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11 The Disinfection of Drinking Water The goal of disinfection of public water supplies is the elimination of the pathogens that are responsible for waterborne diseases. The transmission of diseases such as typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, cholera, salmonello- sis, and shigellosis can be controlled with treatments that substantially reduce the total number of viable microorganisms in the water. While the concentration of organisms in drinking water after elective disinfection may be exceedingly small, sterilization (i.e., killing all the microbes present) is not attempted. Sterilization is not only impractical, it cannot be maintained in the distribution system. Assessment of the reduction in microbes that is sufficient to protect against the transmis- sion of pathogens in water is discussed below. Chlorination is the most widely used method for disinfecting water supplies in the United States. The near universal adoption of this method can be attributed to its convenience and to its highly satisfactory performance as a disinfectant, which has been established by decades of use. It has been so successful that freedom from epidemics of waterborne diseases is now virtually taken for granted. As stated in Drinking Water and Health (National Academy of Sciences, 1977), "chlorination is the standard of disinfection against which others are compared." However, the discovery that chlorination can result in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM's) and other halogenated hydrocarbons has prompted the reexamination of available disinfection methodology to determine alternative agents or procedures (Morris, 1975~. 5

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6 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH The method of choice for disinfecting water for human consumption depends on a variety of factors (Symons et al., 1977~. These include: O its efficacy against waterborne pathogens (bacteria, viruses, proto- zoa, and helminths); the accuracy with which the process can be monitored and controlled; its ability to produce a residual that provides an added measure of protection against possible posttreatment contamination resulting from faults in the distribution system; the aesthetic quality of the treated water; and the availability of the technology for the adoption of the method on the scale that is required for public water supplies. economic factors will also play a part in the final decision; however, this study is confined to a discussion of the five factors listed above as they apply to various disinfectants. The propensity of various disinfection methods to produce by-prod- ucts having effects on health (other than those relating to the control of infectious diseases) and the possibility of eliminating or avoiding these undesirable by-products are also important factors to be weighed when making the final decisions about overall suitability of methods to disinfect drinking water. The subcommittee has not attempted to deal with these problems since the chemistry of disinfectants in water and the toxicology of expected by-products have been studied by other subcom- mittees of the Safe Drinking Water Committee, whose reports appear in Chapter III of this volume (Chemistry) and Chapter IV (Toxicity) of Drinking Water and Health, Vol. 3. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY The general considerations noted in the immediately following material should be borne in mind when considering each method of disinfection. Available information on the obvious major candidates for drinking water disinfection chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, iodine, and bro- mineis then evaluated for each method individually in the following sections. Other less obvious possibilities are also examined to see if they have been overlooked unjustly in previous studies or if it might be profitable to conduct further experimentation on them. Disinfection by chloramines is dealt with in parallel with that effected by chlorine because of the close relationship the former has to chlorine disinfection

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 7 under conditions that might normally be encountered in drinking water treatment. The evaluations in this report are not exhaustive literature reviews but, rather, are selections of the studies that, in the judgment of the committee, provide the most accurate and relevant information on the biocidal activities of each method of disinfection. The analytical methods that are described in this report are those that are most likely to be used by persons involved in disinfection research or water treatment. A review of all existing analytical methods, some of which may be more sophisticated than those described below, would be impractical within the constraints of time and space available and is not within the scope of this document. After the methods of disinfection are examined individually, their major characteristics and biocidal efficacy are compared by means of summary tables and c . t (concentration, in milligrams per liter, times contact time, in minutes) values required for similar inactivations under identical conditions. The conclusions of the study are then recorded on the basis of this evidence. GENERAL ASPECTS OF DISINFECTION In any comparison of disinfection methods, certain considerations should be discussed at the outset since they are relevant to most, if not all, methods. The quality of the raw water (i.e., its content of solids and material that will react with the disinfectant), treatment of the water prior to disinfection, and the manner in which the disinfectant is applied to the water will directly affect the efficacy of all disinfectants. Equally applicable to all methods are appropriate standards for verifying the adequacy of disinfection, differences in response to disinfectants between organisms that were obtained directly from the field and those that have been acclimated to laboratory culture, and the maintenance of potability from treatment plant to the consumer's tap. The use of chlorination as presented in examples in the following pages does not imply that it is necessarily the method of choice. Rather, this method has been studied more thoroughly than other methods. Raw Water Quality In addition to potential pathogens, raw water may contain contaminants that may interfere with the disinfection process or may be undesirable in

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8 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH the finished product. These contaminants include inorganic and organic molecules, particulates, and other organisms, e.g., invertebrates. Varia- tions among these contaminants arise from differences in regional geochemistry and between ground- and surface-water sources. DISINFECTANT DEMAND . Many inorganic and organic molecules that occur in raw water exert a "demand," i.e., a capacity to react with and consume the disinfectant. Therefore, higher "demand" waters require a greater dose to achieve a specific concentration of the active species of disinfectant. This demand must be satisfied to ensure adequate biocidal treatment. Ferrous ions, nitrites, hydrogen sulfide, and various organic molecules exert a demand for oxidizing disinfectants such as chlorine. The bulb of the nonparticulate organic material in raw water occurs as naturally derived humic substances, i.e., humic, fulvic, and hymatomelanic acids, which contribute to color in water. The structure of these molecules is not yet fully understood. However, they are known to be polymeric and to contain aromatic rings and carboxyl, phenolic, alcoholic hydroxyl, and methoxyl functional groups. Humic substances, when reacting with and consuming applied chlorine, produce chloroform (CHC13) and other THM's. Water, particularly surface waters, may also contain synthetic organic molecules whose demand for disinfectant will be determined by their structure. Ammonia and amines in raw water will react with chlorine to yield chloramines that do have some biocidal activity, unlike most products of these side reactions. If chlorination progresses to the breakpoint, i.e., to a free-chlorine residual, these chloramines will be oxidized causing more added chlorine to be consumed before a specific free-chlorine level is achieved. This phenomenon is discussed more fully below. The nature of the demand reactions varies with the composition of the water and the disinfectant. Removal of the demand substances leaves a water with a lower requirement for a disinfectant to achieve an equivalent degree of protection against transmission of a waterborne disease. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS Various treatments applied to raw water to remedy undesirable charac- teristics, e.g., color, taste, odor, or turbidity, may affect the ultimate microbiological quality of the finished water. Microorganisms may be physically removed or the disinfectant demand of the water altered. Presedimentation to remove suspended matter, coagulation with alum

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 9 or other agents, and filtration reduce the organic material in the raw water and, thus, the disinfectant demand. Removal of ferrous iron similarly reduces the demand for oxidizing disinfectants as will aeration, which eliminates hydrogen sulfide. Prechlorination to a free chlorine residual is practiced early in the treatment sequence as one method to alter taste- and odor-producing compounds, to suppress growth of organisms in the treatment plant, to remove iron and manganese, and to reduce the interference of organic compounds in the coagulation process. The necessity for these treatments or others is determined by the characteristics of the raw water. The selection of one of the various methods to achieve a particular result will be based upon cost- e~ectiveness in the particular situation. When chlorination is used, the application or point of application in the treatment sequence of some of the above-mentioned procedures can affect the undesirable THM content of the finished water. Reduction of precursors in raw water by coagulation and settling prior to chlorination reduces final THM production (Hoehn et al., 1977; Stevens et al., 19751. The Louisville Water Company reduced THM concentrations leaving the plant by 40~50% by shifting the point of chlorination from the presedimentation basin to the coagulation basin (Hubbs et al., 19771. The available information on these variations is limited, and a universally applicable procedure cannot be recommended in view of the diverse treatments required for different raw waters. Particulates and Aggregates To inactivate organisms in water, the active chemical species must be able to reach the reactive site within the organism or on its surface. Inactivation will not result if this cannot occur. Microorganisms may acquire physical protection in water as a result of their being adsorbed to the enormous surfaces provided by clays, silt, and organic matter or to the surfaces of solids created during water treatment, e.g., aluminum or ferric hydrated oxides, calcium carbonate, and magnesium hydroxide. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoan cysts may be adsorbed to these surfaces. Such particles, with the adsorbed microorganisms, may aggregate to form clumps, affording additional protection. Organisms themselves may also aggregate or clump together so that organisms that are on the interior of the clump are shielded from the disinfectant and are not inactivated. Organisms may also be physically embedded within particles of fecal material, within larger organisms such as nematodes, or, in the case of viruses, within human body cells that have been discharged in fecal material. To disinfect water adequately, the water must have been pretreated,

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lo DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH when necessary, to reduce the concentration of solid materials to an acceptably low level. The primary drinking water turbidity standard of 1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) is an attempt to assure that the concentration of particulates is compatible with current disinfection techniques. Where it is possible to obtain lower turbidities, this is desirable. Disinfection studies in which the complications of adsorbed organ- isms, aggregation, or embedment were thought to occur were excluded from this study. The conclusions in this report should not be extrapolat- ed to such situations as the disinfection of turbid or colored waters. The Importance of Residuals Water supplies are disinfected through the addition or dosage of a chemical or physical agent. With a chemical agent, such as a halogen, a given dosage should theoretically impart a predetermined concentration (residual) of the active agent in the water. From a practical point of view, most natural waters exert a "demand" for the disinfectant, as discussed above, so that the residual in the water is less than the calculated amount based on the dosage. The decrease in residual, which is caused by the demand, is rapid in most cases, but it may be prolonged until the residual eventually disappears. In addition, the chemical agent may decompose spontaneously, thereby yielding substances having little or no disinfection ability and exerting no measurable residual. For example, ozone not only reacts with substances in water that exert a demand, but it also decomposes rapidly. To achieve microbial inactivation with a chemical agent, a residual must be present for a specific time. Thus, the nature and level of the residual, together with time of exposure, are important in achieving disinfection or microbial inactivation. Because the nature of the dosage-residual relationship for natural waters has not been and possibly cannot be reliably defined, the efficacy of disinfection with a chemical agent must be based on a residual concentration/time- of-exposure relationship. Residual measurements are important and useful in controlling the disinfection process. By knowing the residual-time relationship that is required to inactivate pathogenic or infectious agents, one can adjust the dosage of the disinfecting agent to achieve the residual that is required for effective disinfection with a given contact time. Thus, the electiveness of the disinfection process can be controlled and/or judged by monitoring or measuring the residual. Following disinfection of a water supply at a treatment plant, the water is distributed to the consumers. A persistent residual is important

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 11 for continued protection of the water supply against subsequent contamination in the distribution system. Accidental or mechanical failures in the distribution system may result in the introduction of infectious agents into the water supply. In the presence of a residual, disinfection will continue and, as a result, offer continued protection to the users. Physical agents such as radiation may provide elective disinfection during application, but they do not impart any persistent residual to the water. The dosage of a chemical agent that is used to eject microbial inactivation should not be so great that it imparts a health hazard to the water consumer. From another point of view, the aesthetic quality of the finished water should not be impaired by the dosage of the chemical agent or the residual that is required for effective disinfection. These qualities might include discoloration of water from potassium permanga- nate (KMnO4) or iodine or problems of taste and odor from excessive chlorine. Application of the Disinfectant Optimum inactivation occurs when the disinfectant is distributed uniformly throughout the water. To disperse the chemical disinfectant when it is added to the water, it must be mixed electively to assure that all of the water, however small the volume, receives its proportionate share of the chemical. Additions of a disinfectant at points in a flowing water stream, e.g., from submerged pipes, is seldom adequate to assure uniform concentration. In such cases, mechanical mixing devices are needed to disperse the disinfectant throughout the water. Disinfection by radiation treatment also requires good mixing to bring all of the water within the effective radiation distance. Microbiological Considerationsi Comparison of the biocidal efficacy of disinfectants is complicated by the need to control many variables, a need not realized in some early studies. Halogens in particular are significantly affected by the composi- tion of the test menstruum and its pH, temperature, and halogen demand. For very low concentrations of halogen to be present over a testing period, halogen demand must be carefully eliminated. Different disinfectants may have different biocidal potential. In earlier work, Nomenclature in this report follows that recommended in the Eighth Edition of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (Buchanan and Gibbons, 1974). Thus, the name of an organism mentioned in the text may not be that used by the author of the work cited.

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12 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH analytical difficulties may have precluded defining exactly the species present, but new techniques allow the species to be defined for most disinfectants. Information on the species of disinfectant actually in the- test system should be included in future reports on disinfection studies. Investigators studying efficacy have usually adopted one of two extremes. Some have conducted carefully designed laboratory experi- ments with controls for as many variables as possible. Certain of these investigators have reduced the temperature to slow the inactivation reactions. Although these experiments yield good basic information and can be used to determine which variables are important, they often have little quantitative relationship to field situations. The other extreme, a field study or reconstruction of field conditions, is difficult to control. Moreover, their results are often not repeatable. In addition to the variables noted above, prereaction of chemicals in the test system, the culture history of the organism being used, and the "cleanup" procedures applied to it may also affect the observed results. Despite these problems, there have been some attempts to standardize efficacy testing. MODEL SYSTEMS AND INDICATOR ORGANISMS A major factor that influences the evaluation of the efficacy of a particular disinfectant is the test microorganism. There is a wide variation in susceptibility, not only among bacteria, viruses, and protozoa (cyst stage), but also among genera, species, and strains of the microorganism. It is impractical to obtain information on the inactiva- tion by each disinfectant for each species and strain of pathogenic microorganism of importance in water. In addition, interpretation of the data would be confounded by the condition and source of the test microorganism (e.g., the degree of aggregation and whether the organ- isms were "naturally occurring" or laboratory preparations), the pres- ence of solids and Articulates, and the presence of materials that react with and consume the disinfectant. The overwhelming majority of the literature on water disinfection concerns the inactivation of model microorganisms rather than the pathogens. These disinfectant model microorganisms have generally been nonpathogenic microorganisms that are as similar as possible to the pathogen and behave in a similar manner when exposed to the disinfectant. The disinfectant model systems are simpler, less fastidious, technically more workable systems that provide a way to obtain basic information concerning fundamental parameters and reactions. The

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 13 information gained with the model systems can then be used to design key experiments in the more difficult systems. The disinfection model microorganism should be clearly distinguished from the indicator organism. The indicator microorganism, as defined in Drinking Water and Health (National Academy of Sciences, 1977), is a "microorganism whose presence is evidence that pollution (associated with fecal contamination from man or other warm-blooded animals) has oc- curred." Following are criteria for the indicator microorganism (Fair and Geyer, 19541: The indicator should always be present when fecal material is present and absent in clean, uncontaminated water. 2. The indicator should die away in the natural aquatic environment and respond to treatment processes in a manner that is similar to that of the pathogens of interest. 3. The indicator should be more numerous than the pathogens. 4. The indicator should be easy to isolate, identify, and enumerate. Only a restrictive application of the second criterion is necessary for a disinfection model. The response of the test microorganism to the disinfectant must be similar to that of the pathogen that it is intended to simulate. The disinfection model is not meant to function as an indicator microorganism. During the latter part of the nineteenth century, investigators recognized the presence of a group of bacteria that occured in large numbers in feces and wastewater. The most significant member of this group (currently called the coliform group) is Escherichia colt. Since the late nineteenth century, this colifo~n~ group has served as an indicator of the degree of fecal contamination of water, and E. cold has been used routinely as a disinfection model for enteric pathogens. Butterfield and co-workers (Butterfield and Wattie, 1946; Butterfield et al., 1943; Wattle and Butterfield, 1944) provided information on the inactivation of E. cold and other enteric bacterial pathogens with chlorine and chloramines. At pH values above 8.5, all strains of E. cold were more resistant to free chlorine than were Salmonella typhi strains. At pH values of 6.5 and 7.0, strains of S. typhi were more resistant. Only slight differences between the two genera were found when chloramines were used as the disinfectant. The bactericidal activity of chloramine was noticably less than that of free chlorine. Bacteria of the colifo~ group, especially E. coli, have proved useful as an indicator and disinfection model for enteric bacterial pathogens but

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14 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH 1 are poor indicators and disinfection models for nonbacterial pathogens. E. cold has been observed to be markedly more susceptible to chlorine than certain enteric viruses and cysts of pathogenic protozoa (Dahling et al., 1972; Kruse, 1969~. The bacterial viruses of E. cold have received increased attention as possible disinfection models and indicators of enteric viruses in water and wastewater. At present, the data to justify the bacterial viruses as indicators for enteric viruses are limited and inconsistent. However, there is a growing body of knowledge on the utilization of bacterial viruses as disinfection models. Hsu (1964) and Hsu et al. (1966) first reported the use of the f2 virus as a model for disinfection studies with iodine. They showed that inactivation of both the f2 virus and poliovirus 1 were inhibited by increasing concentrations of iodide ion and that both f2 RNA and poliovirus 1 RNA were resistant to iodination. Dahling et al. (1972) compared the inactivation of two enteric viruses (poliovirus 1 and coxsackievirus A9), two DNA phages (I 2 and T5), two RNA phages (f2 and MS2), and E. cold ATCC 11229 under demand-free conditions with free chlorine at pH 6.0. They found enteric viruses to be most resistant to free chlorine followed by RNA phages, E. colt, and the T phages. Shah and McCamish (1972) compared the resistance of poliovirus 1 and the-coliphages f2 and T2 to 4 mg/liter combined residual chlorine. The f2 virus was shown to be more resistant to this form of chlorine than poliovirus 1 and T2 coliphage. Cramer et al. (1976) compared the inactivation of poliovirus 3 (Leon) and f2 with chlorine and iodine in buffered wastewater. Both viruses were treated together in the same reaction flask, thereby eliminating any inherent differences due to virus preparations and replicate systems. In wastewater effluent at phi 6.0 and 10.0 with a 30 mg/liter dosage of halogen under prereacted Halogen added to wastewater, allowed to react, viruses added at zero time) and dynamic (viruses added to wastewater, halogen added at zero time) conditions, f2 was, in each case, at least as or more resistant to chlorine and iodine than poliovirus 1. The f2 virus appears to be more sensitive to free chlorine but more resistant to combined chlorine than poliovirus 1 is. Neefe et al. (1945) observed that the agent of infectious hepatitis was inactivated by breakpoint chlorination (free chlorine) but not comnletelv inactivated by combined chlorine. Engelbrecht et al. (1975) reported that the use of a yeast (Candida parapsilosis) and two acid-fast bacteria (Mycobacterium fortuitum and --I- ~

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 15 Mycobacterium phlei) may provide suitable disinfection models. They observed that the yeast was more resistant to free chlorine than were poliovirus 1 and the enteric bacteria under all conditions tested. The acid-fast bacilli were most resistant. There is no generally accepted disinfection model for protozoan cysts. In disinfection studies for protozoan diseases, investigators have used the pathogen or its cysts. Work with such systems is, however, generally difficult. The use of disinfection models provides useful information that is helpful to the comparison of the relative efficiencies of various disinfec- tants in the laboratory and in controlled field investigations. Strains of E. cold have been used extensively as models for enteric pathogenic bacteria. While not as widely accepted, the bacterial viruses of E. cold are used as disinfection models for enteric viruses. The difficulty of available methods has limited the number of disinfection studies with protozoan cysts. LABORATORY CULTURES VERSUS NATURALLY OCCURRING ORGANISMS The resistance or sensitivity to disinfectants of some bacteria (e.g., E. coli) in the laboratory may bear very little resemblance to their responses in nature. This is true in spite of the fact that standardized procedures govern the conditions under which cells are grown, harvest- ed, washed, etc., when they are used as inocula. Examples of such differences range from Gram-negative bacteria and their comparative resistance to disinfectants in general (Carson et al., 1972; Favero et al., 1971, 1975) to Gram-positive bacterial spores and heat resistance (Bond et al., 1973) and to halogen resistance of Entamoeba histolytica cysts from simian hosts as opposed to those grown in in-vitro systems (Stringer et al., 19751. Presumably, the mechanisms creating this phenomenon among these three groups vary widely. The comparative resistance to disinfectants among Gram-negative bacteria varies greatly. A good example of this is the study of Favero and Drake ~ 1966~. They first applied the term "naturally occurring" to certain Gram-negative bacteria with the potential for rapid growth in water. They observed that Pseudomonas alcaligenes, a common bacterial contaminant in iodinated swimming pools, could grow well in swimming pool waters that had been sterilized by membrane filters and rendered free of iodine or chlorine. Starting with contaminated swimming pool water that contained a variety of bacteria, they isolated a pure culture of P. alcaligenes by an extinction-dilution technique in which filter-steri-

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128 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH Rosenblatt, D.H. 1978. Chlorine dioxide: chemical and physical properties. Pp. 332-343 in R.G. Rice and J.A. Cotruvo, eds. Ozone/Chlonne Dioxide Products of Organic Matenals. Proceedings of a Conference held in Cincinnati, Ohio, November 17-19, 1976. Sponsored by the International Ozone Institute, Inc., and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Ozone Press International, Cleveland, Ohio. 487 pp. Scarpino, P.V., S.D. Cronier, M.L. Zink, F.A.O. Brigano, and J.C. Hoff. 1977. Effect of particulates on disinfection of enterovirus and coliform bacteria in water by chlorine dioxide. Water Quality Technology ConferenceWater Quality in the Distribution System. Kansas City, Mo. 19 pp. Schilling, K. 1956. Chlordioxyd in der Wasserautbereitung. Wasser 23:95-101. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th ed. 1976. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 1193 pp. Stevens, A.A., D.R. Seeger, and C.J. Slocum. 1978. Products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials in water. Pp. 383-395 in R.G. Rice and J.A. Cotruvo, eds. Ozone/Chlorine Dioxide Products of Organic Materials. Proceedings of a Conference held in Cincinnati, Ohio, November 17-19, 1976. Sponsored by the International Ozone Institute, Inc., and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Ozone Press Interna- tional, Cleveland, Ohio. 487 pp. Stevenson, R.G., Jr., L.L. Dailey, and B.J. Ratigan. 1978. The continuous analysis of chlorine dioxide in process solutions. Pp. 23-24 in Preprints of Papers presented at the 175th National Meeting of the Environmental Chemistry Division, American Chemical Society, Anaheim, Calif., March 12-17, 1978. Sussman, S. 1978. Use of chlorine dioxide in water and wastewater treatment. Pp. 344 355 in R.G. Rice and J.A. Cotruvo, eds. Ozone/Chlorine Dioxide Oxidation Products of Organic Materials. Proceedings of a Conference held in Cincinnati, Ohio, November 17- 19, 1976. Sponsored by the International Ozone Institute, Inc., and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Ozone Press International, Cleveland, Ohio. 487 pp. Symons, J.M., J.K. Carswell, R.M. Clark, P. Dorsey, E.E. Geldreich, W.P. Heffernam, J.C. Hoff, O.T. Love, L.J. McCabe, and A.A. Stevens. 1977. Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide and Chloramines as Alternatives to Chlorine for Disinfection of Drinking Water: State of the Art. Water Supply Research Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. 84 pp. Synan, J.F., J.D. MacMahon, and G.P. Vincent. 1945. Chlorine dioxide in potable water treatment. Water Eng. 48:285-286. Trakhtman, N.N. 1946. Chlorine dioxide in water disinfection. Gig. Sanit. 11(10):10-13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1978. Interim primary drinking water regulations: control of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water. Fed. Reg. 43(28): 575 5780. Warnnerj T.R. 1967. Inalctwering av Poliovirus med Klordioxid. Institute for Vattenfors- orgning och Avlopp, Publikation A67:28~290. Watt, C., and H. Burgess. 1854. Improvement in the manufacture of paper from wood. U.S. Patent No. 11,343. iodine Allen, T.L., and R.M. Keefer. 1955. The formation of hypoiodous acid and hydrated iodine cation by the hydrolysis of iodine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77:2957-2960. Bell, R.P., and E. Gelles. 1951. The halogen cations in aqueous solution. J. Chem. Soc. Pt. III 273~2740.

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 129 Berg, G., S.L. Chang, and E.K. Harris. 1964. Devitali~tion of microorganisms by iodine. I. Dynamics of the Revitalization of enteroviruses by elemental iodine. Virology 22:469- 481. Black, A.P., J.B. Lackey, and E.W. Lackey. 1959. Effectiveness of iodine for the disinfection of swimming pool water. Am. J. Public Health 49: 106~1068. Black, A.P., R.N. Kinman, W.C. Thomas, Jr., G. Freund, and E.D. Bird. 1965. Use of iodine for disinfection. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 57: 1401-1421. Black, A.P., W.C. Thomas, Jr., R.N. Kinman, W.P. Banner, M.A. Keirn, J.J. Smith, Jr., and A.A. Jabero. 1968. Iodine for the disinfection of water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 60:69-83. Brammer, K.W. 1963. Chemical modification of viral ribonucleic acid. II. Brornination and iodination. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 72:217-229. Chambers, C.W., P.W. Kabler, G. Malaney, and A. Bryant. 1952. Iodine as a bactericide. Soap Sanit. Chem. 28(10): 149-151, 153, 163, 165. Chang, S.L. 1958. The use of active iodine as a water disinfectant. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 47:417-423. Chang, S.L., and J.C. Morris. 1953. Elemental iodine as a disinfectant for drinking water. Ind. Eng. Chem. 45:1009 1012. Chang, S.L., and M. Ba~cter. 1955. Studies on the destruction of cysts of En~!anmeba histolytica. I. Establishment of the order of reaction in destruction of cysts of E. histolytica by elemental iodine and silver nitrate. Am. J. Hyg. 61: 121-132. Chang, S.L., M. Baxter, and L. Eisner. 1955. Studies on the destruction of Endam~eba h~stolytica. II. Dynamics of destruction of cysts of E. h~stolytica in water by tri-iodine ion. Am. J. Hyg. 61: 133-141. Cramer, W.N., K. Kawata, and C.W. Kruse. 1976. Chlorination and iodination of poliovirus and f2. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48:61-76. Fraenkel-Conrat, H. 1955. The reaction of tobacco mosaic virus with iodine. J. Biol. Chem. 217:373-381. Gershenfeld, L. 1977. Iodine. Pp. 196-218 in S.S. Block, ed. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 2nd ed. Lea ~ Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. Hsu, Y-C. 1964. Resistance of infectious RNA and transforming DNA to iodine which inactivates f2 phage and cells. Nature 203: 152-153. Hsu, Y-C., S. Normura, and C.W. Kruse. 1965. Some bactericidal and viricidal properties of iodine not affecting infectious RNA and DNA. Am. J. Epidemiol. 82:317-328. Hughes, W.L. 1957. The chemistry of iodination. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 70:3-18. Kruse, C.W. 1969. Mode of action of halogens on bacteria and viruses and protozoa in water systems. Pp. 1-89 in Final report to the Commission on Environmental Hyg~ene of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, U.S. Army Med. Res. Dev. Co=nd Contract No. DA49-193-MD-2314. Li, C.H. 1942. Kinetics and mechanism of 2,6-di-iodotryosine formation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 64:1147-1152. Li, C.H. 1944. Kinetics of reactions between iodine and histidine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66:225-227. Longley, K.E. 1964. Some aspects of iodination of bacteriophage f2. MSE essay. The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Marks, H.C., and F.B. Strandskov. 1950. Halogens and their mode of action. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 53: 163-171. O'Connor, J.T., and S.K. Kapoor. 1970. Small quantity field disinfection. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 62(2):80-84.

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130 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th ed. 1976. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 1193 pp. Stringer, R.P. 1970. Amoebic cysticidal properties of halogens in water. Sc.D. thesis. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Stringer, R., and C.W. Kruse. 1971. Amoebic cysticidal properties of halogens in water. J. Sanit. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 97:801~11. Stringer, R.P., W.N. Cramer, and C.W. Kruse. 1975. Comparison of bromine, chlorine and iodine as disinfectants for amoebic cysts. Pp. 193-209 in J.D. Johnson, ed. Disinfection: Water and Wastewater. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 425 pp. Wallis, C., A.M. Bebbehani, L.H. Lee, and M. Bianchi. 1963. The ineffectiveness of organic iodine (Wescodyne) as a viral disinfectant. Am. J. Hyg. 78:325-329. Wyss, O., and F.B. Strandskov. 1945. The germicidal action of iodine. Arch. Biochem. 6:261-268. Bromine Farkas, L., and M. Lewin. 1950. The dissociation constant of hypobromous acid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72:5766-5767. Farkas-Hinsley, H. 1966. Disinfection. Pp. 55~562 in Z.E. Jolles, ed. Bromine and Its Compounds. Academic Press, New York. 940 pp. Floyd, R., J.D. Johnson, and D.G. Sharp. 1976. Inactivation by bromine of single poliovirus particles in water. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 31 :298-303. Floyd, R., D.G. Sharp, and J.D. Johnson. 1978. Inactivation of single poliovirus particles in water by hypobromite ion, molecular bromine, dibromamine, and tribromamine. Environ. Sci. Tech. 12: 1031-1035. Galal-Gorchev, H., and J.C. Morris. 1965. Formation and stability of bromamide, bromimide, and nitrogen tribromide in aqueous solution. Inorg. Chem. 4:899-905. Henderson, C.T. 193S. Process of antisepticizing water. U.S. Patent No. 1995639. Inman, G.W., Jr., T.F. LaPointe, and J.D. Johnson. 1976. Kinetics of nitrogen tribromide decomposition in aqueous solution. Inorg. Chem. 15:3037-3042. Johannesson, J.K. 1958. Anomalous bactericidal action of bromamine. Nature 181: 1799 1800. Johnson, J.D., and R. Overby. 1971. Bromine and bromamine disinfection chemistry. J. Sanit. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 97:617-628. Kanyeev, N.P., and E.A. Shilov. 1940. Constants of some equilibrium reactions of hypabromous acid. Tr. Ivanov. Khim. Tekhnol. Inst. (USSR) 3:6~73. Kolthoff, I.M., and R. Belcher. 1957. Volumetric Analysis. Interscience Pub., New York. 714pp. Kruse, C.W., Y. Hsu, A.C. Griffiths, and R. Stringer. 1970. Halogen action on bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Pp. 113-136 in Proceedings of the National Specialty Conference on Disinfection. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. LiebhaLsky, H.A. 1934. The equilibrium constant of the bromine hydrolysis and its variation with temperature. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 56: 150(~1505. Marks, H.C., and F.B. Strandskov. 1950. Halogens and their mode of action. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 53:163-171. Mills, J.F. 1969. The control of microorganisms with polyhalide resins. U.S. Patent No. 3462363.

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 131 Mills, J.F. 1975. Interhalogens and halogen mixtures as disinfectants. Pp. 113-143 in J.D. Johnson, ed. Disinfection: Water and Wastewater. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 425 pp. Morris, J.C. 1975. Aspects of the quantitative assessment of germicidal efficiency. Pp. 1-10 in J.D. Johnson, ed. Disinfection: Water and Wastewater. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 425 pp. Olivieri, V.P., C.W. Kruse, Y.C. Hsu, A.C. Griffiths, and K. Kawata. 1975. The comparative mode of action of chlorine, bromine, and iodine on f2 bacterial virus. Pp. 145-162 in J.D. Johnson, ed. Disinfection: Water and Wastewater. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 425 pp. Sharp, D.G., R. Floyd, and J.D. Johnson. 1975. Nature of the surviving plaque forming unit of reovirus in water containing bromine. Appl. Microbial. 29:94-101. Sharp, D.G., R. Floyd, and J.D. Johnson. 1976. Initial fast reaction of bromine on reovirus in turbulent flowing water. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 31: 173-181. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th ed. 1976. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 1193 pp. Stringer, R.P., W.N. Cramer, and C.W. Kruse. 1975. Comparison of bromine, chlorine, and iodine as disinfectants for amoebic cysts. Pp. 193-209 in J.D. Johnson, ed. Disinfection: Water and Wastewater. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 425 pp. Tanner, F.W., and G. Pitner. 1939. Germicidal action of bromine. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 40: 143-145. Taylor, D.G., and J.D. Johnson. 1974. Kinetics of viral inactivation by bromine. Pp. 369= 408 in A.J. Rubin, ed. Chemistry of Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. Wyss, O., and J.R. Stockton. 1947. The germicidal action of bromine. Arch. Biochem. 12:267-271. Ferrate Audette, R.J., R.J. Quail, and P.J. Smith. 1971. Ferrate (VI) ion, a novel oxidizing agent. Tetrahedron Lett. 3:279-282. Becarud, N. 1966. Analytical Study of Ferrates. Comm. Energie at France Rapt. No. 2895. 52 pp. Fremy, E.G. 1841. Studies of the action of aLlcaline peroxides on metal oxides. (In French) C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. A 12:23-24. Gilbert, M.D., T.D. Waite, and C. Hare. 1976. An investigation of the applicability of ferrate ion for disinfection. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 68:495~97. Murmann, R.K. 1974. The preparation and oxidative properties of ferrate (FeO4~). Studies directed towards its use as a water purifying agent. NTIS publication PB Rept. 238 057. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. Schreyer, J.M., and L.T. Ockerman. 1951. Stability of the ferrate (VI) ion in aqueous solution. Anal. Chem. 23: 1312-1314. Schreyer, J.M., G.W. Thompson, and L.T. Ockerman. 1950. Ferrate oxidimetry. Oxidation of arsenite with potassium ferrate (VI). Anal. Chem. 22:691~92. Strong, A.W. 1973. An Exploratory Work on the Oxidation of Ammonia by Potassium Ferrate (VI). M.S thesis. Department of Chemical Engineering [Reps. OWRR-A~31- OHIO(2)] Ohio State University, Columbus. NTIS publication PB-231 873. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va.

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132 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH Wagner, W.F., J.R. Gump, and E.N. Hart. 1952. Factors affecting the stability of aqueous potassium Serrate (VI) solutions. Anal. Chem. 24: 1497-1498. Waite, T.D. 1978a. Management of Wastewater Residuals with Iron (VI) Ferrate. First Annual Report Grant # ENV 76-83897. National Science Foundation: RAND, Washington, D.C. 207 pp. Waite, T.D. 1978b. Inactivation of Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Streptococcus sp., and f2 virus by Iron (VI) Ferrate. Paper 334 presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Water Works Association, Atlantic City, N.J. 1978 Annual Conference Proceedings. American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo. Wood, R.H. 1958. The heat, free energy and entropy of the Serrate (VI) ion. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80:2038-2041. Zhdanov, Y.A., and O.A. Pustovarova. 1967. Oxidation of alcohols and aldebydes by potassium Serrate. Zh. Onsch. Khim. 37(12):2780. High pH Conditions Berg, G., and D. Berman. 1967. Final Report of Progress on Quarterly Contract AMXREC 66-51 and First Quarterly Report on Quartermaster Contract AMXRED 67-54 on Effectiveness of Military Phenolic Dry-Type Disinfectant (MID-51061) Against Viruses. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio. Boeye, A., and A. Van Elsen. 1967. Alkaline disruption of poliovirus: kinetics and purification of RNA-free particles. Virology 33:335-343. Donovan, T.K. 1972. Virus inactivation associated with lime precipitation of phosphate from sewage. D.Sc. thesis. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Maizel, J.V., Jr., B.A. Phillips, and D.F. Summers. 1967. Composition of artificially produced and naturally occurring empty capsids of poliovirus type 1. Virology 32:692- 699. Riehl, M.L., H.H. Weiser, and B.T. Rheins. 1952. Effect of lime-treated water upon survival of bacteria. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 44:466 470. Sproul, O.J. 1975. Investigation to Increase the Viricidal Capacity of Disinfectant, Germicidal and Fungicidal Phenolic, Dry Type. Technical Report TR 76-90 FSL, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maine, Orono. 46 pp. Sproul, O.J., R.T. Thorup, D.F. Wentworth, and J.S. Atwell. 1970. Salt and virus inactivation by chlorine and high pH. Pp. 38~396 in Proceedings of the National Specialty Conference of Disinfection. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 11th ea., p. 485. 1960. American Public Health Association, Inc., New York. Van Elsen, A., and A. Boeye. 1966. Disruption of type 1 poliovirus under Wine conditions: role of pH, temperature and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Virology 28:481-483. Wattle, E., and C.W. Chambers. 1943. Relative resistance of coliform organisms and certain enteric pathogens to excess-lime treatment. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 35:709 720. Wentworth, D.F., R.T. Thorup, and O.J. Sproul. 1968. Poliovirus inactivation in water softening precipitation processes. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 60:939-946.

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 133 Hydrogen Peroxide Chadwick, A.F., and G.L.K. Hoh. 1966. Hydrogen peroxide. Pp. 319-417 in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 11, 2nd ed. Wiley Interscience Publishers, New York. Gasset, A.R., R.M. Ramer, and D. Kaolin. 1975. Hydrogen peroxide sterilization of hydrophilic contact lenses. Arch. Ophthamol. 93:412-415. Lund, E. 1963. Significance of oxidation in chemical inactivation of poliovirus. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 12:64060. Mentel, R., and J. Schmidt. 1973. Investigations on rhinovirus inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. Acta Virol. 17:351-354. Schumb, W.C., C.N. Satterfield, and R.L. Wentworth. 1955. Stabilization. Pp. 515-547 in Hydrogen Peroxide. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York. Sezgin, M., D. Jenkins, and D.S. Parker. 1978.'A unified theory of filamentous activated sludge bulking. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 50:362-381. Snell, F.D., and C.T. Snell. 1'949. Calorimetric' Methods of Analysis: Including some Turbidimetric and Nephelometnc Methods, 3rd ed. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 5 Vols. Spaulding, E.H., K.R. Cundy, and F.J. Turner. 1977. Chemical disinfection of medical and surgical materials. Pp. 654~84 in S.S. Block, ed. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 2nd ed. Lea ~ Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. Taki, M., and R. Hashimoto. 1977. Sterili~ation of biologically treated water. I. Sterilizing effects of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide. Mizu Shori Gijutsu (Jap.) 18(V:149~156. Toledo, R.T. 1975. Chemical sterilants for aseptic packaging. Food Technol. 29: 102, 104, 105, 108, 110, 112. Toledo, R.T., F.E. Escher, and J.C. Ayres. 1973. Sporicidal properties of hydrogen peroxide against food spoilage organisms. Appl. Microbiol. 26:592-597. Wardle, M.D., and G.M. Renninger. 1975. Bactericidlal effect of hydrogen peroxide on spacecraft isolates. Appl. Microbiol. 30:71~711. Yoshpe-Purer, Y., and E. Eylan. 1968. Disinfection of water by hydrogen peroxide. Health Lab. Sci. 5:233-238. ionizing Radiation Ballantine, D.S., L.A. Miller, D.F. Bishop, and F.A. Rohrman. 1969. The practicality of using atomic radiation for wastewater treatment. J. Water Pollut. Control. Fed. 41 :44 458. Brannan, J.P., D.M. Garst, and S. Langley. 1975. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs by heat, radiation, and thermoradiation. Sandia Laboratories Report Sand. 75 0163. Albuquerque, N.Mex. 26 pp. Compton, D.M.J., W.L. Whittemore, and S.J. Black. 1970. An evaluation of the applicability of ionizing radiation to the treatment of municipal waste waters and sewage sludge. Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 13:71-72. Dunn, C.G. 1953. Treatment of water and sewage by ioninng radiations. Sewage Ind. Wastes 25: 1277-1281. Eliassen, R., and J.G. Trump. 1973. High Energy Electron Treatment of Wastewater and Sludge. Paper presented at 45th Annual Meeting of the California Water Pollution Control Association, San Diego.

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134 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH Lea, D.E. 1955. Actions of Radiations on Living Cells, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, London. Lowe, H.N., Jr., W.J. Lacy, B.F. Surkiewicz, and R.F. Jaeger. 1956. Destruction of microorganisms in water, sewage, and sewage sludge by ionizing radiations. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 48: 1363-1372. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1977. High Energy Electron Radiation of Wastewater Liquid Residuals. Report to U.S. National Science Foundation. NSF Grant ENV 74 13016, Dec. 31, 1977. National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. Ridenour, G.M., and E.H. Armbruster. 1956. Eject of high-level gamma radiation on disinfection of water and sewage. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 48:671-676. Silverman, G.F., and A.J. Sinskey. 1977. Sterilization by ionizing radiation. Pp. 542-567 in S.S. Block, ed. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 2nd ed. Lea ~ Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. Wright, K.A., and J.G. Trump. 1956. High energy electrons for the irradiation of Hood denvatives. Pp. 23~239 in Proc. 6th Congress of the International Society of Blood Transfusion. Supplement to Acta Haematologica, 1956. Potassium Permanganate American Water Works Association. 1971. Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Public Water Supplies, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 654 pp. Cleasby, J.L., E.R. Baumann, and C.D. Black. 1964. Effectiveness of potassium permanga- nate for disinfection. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 56:46~474. Derbyshire, J.B., and S. Arkell. 1971. Activity of some chemical disinfectants against Talfan virus and porcine adenovirus type 2. Br. Vet. J. 127(3): 137-142. Eskarous, J.K., and H.M. Habib. 1972. Effect of potassium permanganate and toloquinone on mosaic symptoms and necrosis caused by tomato streak virus on tobacco. Adv. Front. Plant Sci. 29: 125-169. Fitzgerald, G.P. 1964. Laboratory evaluation of potassium permanganate as an algicide for water reservoirs. Southwest Water Works J. 45(10): 16-17. Heuston, K.H. 1972. Tablets for the sterilization of water. Ger. Offen. 2:303, 364. Hughes, C.G., and D.R.L. Steindl. 1955. Ratoon stunting disease of sugar cane. Burl Sugar Exp. Stn., Brisbane, Tech. Commun. No. 2: 1-54. Kemp, H.T., R.G. Fuller, and R.S. Davidson. 1966. Potassium permanganate as an algicide. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 58:255-263. Lund, E. 1963. Oxidative inactivation of poliovirus at different temperatures. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 13:375-386. Lund, E. 1966. Oxidative inactivation of adenovirus. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 19:32-37. Peretts, L.G., O.V. Bychkovskaia, M.A. Bazhedomova, N.S. Babina, and N.S. Semenova. 1960. Effect of potassium permanganate on poliomyelitus virus. Probl. Virol. 5:441-447. Schultz, E.W., and F. Robinson. 1942. The in vitro resistance of poliomyelitus virus to chemical agents. J. Infect. Dis. 70: 193-200. Seidel, K. 1973. Purification of swimming pool water. Ger. Offen. 2: 141, 620. Shull, K.E. 1962. Operating experiences at Philadelphia suburban treatment plants. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 54: 1232-1240. Spicher, R.G., and R.T. Skrinde. 1963. Potassium permanganate oxidation of organic contaminants in water supplies. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 55: 1174-1194. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th ed. 1976. Amencan Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 1193 pp.

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 135 Wagner, R.R. 1951. Studies on the inactivation of influenza virus. Comparison of the effects of p-benzoquinone and various inorganic oxidizing agents. Yale J. Biol. Med. 23:288-298. Welch, W.A. 1963. Potassium permanganate in water treatment. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 55:735-741. Silver Chambers, C.W., and C.M. Proctor. 1960. The Bacteriological and Chemical Behavior of Silver in Low Concentrations. Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Tech. Rep. W604, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 18 pp. Chang, S.L., and M. Baxter. 1955. Studies on destruction of cysts of Entam~eba histolytica. I. Establishment of the order of reaction in destruction of cysts of E. histolytica by elemental iodine and silver nitrate. Am. J. Hyg. 61: 121-132. Chang, S.L. 1970. Modern concept of disinfection. Pp. 635-681 in Proceedings of the National Specialty Conference on Disinfection. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. Davies, R.L. 1976. Improved circulation systems use silver to maintain pool water. Swimming Pool Weekly and Swimming Pool Age, Data and Reference Annual 50. Fair, G.M. 1948. Water disinfection and allied subjects. Pp. 52(~531 in E.C. Andrus, D.W. Brook, G.A. Garden, Jr., C. S. Keefer, J.S. Lockwood, J.T. Wearn, and M.C. Winternitz, eds. Advances in Military Medicine, Vol. 2. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, Mass. Grier, N. 1977. Silver and its compounds. Pp. 395 407 in S.S. Block, ed. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 2nd ed. Lea ~ Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. Harrison, C.J. 1947. Purification of tea-estate water supplies. Indian Tea Association, Tockai Experimental Station, Memo 18. 10 pp. Just, J., and A. Szniolis. 1936. Germicidal properties of silver in water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 28:492-506. Lund, E. 1963. Significance of oxidation in chemical inactivation of poliovirus. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 12: 648~0. Newton, W.L., and M.F. Jones. 1949. Effectiveness of silver ions against cysts of Erltameeba histolytica. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 41: 1027-1034. Rattonetti, A. 1974. Determination of soluble cadmium, lead, silver, and indium in rainwater and stream water with the use of flameless atomic absorption. Anal. Chem. 46:739-742. Renn, C.E., and W.E. Chesney. 1953-1956. Reports to Salem-Brosius, Inc., on Research on Hyla System of Water Disinfection. Romans, I.B. 1954. Oligodynamic metals. Pp. 38~428 in G.F. Reddish, ed. Antiseptics, Disinfectants, Germicides, and Chemical and Physical Sterilization. Lea cec Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. Seidel, K. 1973. Purification of swimming pool water. Ger. Offen. 2: 141, 620. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th ed. 1976. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 1193 pp. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1974. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. EPA-625/6-7~003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1975. Interim primary drinking water regulations. Fed. Reg. 40(51): 11989-11998.

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136 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH Woodward, R.L. 1963. Review of the bactericidal electiveness of silver. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 55:881-886. Wuhrmann, K., and F. Zobrist. 1958. Bactericidal effect of silver in water. Schweiz. Z. Hydrol. 20:218-254. Yasinskii, A.V., and V.F. K~netsova. 1973. Disinfection of water containing vibrios by silver ions. Aktual. Vopr. Sanit. Mikrobiol. 112-113. Zimmermann, W. 1952. Oligodyn~c silver action. I. The action mechanism Z. Hyg. Infektionskr. 135:403-413. Ultraviolet Light Anonymous. 1960. Germicidal Amps and Applications. General Electric Bulletin LS 179. lSpp. Calvert, J.G., and J.N. Pitts, Jr. 1966. Photochemistry. John Wiley, New York. 890 pp. Childs, C.B. 1962. Low-pressure mercury arc for ultraviolet calibration. Appl. Opt. 1:711- 716. Cortelyou, J.R., M.A. McWhinnie, M.S. Riddiford, and J.E. Semrad. 1954. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on large populations of certain water-borne bacteria in motion. I. The development of adequate agitation to provide an effective exposure period. Appl. Microbial. 2:227-235. Deenng, R.A., and R.B. Setlow. 1963. Effects of ultraviolet light on thymidine dinucleotide and polynucleotide. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 68:526-534. Gates, F.L. 1929. A study of the bactericidal action of ultraviolet light. II. The effect of various environmental factors and conditions. J. Gen. Physiol. 13: 24~260. Harm, W. 1968. Effects of dose fractionation on ultraviolet survival of Eschenchia coli. Photochem. Photobiol. 7:73~6. Hoather, R.C. 1955. The penetration of ultra-violet radiation and its ejects in waters. J. Inst. Water Eng. 9: 191-207. Hum, C.B., H.F. Smith, W.D. Boring, and N.A. Clarke. 1965. Study of ultraviolet disinfection of water and factors in treatment efficiency. Public Health Rep. 80:695' 705. Jagger, J. 1960. Photoreactivation. Radial. Res. Suppl. 2:75-90. Kawabata, T., and T. Harada. 1959. J. Illumination Society 36:89. Kelner, A. 1949. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli, with special reference to the dose-reduction principle and to ultraviolet-induced mutation. J. Bacterial. 58:511-522. Luckiesh, M., and A.H. Taylor. 1946. Transmittance and reflectance of germicidal (2537) energy. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36:227-234. Luckiesh, M., A.H. Taylor, and G.P. Kerr. 1944. Germicidal energy. Gen. Electr. Rev. 47(9): 7~9. Luckiesh, M., and L.~. Holladay. 1944. Disinfecting water by means of germicidal lamps. Gen. Electr. Rev. 47(4):45-50. Morris, E.J. 1972. The practical use of ultraviolet radiation for disinfection purposes. Med. Lab. Technol. 29:41-47. Oliver, B.G., and E.G. Cosgrove. 1975. The disinfection of sewage treatment plant effluents using ultraviolet light. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 53: 17~174. Powers, E.L., M. Cross, and C.J. Varga. 1974. A dose-rate eject in the ultraviolet inactivation of bacterial spores. Photochem. Photobiol. 19:273-276. Reddish, G.G., ed. 1957. Antiseptics, Disinfectants, Fungicides and Chemical and Physical Sterilization, 2nd ed. Lea ~ Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. 975 pp.

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The Disinfection of Drinking Water 137 Roeber, J.A., and F.M. Hoot. 1975. Ultraviolet Disinfection of Activated Sludge Effluent Discharging to Shellfish Waters. EPA 600/2-75/060 Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. 85 pp. Severin, B.F. 1978. Disinfection of Municipal Wastewater Effluents With Ultraviolet Light. Paper presented to Annual Meeting, Water Pollution Control Federation, Anaheim, Calif. Venosa, A.D., H.W. Wolf, and A.C. Petrasek. 1978. Ultraviolet disinfection of municipal effluents. Pp. 675-684 in R. Jolley, H. Gorchev, and D. H. Hamilton, Jr., eds. Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health Effects, Vol. 2. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich. 909 pp. Witkin, E.M. 1976. Ultraviolet mutagenesis and inducible DNA repair in Escherichia coli. Bacterial. Rev. 40:869- 907. Wood, M.D. 1974. Apparatus method for purifying fluids. U.S. Patent No. 3,837,800. September 24. (Chem. Abs. 85:4749v.)

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