Click for next page ( 384


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 383
Index acetone, chloroform precursors, 158 acidity, high pH conditions, 86 Acinetobacter, 309 Actinomyces, 309 activated carbon (see granular activated carbon) activated charcoal, 319 adsorbed compounds, chemical changes, 323-324 absorbents adsorption efficiency, 337-356 chemical degradation, 340 physical degradation, 340 water treatment, analytical methods, 35~365 adsorption activated carbon, 262 absorbents efficiency, 337-356 competition extent, 276 equilibrium models, 267 humic acid, by anion exchange resins, 342 humic substances, 277 isotherms, 26(~267, 342-343, 348 microbial activity reactions, 294-299 microorganisms, 9 organic compounds on resin absorbents, 350 percent removal data, 347 383 polymeric absorbents efficiency, 347- 353 water treatment, 256 aggregates, disinfection effects, 9-11 air pollution control, 27~271, 332-336 Alcaligenes, 309 aldehydes, chlorite reactions, 195 aliphatic compounds, 222-226 alkalinity, high pH conditions, 86 amberlite polymeric absorbents, 340, 343 ammonia breakpoint chlorination, 2~24, 1702171 bromine reaction, 74, 76, 77 chlorine reaction, 18-20 chlorine water treatment process, 167 hypochlorous acid reaction, 19~20 ozone reaction, 42 amperometric methods, 23, 54 Amsterdam, Netherlands, pilot plants, 300 analytical methods, 7 (see also individual disinfection methods) anion exchange resins, 337, 342 regeneration, 345-346 THM studies, 344 THMFP studies, 344 aqueous chloramine, 174-181 (see also chloramines) aqueous chlorine, 145-149 (see also chlorine)

OCR for page 383
384 Index aqueous chlorine dioxide hydrocarbons reactions, 198 properties, 190 194 (see also chlorine dioxide) Ascaris lumbricoides, 97 Aspergillus niger, 97 Bacillus, 93, 309 Bacillus anthracis, 5~57 Bacillus cereus, 45, 84 Bacillus megaterium, 45 Bacillus mesentericus, 56 Bacillus metiers, 76 Bacillus subtilis, 75-78, 96, 110 bacteria disinfection, 12-17 GAC, 309 Gram-negative, 15-16 Gram-positive, 15 microbial activity, 306-308 Netherlands, effluent, 309 resistance to disinfectants, 17 sensitivity to disinfectants, 15 species in effluents, 30~310 wastewater treatment, 309 (see also bio- cidal activity) bank filtration, 271 benzene, homologs, 205 biocidal activities, 7-17, 112-119 bacteria (see individual agents) bromine, 75-81 chloramines (see chlorine) chlorine, 24-36, 40-41 chlorine dioxide, 56 61 dichloramine (see chlorine) disinfection properties, 11, 24-25 efficacy, 7 Serrate, 84~5 high pH conditions, 87-90 hydrogen peroxide, 92-94 iodine, 61-71 ionizing radiation, 95-97 mechanism of action (see individual agents) monochloramine (see chlorine) organic chloramines (see chlorine) ozone, 41 48, 50 parasites (see individual agents) potassium permanganate, 99~101 silver, 103-105 UV light, 11~111 viruses (see individual agents) biocidal dose, UV light, 109 biogenic substances, aquatic organic com- pounds, 164 biosorption, 295 Blue Plains, Washington, D.C., sewage ef- fluents, 157 Boonton, N.J., chlorine gas equipment, 18 breakpoint chlorination, 2~23, 170-171 Rhine River water, 159 (see also chlorination) bromamines formation, 183 bromide, 42, 73 bromination, model compounds, 189 bromine analytical methods, 75 ammonia effects, 77 biocidal activity, 75-81 by-products of disinfection, 182, 184- 189 chemistry, 72-74, 182-189 cat products, 70, 7~80 determination, 75 disinfection, 36, 72-82 efficacy against bacteria, 75-77 efficacy against parasites, 79~1 efficacy against virus, 77-79 mechanism of action, 81 nonpotable waters, 187-189 production and application, 74-75 properties, 182-184 temperature effects, 78 THM formation, 185 UV spectroscopy, 75 bromine chloride, 72-75, 182-183 bromochloromethane s, 151- 152 bromodichloromethane, 151, 185 bromoform, 185, 205 bromophenols, 185 calcium hypochlorite, water treatment, 35 Candida parapsilosis, 14, 45 carbon catalytic surface, 31~320 inorganic reactions, 322-323 water treatment, 251-380 carbon catalytic activity, product release, 32~325 carbonchloroform extracts, 165, 252 carbon fines, 325

OCR for page 383
Index 385 carbon regeneration, pollution control, 332-336 carbonization, activated carbon, 254 Caulobacter, 309 CCE (see carbon-chloroform extracts) chemical actinometry, UV light, 108-109 chemical compounds in effluent, 357 chemistry of disinfectants, reactions and products, 139-249 chloramide by-products, 173-182 chloramination (see combined residual chlorination) chloramine formation, 18-20, 169 breakpoint chlorination, 2~23, 17 171 dichloramine, 20 inorganic chloramines, 18-20 monochloramine, 20 organic amines, 19 organic chloramines, 19 chloramine process (see combined residual chlorination) chloramines by-products of disinfection, 167-173 chemistry, 166-182 dichloramine, 166, 168 disinfection, 17~2, 112-119 mechanism of action, 38 monochloramine production, 166, 168 properties, drinking water treatment, 167-171 reaction products, 173-182 THM formation, 171-172 chlorinated organic compounds, water treatment, 352 chlorinated seawater, 188 chlorination biogenic substances, 164-165 breakpoint, 18-20, 170-171 chloroform production, 8, 144-166 halogenated hydrocarbons foliation, 144 1~ humic substances-chloroform formation, 8, 142-144 mechanism of action, 36-39 model compounds, 173 Niagara Falls, N.Y., 18 Ohio River, 172 PAH, 163-164 products other than THM, 163 THM formation, 5, 8 water supply disinfection, 5 (see also breakpoint chlorination; chlorine) chlorination by-products, polynuclear aro- matic hydrocarbons, 163-164 chlorine ammonia reaction, 18-20 ammonia water treatment process, 167 aqueous properties, 145-149 biocidal activity, 24-36 breakpoint chlorination, 2~23, 17~171 by-products of disinfection, 144-146 cell wall penetration, 37 chemistry, 144 166 cat, 70 demand, 20, 26 disinfection, 17-42, 112-119 drinking water supplies disinfectant, 17 free available chlorine, 18 hypochlorite ion, 18 hypochlorous acid, 18 reducing agents reaction, 21-22 sewage effluents, 155 surface waters, 155-157 chlorine dioxide analytical methods, 54-55 bacteria, 56 biocidal activity, 56, 59~0 by-products of disinfection, 19~200 c t, 60 chemistry, 52, 19~200 disinfection, 51~1, 112-119 DPD method, 54 efficacy against viruses, 58-59 Escherichia cold inactivation, 58 humic substances reactions, 199 inorganic reactants, 193-194 mechanism of action, 6(~61 microorganisms inactivation, 55 model organic compounds, 194-199 olefinic double bond reactions, 197-198 oxidizing agent, 193 parasites, 59 phenol reactions, 196 production and application, 51-54 pulp and paper industry, 191 virucidal efficacy, 58-59 chlorite, aldehydes reactions, 195 chloroform, 140, 151, 185 acetone precursors, 158 from resorcinol, 161 humic model compounds, 162

OCR for page 383
386 Index humic substanceschlorine reactions, 8 in competition, 277 chlorophyll, THM production, 164 clarification process, 268-271 Cleveland, Ohio, water treatment, 305 Clostridium, 93, 97 coagulation raw water precursors, 9 water treatment process, 26~271 cobalt~0, 95-96 calorimetric methods chlorine, 23 chlorine dioxide, 54, 55 ozone, 47 combined chlorine, 33-35 combined residual chlorination, 166 cometabolism, 311 competitive adsorption studies, 286-290, 353 competitive equilibrium studies, 278-283 components competition, 284, 286 concentration-time products for disinfec- tion, 31, 60, 66, 68-71, 76-80 Corynebacterium, 309 cat (see concentration-time products for disinfection) DAI (see direct aqueous injections) Delaware River, treatment plant, 153 demand-free systems, 117 diatomic iodine, 62-63, 183 dibromamine, 74, 79 dibromochloromethane, 185 dichloramine, 20, 22, 27-28, 166-168 dichloroethane, 287 diethyl-p-phenylenediamine method, 45, 47 direct aqueous injections, 154 disinfectants biocidal efficacy, 11, 114-117 bromine disinfection by-products, 182- 189 carbon reactions, 320-323 chemistry, reactions and products, 139- 249 chloramine reactions and by-products, 166-182 chlorine dioxide reactions and by- products, 19~200 chlorine reactions and by-products, 144-166 conclusions on disinfection, 112-119 conclusions on disinfection by-prod- ucts, 227-331 demand, 8 drinking water disinfection, 5-137 iodine reactions and by-products, 18 189 ozone reactions and by-products, 20 229 resistance to, 17 sensitivity to, 15 (see also disinfection) disinfection adsorption of microorganism, 9 aesthetic quality of treated water, 6 analytical methods (see individual disin- fection agents) application of disinfectants, 11 bromine, 72-82 biocidal activity, 7-17, 112-119 chemical dosage, 11 chloramines (see chlorine) chlorine, 17-42 chlorine dioxide, 51~1 conclusions, 112-117 disinfectant demand, 8 efficacy, 7 ferrate, 8~85 GAC pretreatment, 271-272 general considerations, 7-17 high pH conditions, 86-91 hydrogen peroxide, 91-94 indicator organisms, 12-13 iodine, 61-72 ionizing radiation, 94-98 methods for drinking water, summary tables, 114-116, 118 microbiological considerations, 11-17 microorganisms adsorption, 9 model systems for assessment, 12-15 ozone, 42-51 particulates and aggregates, 9-11 potassium permanganate, 98 protection against disinfection, 9 public water supplies, 5 raw water quality, 7-9 report organization and scope, 6-7 residuals, 10-11 residuals measurement,. 10-11 silver, 10~106 ultraviolet light, 10~112 waterborne diseases reduction, 5-137

OCR for page 383
Index 387 305 water treatment effects on, 8-9 water treatment plants, 255 (see also disinfection) displacement, GAC efficiency, 275 dissolved organic carbon, 269, 271, 301, pilot plant resin studies, 343 potassium permanganate in GAC, 297 TOC removal studies, 269 water treatment, 362 ferrate, 82-85 ferrate chemistry, 82 DOC (see dissolved organic carbon) ferric acid, 82 DPD (see diethyl-p-phenylenediamine ferrous diethyl-p-phenylenediamine meth- method) oaf, 22 fish, sewage effluent exposure, 187-188 Flavobacterium, 309 France chlorine as disinfectant, 17 microbial activity, water treatment, 299 free chlorine efficacy against bacteria, 25-26 efficacy against viruses, 29-33 inactivation time, 32, 34 Potomac River virus reactions, 31 viruses, 29-35 (see also chlorination; chlorine; chlorine chemistry) fulvic acid, 18, 142, 160, 269 echovirus 7, 90, 97 ECP (see extracellular products) effluents bacteria, 308-310 chemical compounds, 357 concentration, 289 GAC, 308-309 electromagnetic radiation, 106-108 endotoxins, 312-313 England, chlorine as disinfectant, 17 Entamoeba histolytica, 15, 35-36, 48, 67, 69-70, 81, 104 Enterobacter aerogenes, 25, 27, 88, 96 Enterobacter agglomerans, 309 GAC (see granular activated carbon) Environmental Protection Agency, 144 gamma rays, 9~95 145 NOMS, 145, 15~151, 156 NORS, 144 145, 15~151, 165-166, 172- 173 EPA (see Environmental Protection Agen- cy) epoxides, formation, 227 equilibrium models, 267 equilibrium adsorption, competitive stud- ies, 276-284 Escherichia colt, 13, 25-28, 30, 37, 40~1, 44 45, 48-50, 56-59, 65~6, 75, 78, 84~5, 87-89, 92-93, 9~97, 99-100, 104, 110, 308 Estes Park, Colo., wastewater effluent ozonization, 203 euchlorine (see chlorine dioxide) extracellular products, haloform yields, 16~165 Federal Republic of Germany bank filtration, 271 chloroform effluent concentration, 289 microbial activity on GAC, 298 microbial activity, water treatment, 299 pilot plant effluent studies, 308 gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 203, 287 Giardia lamblia, 36 Globaline tablets, 182 (see also iodine, disinfection) granular activated carbon, 251-380 adsorption efficiency, 258-268 adsorption influenced by regeneration, 33~332 adsorption isotherms, 260-267 bacteria on GAC, 30~309 bacterial growth, 30~308 basic structural unit, 254 carbonization, 254 chemical change during storage, 331 competition, 275-293 dechlorination effect, 303 definition, 253-254 disinfection pretreatment, 271-272 displacement, 275 effluent microbial content, 308-309 equilibrium models, 267 filtration pretreatment, 269-270 full-scale operation, competitive effects, 29~291 laboratory studies, 284 286

OCR for page 383
388 Index leaching of chemicals, 332, 334-335 mathematical models, 285-286 microbial activity, 293-315 nitriflcation, 272 n~trosamine production, 311 nonbiological substances production, 315-327 organic compound removal, 258-259, 286 organic compound reactions, 317-320 regeneration, 328-337 THM in effluent, 289 TOC removal, 302 water treatment process, 255-256 (see 324 also activated carbon) Great Smokey Mountains National Park, toluene in water, 159 Haemophilus parainfluenzoe, 71. haloform reactions, 14~144, 149 halogens disinfection, 16 (see also individual halogens) halogenated hydrocarbons, chlorination effects, 5 helminths, 35, 90, 93 Hialeah, Fla., water treatment, 345, 351- 352 high-molecular-weight toxins, 312-313, 351 high pH conditions disinfection, 86-90 high-pressure liquid chromatography, 156 HPLC (see high-pressure liquid chroma- tography) humic acid, 8, 269, 342 humic model compounds, chloroform yields, 162 humic substances, 14~144 adsorption behavior, 277 chemical degradation, 146-147 hydrocarbons reactions, aqueous chlorine dioxide, 198 hydrogen peroxide disinfection, 9~94 hydrous iron oxide, 83 hydroxide, 86 hymatomelanic acid, 8, 142 hypobromite ion, 73, 183, 204 205 hypobromous acid, 73, 78-79, 183 hypochlorite ion, 18, 148 hypochlorous acid, 145, 148-149, 186 ammonia reaction, 19-20 dichloramine, 167-168 hypochlorite ion, 18 monochloramine formation, 167 nitrogen bichloride formation, 167-168 Ohio River, 186 phenolic humic model compounds reac- tion, 161 THM formation, 141 (see also chlorine, disinfection) hypoiodite ion, 63, 183 hypoiodous acid, 62~3, 183 inorganic reactions, adsorbed compounds, iodate, 183 iodide, 42, 45-46, 62, 183, 186 iodine amperometric titration, 64 analytical methods, 64 biocidal activity, 61~2, 64-71 by-products in nonpotable waters, 186- 187 by-products of disinfection, 182 chemistry, 62-63, 182-189 colorimetric method, 64 c~t, 66, 69-71 cysticide, 6~65, 69 determination, 64 diatomic reaction with water, 62-63, 183 disinfection, 61-72 eff~cacy against bacteria, 64~5 efficacy against parasites, 67-71 efficacy against viruses, 65-67 halogens, 62 home water systems, 64 hydrolysis, 62 hypoiodous acid formation, 62 iodide ion, 62 mechanism of action, 71-72 nonpotable waters, 187-189 physiological effects, 182 production and application, 63 64 properties, 182-184 viral inactivation, 68 water disinfectant, 65 iodoamines, 183 iodometric methods, 23, 43, 54 invertebrates, raw water quality, effects, 8 ion exchange resins, 339-347 ionizing radiation disinfection, 94-98 iron (see ferrate)

OCR for page 383
Index 389 isolation techniques, 360 isotherms (see adsorption, isotherms) Jefferson Parish, La., water treatment plant, 269, 298 Jersey City, N.J., chlorine as water disin- fectant, 18 Kyoto, Japan, air pollution control, 333 Lake Tahoe, Calif., sludge effluent treat- ment, 305-306 Lake Zurich, unchlorinated water, 156 Las Vegas, Nev., EPA laboratories, 159 Lawrence, Mass., bacteria in effluent, 309 LCV (see leuco crystal violet method) leuco crystal violet calorimetric method, 64 leuco crystal violet method, 23 lignin, 142 Louisville Experimental Station, Ken- tucky, 17 low-molecular-weight toxicants, 31~312, 351 low pH conditions, 86 mass spectrometry, THM identification, 156 methyl halides, hydrolysis rates, 184 methyl ketone, 141 methylene chloride, 158 Miami, Fla. chlorinated organics removal, 297 pilot plant effluent bacteria, 309 microbial activity adsorption interaction, 294-299 bacterial growth on GAC, 306 308 denitrification, 305 DOC removal, 301 GAC, 293-315 indirect measurements, 301 low-molecular-weight toxicants, 31 312 microbe adherence to GAC, 306 Netherlands, 299 organic compounds, 294-296 ozone and chlorine pretreatment, 299- 304 prechlorination effects, 303-304 precursors, 311 product water contamination, 30~310 wastewater treatment, 304 306 Micrococcus sp., 97 . . microorganisms adsorption, 9 growth on ion exchange resins, 346 micropores, activated carbon, 254 Mississippi River chlorinated compounds, 156 GAC treatment, 290 Jefferson Parish water treatment plant, 298 laboratory studies, 186 potassium halideTHM formation, 187 prechlorination treatment, 269 model compounds bromine reaction, 189 chloramine reaction, 173-181 chlorine dioxide reaction, 194-199 chlorine reaction, 160 163 iodine reaction, 189 ozone reaction, 204 229 monobromamine, 74 monocl~loramine, 20, 22, 26-27, 38, 166 168 Moraxella, 309 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 14, 45 Mycobacterium phlei, 15 National Organic Monitoring Survey, 145 aromatic compounds, 156 THM in U.S. municipal water supplies, 15(~151 National Organics Reconnaissance Sur- vey, 144-145 municipal water supplies analysis, 165- 166 THM in U.S. municipal water supplies, 15~151, 172-173 NDMA (see N-nitrosodimethylamine) nephelometric turbidity unit, 10 Netherlands bacteria in effluent, 309 microbial activity, water treatment, 299 Niagara Falls, N.Y. chlorine as water disinfectant, 18 water treatmentchlorine dioxide use, 51 nitrification, GAC, 272 nitrogen, 22 nitrogen tribromide, 74, 79 nitrogen bichloride, 22-23, 166-168, 170

OCR for page 383
390 Index nitrosamines, 311, 346-347 N-nitrosodimethylamine, 346 nitrous oxide, 22 NOMS (see National Organic Monitoring Survey) nonbiological substances, production, 315-327 nonhaloform products, THM reactions, 153-154 nonionic polymeric absorbents, 338 nonspecific organic analysis, 361-363 NORS (see National Organics Reconnais- sance Survey) NTU (see nephelometric turbidity unit) Ohio River combined residual chlorination, 172 hypochlorous acid treatment, 186 TOC removal studies, 269 Orange Co., Calif., wastewater treatment, 205, 325 organic amines, chlorine reaction, 19 organic chemical structure, biodegradabil- ity, 294 organic chloramines, 20, 28-29 organic compounds adsorption by GAC, 263-267 adsorption isotherms, 261 adsorption of resin absorbents, 350 biodegradability, 294-296 classes, 253 isotherms, 261 microbial activity-adsorption interac- ozonization lion, 29~296 ozone effects, 302-303 pretreatment effectiveness, 268-271 recalcitrant, 294-295 removal, 258-259 organic reactions mediated by adsorbed compounds, 323- 324 mediated by carbon, 317-320 organisms disinfection, 9 model system indicators, 12-15 natural vs. laboratory cultures, 15-17 protection from disinfection, 9 organobromides, 186 orthotolidine-arsenite method, 56, 58 OTA (see orthotolidine-arsenite method) oxygen demand, seasonal fluctuation, 297 ozone ammonia reactions, 42 biocidal activities, 44, 46 49 by-products in drinking waters, 202-204 by-products in nonpotable waters, 202- 204 by-products of disinfection, 204-229 by-products reactions, 209 chemistry, 42, 20~229, 230 cot products, 49 determination, 43 disinfection, 42-51 DPD method, 45, 47 effects on organic compounds, 302-303 efficacy against parasites, 48 efficacy against viruses, 46-48 epoxide formation, 227 GAC, 272 gas stream, 43 generation, 211 half-life, 44 inorganic compounds reactions, 204 measurement methods, 43 44 mechanism of action, 48-49 microbial activity, 299~304 organic compounds, 302-303 production and application, 42-43 properties, 201-202 residuals, 44 Schecter method, 48 viruses, 47 water treatment plants, 43 by-products, aliphatic compounds, 222- 226 by-products, benzene and its homologs, 205 by-products, humic acids, 218-219 by-products, miscellaneous, 214-217. 228-229 by-products, pesticides, 22~221 by-products, phenolics, 210-213 by-products, polynuclear aromatics, 206 Europe, 202 model organic and inorganic com- pounds, 20~208 Quebec, 202 Rouen-la-Chapelle, France, 203 seawater, 205 Zurich, Switzerland, 203

OCR for page 383
Index 391 PAC (see powdered activated carbon) PAH (see polynuclear aromatic hydro- carbons) parasites, 35-36, 48, 67-71 particulates, disinfection effects, 9-11 pathogens, waterborne diseases, 5 - pesticides, ozonization by-products, 220- 221 phenolic humic model compounds, 161 phenolic substances, reactions, 155 phenols chlorine dioxide reactions, 196 in competition, 277 ozonization by-products, 21~213 Philadelphia, Pa., water treatment, 276, 287, 298 pilot plant studies, 288, 298, 300, 308-309, 343 Planctomyces, 309 poliovirus, 27, 30-35, 40-41, 46, 49-50, 58-59, 68, 71-72, 78, 80, 90, 93, 97 pollutants monitoring, 358-361 potential health hazards, 358-359 screening procedures, 359-361 pollution control, carbon regeneration, 27~271, 332-336 polymeric absorbents, 337-339, 347-353 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 206 208, 270 chlorination by-products, 163-164 leaching of chemicals, 332 Pomona, Calif., 304, 333 potable water, 186-187 potassium halideeffect on THM forma- tion, 187 potassium permanganate, 297 analytical methods, 99 biocidal activity, 99-101 determination, 99 disinfection, 98-102 - E. cold inactivation, 100 mechanism of action, 101 oxidizing agent, 98 production and application, 99 residual, 99 Potomac River, free chlorine-viruses re- actions, 31 powdered activated carbon, 252, 255-256, 271, 273-275 prechlorination, 8-9, 303-304 precursors, 14~144 microbial activity, 311 THM, 3~14 345 preozonization, 298-302 presedimentation, raw water treatment, 8 pretreatment chemicals, organicsad- sorption reaction, 270 protozoan parasites, 35 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 16, 25, 27, 88 Pseudomonas alcaligenes, 15-16 Pseudomonas fluorescent, 45 Pseudomonas sp., 308-310 public water supplies chlorination, 5 disinfectants, 184-186 disinfection, 5 residualsdisinfection effects, 10-11 pulp and paper industry, 191 Quebec Province, ozonization, 202 radiation, ionizing, disinfection, 94-98 raw water quality, 8-9 recalcitrant organic compounds, 294-295 residuals disinfection effects, 1~11 (see also indi- vidual agents) resinous absorbents, 338-340 resorcinol, 16(L161 Rhine River bank filtration, 271 breakpoint chlorination, 159 Rotterdam, Netherlands, chlorinated drinking water, 185 Rouen-la-Chapelle, France, ozonization, 203 Safe Drinking Water Act (PL 93-523), 144 Salmonella montevideo, 89 Salmonella typhi, 13, 25, 27, 30, 45, 75, 84, 88-89, 92-93, 9~97, 104 Schecter method, 48 SchuyLkill River, Pa., treatment plant, 153 seawater ozonization, 205 sewage effluent, 155, 157-159, 187-189 Shigella dysenteriae, 25, 27, 88 Shigella flexneri, 45, 84, 96 silver disinfection, 102-106 silver-sulfhydryl complexes, 105 SNORT (see stabilized neutral orthotol- idine method)

OCR for page 383
392 Index sodium chlorate, 52, 55 sodium chlorite, 52-53 sodium hypochlorite, 53 soils, 142-144 solvent, methylene chloride, 158 stabilized neutral orthotolidine method, 23, 43 Staphylococcus aureus, 45, 84, 92-93, 96 Streptococcus bovis, 84 Streptococcus faecalis, ~5, 9~97, 110 surface waters, chlorine, 155-157 Swiss Federal Institute for Water Re- sources and Water Pollution Control (EAWAG), 203 Switzerland, pilot plant effluent studies, 308 synthetic carbonaceous absorbents, 338 synthetic resins, water treatment, 255 taste and odor, chlorine in water, 144 Thames River, England, pilot plant resin studies, 343 THM (see trihalomethanes) THMFP (see trihalomethane formation potential) TOC (see total organic carbon) TOCl (see total organic chlorine) toluene in drinking water, 159 total organic carbon, 252, 269-270, 302 total organic chlorine, 158 tribromomethane, 151-152 trichloramine (see nitrogen bichloride) trichloroacetaldehyde, 165 trichloroethylene, 287 trihalomethanes, 140 anion exchange resins studies, 344 chlorination effects, 5, 8 chlorophyll reaction, 164 coagulation, 9 formation, 149-153, 171-172, 269-270, 344 formation from chlorine dioxide, 52 formation reactions, 16~161, 163 GAC, 289 hypochlorous acid, 141 in water supplies, 185-186 NOMS, 15~151 nonhaloform products, 153-154 NORS, 15~151, 172-173 potable waters, laboratory studies, 186-187 precursors, 344-345 production, 9 seasonal variation, 164 U.S. municipal water supplies, 15~151 triiodide, ozone reaction, 44 turbidity, drinking water standard, 10 typhoid fever, 18 ultraviolet light disinfection, 106-112 ultraviolet spectroscopy, 75 United Kingdom, pilot plant effluent stud- ies, 308 Van de Graaff generator, 95-97 Vibrio cholerae, 45 virucidal activity (see biocidal activity) viruses disinfection of water, 14-15 ozone for inactivation, 47 poliovirus 1, 46, 48 Potomac River, free chlorine tests, 31 wastewater, ionizing radiation, 96 wastewater treatment bacteria on GAC, 309 effluent ozonization, 203 microbial activity on GAC, 304 306 waterborne diseases, 5 water quality, effects on disinfection, 7- 17 water softening, 86 water supply disinfection, 5-137 water supply treatment, Philadelphia, Pa., 276 water treatment adsorbent unit processes, analytical methods, 356-365 adsorption, 256 calcium hypochlorite, 35 coagulation process, 268-271 disinfection effects on, 5-137, 255 Federal Republic of Germany, 362 filtration process, 26~271 GAC, general conclusions and re~om- mendations, 256-257 hydrous iron oxide, 83 microbial action on GAC, 296 299 Niagara Falls, N.Y., 51 Philadelphia, Pa., 276, 287, 298 preozonization, 299-302 sedimentation process, 268-271 THM precursors removal, 345 Zurich, Switzerland, 298

OCR for page 383
Index 393 water treatment plants clarification processes, 268-271 Delaware River 153 disinfection, 255 PAC use, 274 water treatment processes, 167, 255-256 Xanthomonas, 309 X-rays, 94-95 Zurich, Switzerland ozonization by-products, 203 water treatment, 298

OCR for page 383