of studies reviewed and does not reflect the relative importance of the subjects. ACTIVATED CARBON—A l:)EFINITION "Activated carbon" comprises a family of substances, whose members are characterized primarily by their sorptive and catalytic properties. Different raw materials and manufacturing processes produce final products with different characteristics.
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254 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH Activated carbon can be made from a variety of carbonaceous materials and processed to enhance its adsorptive properties. Some common materials that are used to make activated carbon are bitumi- nous coal, bones, coconut shells, lignite, peat, pecan shells, petroleum- based residues, pulp mill black ash, sugar, wastewater treatment sludge, and wood ~Veber, 1972~. As is true with any production process, the quality of the final product is influenced by the starting material. In the past, activated carbons that were used for industrial applications were commonly produced from wood, peat, and other vegetable derivatives. Today, lignite, natural coal, and coke are the most frequently used sources of activated carbon due to their availability and attractive price. The basic structural unit of activated carbon is closely approximated by the structure of pure graphite with only slight differences. The structure of activated carbon is quite disorganized compared with that of graphite because of the random oxidation of graphite layers. The regular array of carbon bonds in the surface of the crystallites is disrupted during the activation process, yielding free valences that are very reactive. The structure that develops is a function of the carbonization and activation temperatures. During the carbonization process, several aromatic nuclei with a structure similar to that of graphite are formed. From X-ray spectrographs, these structures have been interpreted as microcrystallites consisting of fused hexagonal rings of carbon atoms. The diameter of the planes making up the microcrystalline is estimated to be 150 A, and the distance between microcrystallites ranges from 20 ~ to so A (Wolff, 1959~. The presence of impurities and the method of preparation influences the formation of interior vacancies in the microcrystalline. The ringed structures at the edges of the planes are often heterocyclic, resulting from the nature of either the starting material or the preparation process. Heterocyclic groups would tend to affect both the distance of adjacent planes and the sorptive properties of the carbon. As a rule, the structure of the usual types of active carbon is tridisperse, i.e., they contain micropores (effective radii of 18-20 A), transitional pores (4~200 A), and macropores (50C~20,000 A). Accord- ing to Dubinin (1966) only a few of the micropores lead directly to the outer surface of the carbon particle. Most of the pore structures of the particles are arranged in the following pattern: the macropores open directly to the external surface of the particle; transitional pores branch off from macropores; and micropores, in turn, branch on from the transitional pores. The specific area of the micropores usually amounts to at least 90% of the total surface area.
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An Evaluation of Activated Carbon 255 THE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS GAC is typically used in a water treatment plant after the coagulation and sedimentation processes and, commonly, following preliminary disinfection steps during which chemical reactions can occur. Moreover, water is often disinfected before it passes through the GAC adsorbers in order to prevent nuisance biological growths. In many instances, the activated carbon functions as a granular filter medium for removing particulates, although in a few cases in the United States and in most instances in Europe the GAC absorbers are preceded by filters for particulate removal. Water is usually passed downward through packed beds of GAC. The frequency of backwashing is dependent on the amount of particulates being removed and the extent of microbial growth. Some intermixing of the GAC granules takes place during this step, although this tendency is countered by particle size stratification during backwash. While packed- bed downflow absorbers in parallel are most commonly used, many other flow patterns, such as operation in series, upflow packed bed, and upflow expanded bed, may be used. Regeneration of GAC is not generally practiced at water plants in the United States as it is in Europe. If the objective of GAC use is to include the removal of organic compounds in addition to those that cause taste and odor, regeneration is likely to become more common in the United States. The type of contactor selected for the GAC will be influenced by the frequency of regeneration. After treatment of a water supply with GAC, postdisinfection is generally used to reduce the total number of bacteria, some of which may be present because of the microbial growths in absorbers. Sufficient disinfectant is usually applied to ensure a residual in the distribution system to prevent contamination of the water.-Postdisinfection is used in addition to predisinfection because aqueous oxidants that are used in preliminary disinfection steps will generally be eliminated by reaction with the GAC. In certain instances, some synthetic resins may serge as replacements for GAC or they may be used in conjunction with GAC to provide the desired quality of water. The major difference between resins and GAC is that the resins are regenerated by application of aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and/or salts, or of nonaqueous solvents or steam, while GAC is usually thermally regenerated. In general, resins usually require a pretreatment step that is dependent upon the nature of the resins. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is now more commonly used in the
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256 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH United States than is GAC. It generally added to control taste and odor at points in the water treatment plant, ranging from the water supply intake to just before the rapid sand filter. PAC is removed either in the sedimentation basin or by the rapid sand filter. No attempt is made to regenerate it during the water treatment. Whether PAC can be used to remove organics other than those that cause offensive taste and odor requires closer examination. Various types of GAC and PAC are commercially available as a result of variations in the raw materials and manufacturing processes. Because the types of organic contaminants vary widely from location to location, the best carbon for one application may not be the best in another. Consequently, comparative testing for a particular water source is mandatory. The chemical compounds entering an adsorption water treatment process consist of high-molecular-weight humic materials, lower-molecu- lar-weight organic compounds of natural or industrial origin, and the products of previous treatment such as chlorination or ozonization. A portion of the chemicals can be removed by the clarification process and/or sorbed by the adsorbent or any microbial floe within the adsorbent bed. Some compounds may be nonabsorbable or only very weakly adsorbable. The chemical compounds leaving the adsorption treatment process can be the same chemicals that entered the plant, or they may be products of chemical reaction or microbial action within the system. Organic compounds may appear in the effluent of an adsorption column because available adsorption sites are saturated or because they are displaced from the adsorption sites by other organics. Because adso~p- tion is often reversible, adsorbed compounds may desorb and appear in the effluent when the influent concentrations of those compounds decrease. These phenomena may lead to the appearance of a larger concentration of a compound in the effluent than is in the influent. Thus, both the qualitative and quantitative variability of the mixture of organics entering an adsorption process affect the quality of water that can be produced by it. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Raw water sources and disinfected water supplies may contain organic compounds that have been demonstrated to be carcinogenic or otherwise
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An Evaluation of Activated Carbon 257 toxic in experimental animals or in epidemiological studies. Also present are a large number of compounds that either have not been identified or their effects on health have not been characterized. Properly operated GAC systems can remove or effectively reduce the concentration of many of the compounds described above. Less is known about synthetic resins than about GAC, but it is known that they can be applied to remove certain types of organic contaminants. The information available as of this date on the treatment of water with GAC provides no evidence that harmful health effects are produced by the process under proper operating conditions. However, there are incomplete studies on the possible production of such effects with virgin or regenerated carbon through · reactions that may be catalyzed by the GAC surface; · reactions of disinfectants with GAC or compounds adsorbed on it; · reactions mediated by microorganisms that are part of the process; or · by the growth of undesirable microorganisms on GAC. Studies are also needed on the properties of regenerated activated carbons and on the adsorption of additional contaminants with potential health ejects. The frequency of GAC regeneration is determined by the organic compounds in the water and their competitive interactions. The types and concentrations of organic compounds may vary widely among different locations and seasons of the year. Competitive interactions are complex and presently cannot be predicted without data from laboratory and/or pilot scale tests on the water to be treated. While there is ample evidence for the effectiveness of GAC in removing many organics of health concern, more data are needed in the quantification of any harmful health effects related to the use of GAC. This need, however, should not prevent the present use of GAC at locations where analysis of the water supply clearly indicates the existence of a potential health hazard greater than that which would result from the use of GAC. Clarification processes (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration) remove significant amounts of some organics, especially some types of THM precursors and relatively insoluble compounds that may be associated with particulates. In some cases, the removal of THM precursors by clarification may be sufficient to eliminate the need for an adsorption process.
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258 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH ADSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF GAC The trace organic compounds that can be removed by GAC are usually present at ,ug/liter quantities or less. The subcommittee considered the GAC adsorption efficiency for individual compounds and the competi- tive adsorption of mixtures. Since GAC is used in conjunction with other water treatment processes, the effect of pretreatments for removing trace organic compounds and their precursors were examined in depth. Hence, the following questions were addressed: 1. How efficiently does GAC adsorb individual trace organic com- pounds, particularly those of concern to health? 2. When processes such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, aeration, disinfection, oxidation, and PAC adsorption precede GAC adsorption, how is the efficiency of the GAC affected? 3. Can water that has been treated by GAC be disinfected more or less easily than water that has not been treated by GAC? 4. What is the potential for electively using PAC to remove organics? 5. What reactions take place between oxidants that are applied as predisinfectants and the activated carbon or the compounds that are adsorbed on the activated carbon? Do these reactions result in potentially hazardous compounds that would not be present if activated carbon were not used? 6. To what extent does competitive adsorption between trace organics with potential health ejects and the large concentrations of background organics, generally characterized as humic substances, influence the electiveness of GAC? 7. To what extent does competitive adsorption among similar concen- trations of trace organics with potential health effects influence the electiveness of GAC? 8. How significant is the effect of competitive adsorption when it is compared to the eject of the reequilibration that is produced by the variable nature of the composition and concentration of trace organics in the feedwater to the GAC bed? Removal of Selected Organic Compounds Adsorption isotherms and small column studies that are performed in the laboratory using GAC are useful tools that have been developed to
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An Evaluation of Activated Carbon 259 describe how specific organic chemicals can be removed in large-scale GAC applications. A considerable amount of adsorption research describing the affinities of pure compounds for the activated carbon surface has been reported in the literature during the last 15 years. Improved analytical tools have made it possible both to detect the organics at trace levels in the environment and to follow their removals in adsorption studies in the laboratory. This section of the chapter evaluates the efficiency of GAC adsorption of individual trace organic compounds, particularly those with potential health ejects. Removals of organic chemicals are discussed in the literature on the basis of laboratory and pilot-scale studies and large-scale applications. Laboratory studies are by far the most useful for describing specific organic removals since environmental factors can be more carefully controlled in them than in field evaluations. The problem of competitive adsorption is significant when environmental samples are used in experiments in which specific organic compounds are removed by adsorption. A later section of this chapter addresses this problem exclusively. Adsorption data obtained in the laboratory are normally reported as percent removed, adsorption isotherms, kinetics of adsorption, and the results of small-scale column studies. In the following sections, these data are reviewed and the utility of each method is evaluated. Percent Removals Giusti et al. (1974) made extensive use of percent reduction as a measure of the effectiveness of activated carbon for removing organic chemicals. They added 93 petrochemicals individually at one level to one type of activated carbon and used the subsequent calculated percent reductions to test several hypotheses concerning the removal of different classes of organics by activated carbon. There are several problems associated with using percent removal data exclusively to describe how well a particular organic compound is removed from water. The single value study results in a single point on an isotherm. Unfortunately, this single point gives no indication of how capacity varies with concentration, i.e., by the isotherm slope and shape. To be truly representative, the amounts of adsorbed compound per gram of carbon for individual organic compounds must be compared on an equal equilibrium concentration basis, which is not possible if only a single percent removal value is available.
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260 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH Adsorption Isotherms Adsorption isotherms are plots of the equilibrium relationship between the amount of organic compound that is left in solution (equilibrium concentration, Ce) and the amount of compound that is on the surface of the activated carbon (surface concentration, qJ. Few studies describe the adsorption isotherms of a wide variety of organic compounds over several orders of magnitude. An EPA publica- tion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1978c) tabulated refer- ences on the removals of some 50 organic compounds by GAC. While there are some useful data among the references cited in this work, a large fraction of the reported data is fragmentary. Generally, informa- tion is omitted, such as the number of data points used to define the isotherm or the equilibrium concentration range over which the slope and intercept of the linear isotherm are valid. Dobbs et al. (1978) have made significant efforts to standardize the reporting of isotherm data. Table IV- 1 lists a series of compounds for which detailed isotherms are available. No attempt has been made to list all studies that have been published. Instead, Table IV-1 presents a sample of available studies. The compounds in the table represent a wide variety of organic chemicals, including naturally occurring chemicals, industrial solvents, and compounds that have been identified in surface waters and waste streams in the United States. Dobbs et al. (1978) and Fochtman and Dobbs (1980) have made some of the few efforts to, determine adsorption capacities for many organic chemicals of toxicological concern. In the future, the isotherm data base should be expanded much more rapidly to include the compounds that are just now being identified as toxic or potentially carcinogenic. There are significant difficulties in determining isotherms for some of these organic compounds. A major difficulty is that many compounds must be analyzed at concentrations that have previously been near the limit of detectability. Isotherm data for the organic compounds that are listed in Table IV-1 have become available only recently, and few attempts have been made to analyze the data to determine whether general patterns exist. Figure IV-1 plots selected isotherms for compounds from Table IV-1 over seven orders of magnitude of equilibrium concentration (McGuire and Buffet, 1980~. Although the isotherms in Figure IV-1 were determined by different investigators using different techniques and different carbons, there is surprising agreement between isotherms for the same compound. Clearly, other aspects of the experimental conditions that affect the positions of the isotherms include pH, ionic strength, and temperature.
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An Evaluation of Activated Carbon 261 TABLEIV-} Some Orgaruc Compounds for Which Detailed, Wide- Range Isotherms Have Been Determ~ned acetonef acetophenonea acridine orangea acridine yellowa adeninea adipic acida anetholea manisidinea benzenea h benzidineh benzidine dihydrochloridea benzoic acida benzothiazolea bromochloromethane' bromodichloromethanea g bromoforma,8 ~bromophenol~ S-bromouracila n-butanolb (all) -n -butylphthalatea carbon tetrachloridea g chlorobenzenea bis (2-chloroethyl) ethera chlorodibromethanea chloroforma g 1 -chloro-2-nitrobenzenea p-chlorophenolC~f 5-chlorouracila p-cresolf cyclo he xan one a cytosinea 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine h dichloromethaneg 2,4-dichlorophenolC' dimethylphenylcarbinol a 2,4-dinitrophenola C dimethyl phthalatea 1,1'-diphenyl hydrazineh 1,4-dioxaneb diphenylaminea EDTAa ethylbenzenea ethylene chloridea S-nuorouracila geosmin' guaninea hexachlorobutadienea hydroquinonea C p-methoxyphenolC 4,4'-methylene-bis (2 chloroaniline) h methyl ethyl ketone b 2-methylisoborneole naphthaleneh c'-naphthola ,l3-naphthola c'-naphthylaminea ,(~-naphthylamineh p-nitroanilinea nitrobenzenea nitromethaneb p-nitrophenOlb~c,4,i N-nitrosodiphenylaminea p-nonylphenola parathionj pentachlorophenola phenOIa,c,i phenyl mercuric acetatea 2-propanolf propionitrilef sodium benzene sulfonate~ styrenea tetrachloroethylene g 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapththalenea thyminea trichloroethyleneg 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol c uracila ureab p-xylenea aDobbsetal.,1978. b McGuire, 1977. c Zogorski, 1975. Jain and Snoeyink, 1973. ' Snoeyink et al., 1977. f Radke and Prausnitz, 1972a. g Weber e' al., 1977. h Fochtman and Dobbs, 1979. Snoeyink et al., 1969. Weber and Gould, 1966.
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370 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH Fritz, W. 1978. Konkurrierende Adsorption verschiedener organischer Wasserinhaltsto~e in Aktivkohlefiltern. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Chemical Engineerng, Universi- ty of Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. Fuchs, F. 1974. Direction for the determination of activated carbon charges. Engler-Bunte Institute of the University of Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. 15 pp. Gans, H., and K. Matsumoto. 1974. Are enteric endotoxins able to escape from the intestine? Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 147:736-739. Garten, V.A., and D.E. Weiss. 1959. Functional groups in activated carbon and carbon black with ion- and electron-exchange properties. Pp. 295-313 in Proceedings of the Third Conference on Carbon held at the University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y. Pergamon Press, New York. Gauntlett, R. 1975. A comparison between ion-exchange resins and activated carbon for the removal of organics from water. Water Research Technology Report TRIO, Medmenham Laboratory, England. George, A.D., and M. Chaudhuri. 1977. Removal of iron from groundwater by filtration through coal. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 69:385-389. Giusti, D.M., R.A. Conway, and C.T. Lawson. 1974. Activated carbon adsorption of petrochemials. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 46:947-965. Glaze, W.H., G.R. Peyton, and R. Rawley. 1977. Total organic chlorine as water quality parameter: adsorption/microcoulometric method. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11:685~90. Gough, T.A., K.S. Webb, and M.F. McPhail. 1977. Volatile nitrosamines from ion exchange resins. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 15 :437~40. Greve, P.A., and S.L. Wit. 1971. Endosulfan in the Rhine River. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 43:2338-2348. Grob, K., and F. Zurcher. 1976. Stripping of trace organic substances from water. Equipment and procedures. J. Chromatogr. 117:285-294. Guirguis, W.A., J.S. Jain, Y.A. Hanna, and P.K. Sirvastava. 1976. Ozone application for disinfection in the Westerly Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility. Pp. 363-381 in E.G. Fochtman, R.G. Rice, and M.E. Browning, eds. Forum on Ozone Disinfection. International Ozone Institute, Cleveland, Ohio. Guirguis, W., T. Cooper, J. Harris, and A. Ungar. 1978. Improved performance of activated carbon by pre-ozonization. J. Water Pollut. Control. Fed. 50:308-320. Gulbrandson, R., C.M. Janicek, H. Klusterman, and R.L. Witz. 1972. Treating colored water with macroreticular resins. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Pap. Paper 72-711. 19 pp. Gustafson, R.L., and J.A. Lirio. 1968. Adsorption of organic ions by anion exchange resins. Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 7(2): 11~120. Hager, D.G., and J.L. Rizzo. 1974. Removal of toxic organics from wastewater by adsorption ~vith granular activated carbon. Presented at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Session on Treatment of Toxic Chemicals, Atlanta, Ga. Haller, H.D. 1978. Degradation of mono-substituted benzoates and phenols by wastewater. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 50:2771-2777. Hart, P.J., F.J. Vastola, and P.L. Walker, Jr. 1967. Oxygen chemisorption on well cleaned carbon surfaces. Carbon 5:363-371. Helfgott, T.B., F.L. Hart, and R.G. Bedard. 1977. An index of refractory organics. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report No. EPA- 600/2-77- 174. Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, Okla. Henderson, J.E., G.R. Peyton, and W.H. Glaze. 1976. A convenient liquid-liquid extraction method for the determination of halomethanes in water at the parts-per- billion level. Pp. 105-133 in L.H. Keith, ed. Identification and Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.
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An Evaluation of Activated Carbon 371 . Herzing, D.R., V.L. Snoeyink, and N.F. Wood. 1977. Activated carbon adsorption of the odorous comopunds 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 69:223-228. Hinrichs, R.L., and V.L. Snoeyink. 1976. Sorption of benzenesulfonates by weak base anion exhange resins. Water Res. 10:79-87. Hofstad, T., and T. Kristoffersen. 1970. Chemical characteristics of endotoxin from Bacteroidesiragilis NCTC 9343. J. Gen. Microbial. 6 1: 15-19. Hsieh, J. 1974. Liquid phase multicomponent adsorption in fixed bed. Ph.D. dissertation Department of Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, N.Y. Hsieh, J.S.C., R.M. Turian, and C. Tien. 1977. Multicomponent liquid phase adsorption in fixed bed. Am. Ind. Chem. J. 23:263-275. Huang, C.-P. 1978. Chemical interactions between inorganics and activated carbon. Pp. 281-329 in P.N. C:heremisinoff and F. Ellerbusch, eds. Carbon Adsorption Handbook. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. Huang, C.-P., and M.-H. Wu. 1975. Chromium removal by carbon adsorption. J. Water Pollut. Control. Fed. 47:2437-2446. Hutchinson, M., and J.W. Ridgway. 1977. Microbiological aspects of drinking water supplies. Pp. 179-218 in F.A. Skinner and J.M. Shewan, eds. Aquatic Microbiology. Society for Applied Bacteriology Symposium Series No. 6. Academic Press, London. Inhoffer, W.R. 1978. Sorptive properties of granular activated carbon and infrared regeneration at Little Falls, New Jersey. Presented at the 98th Annual Conference of the American Water Works Association, Atlantic City, N.J. Paper No. 1~5. 18 pp. Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group. 1978. Regulators release chemical hit list. Chem. Eng. News 56:50. Ishizaki, C., and J.T. Cookson, Jr. 1974. Influence of surface oxides on adsorption and catalysis with activated carbon. Pp. 201-231 in A.J. Rubin, ed. Chemistry of Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. Jain, S.J., and V.L. Snoeyink. 1973. Competitive adsorption from bisolute systems on active carbon. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 45:2463-2479. Jayes, D.A., and I.M. Abrams. 1968. A new method of color removal: development report. N. Engl. Water Works Assoc. 82: 15-25. Jekel, M. 1977. Biological treatment of surface waters in activated carbon filters. Presented at the meeting of the Water Research Center (England), KIWA (Netherlands) and EBI (Federal Republic of Germany), Engler-Bunte Institute, Karlsruhe University, Federal Republic of Germany. Jeris, J.S., and R.W. Owens. 1975. Pilot-scale, high rate biological denitnfication. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47:2043-2057. Jeris, J.S., C. Beer, and J.A. Mueller. 1974. High rate biological denitrification using a granular fluidized bed. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 46:2118-2128. Jeris, J.S., R.W. Owens, R. Hickey, and F. Flood. 1977. Biological fluidized-bed treatment for BOD and nitrogen removal. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 49:816-831. Jorgensen, J.H., J.C. Lee, and H.R. Pahren. 1976. Rapid detection of bacterial endotoxins in drinking water and renovated wastewater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:347-351. Jossens, L., J.M. Prausnitz, W. Fritz, E.U. Schlunder, and A.L. Myers. 1978. Thermody- namics of multi-solute adsorption from dilute aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. Sci. 33: 1097-1106. Kaiser, K.L.E., and B.G. Oliver. 1976. Determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in water by gas chromatography. Anal. Chem. 48:2207-2209.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: