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Index A Accounting systems and procedures, 57-58, 126-130 Adaptive closed-loop control, 97, 114- 115 Adhesives, 79 Advisory Committee on Industrial In- no~ration, final report (1979), 152- 153 Alloys, 77 Antitrust policy recommendations for, 133 policy recommendations for produc- tivity, 136 policy recommendations for steel in- dustry, 144 Artificial intelligence, 86, 87, 108 and data bases, 111-112 developments in, 100-102 in modeling, 117 Asynchronous movement of materials, 84-85 Automated Manufacturing Research Facility, 107, 115 Automatic guided vehicles, 84-85, 87, 118 Automatic identification of materials, 8~87 Automation. See also Computer-integrated manufacturing; Numerical control; Robots Automobile industry, 18, 87 ceramics in, 81-82 metals developments in, 78 plastics and polymer-based compos- ites in, 78-79 policy recommendations for, 137-138 Automotive Industry Action Group, 87 AVCO, 118 Aviation industry, 136-137 B Bar code technologies, 8~87 Black and Decker Corporation, 18 C Capital, cost of, 12, 16 Capital formation, policy recommen- dations, 139, INS, 154 Capital investment, 44, 59 future orientation of, 59 as a percentage of output, 12, 16 policy recommendations for, 133 trends in, 2,12 167

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168 Carnegie-Mellon University, 93 Ceramics, 80-82 Chaparral Steel Company, 18-19 Chrysler Corporation, 18 CLDATA file, 106, 107 Coatings for cutting tools, 91 Command-and-control view of manu- facturing, 10-11 Committee for Economic Development Research and Policy Committee- reports productivity (1983), 135 technology (1980), 134 Committee on Technology and In- ternational Economic and Trade Issues-reports automobile industry (1982), 137-138 ascription industry (1985), 136 electronics industry (1982), 138 machine tool industry (1983), 142- 143 pharmaceutical industry (1983), 140 steel industry (1985), 14~145 textile industry (1983), 141-142 Committee on the CAD/CAM Interface report computer integration of engineering design and production (1984), 146- 147 Committee on the Machine Tool Industry- report machine tool industry and defense industrial base (1983), 145-146 Communications technology in computer-integrated manufactur- ing, 102-109 effects on organizational decision making, 53-54 interface standards for, 106~109 networks for, 105-106 Competition and computer-integrated manufac turing, 37 foreign, 1-2, 17-22, 63-65, 71, 153-155 increases in, 7 technology as response to, 2, 21-22, 31 trends in, 7 Competitiveness changes needed to improve, 22 and defense commitments, 2~24 definitions of, 6 national goals for, 25 policy recommendations for, 15~155. See also Policy recommendations and standard of living, 2~25 and U.S. economy, 22-26 U.S. lose of, 11-13 Computer Conferences on Productivity tl983), 147-148 Computer disk drive industry, 19-20 Computer-aided design, 21-22, 34-37, 39-41, 42, 46, 98-99, 121 benefits of, 98 cost of, 34 data bases for, 95-96, 97, 98-99, 107, 109-111, 122 implementation of, 3~35 numerical control systems controlled by, 39, 98 policy recommendations for, 146-147 robots controlled by, 98 Computer-aided engineering, 36, 121, 122 data bases for, 109-111 Computer-aided manufacturing, policy recommendations for, 146 Computer-integrated manufacturing, S~37, 119-123 characteristics of, 120 communications in, 102-109 competition and, 37, 130 costs and, 42-46 data bases for, 109-112, 121. See also Data bases data management and, 45-46, 121 feedback systems in, 36, 115 goals of, 119 group technology in, 112-114 growth of, 120 hierarchical nature of, 121-122 incremental gains from, 119 lack of interface standards for, 107 limitations of, 41-42 long-term benefits, 129 maintenance costs of, 43 measurement of performance, 129 and numerical control, 39 policy recommendations for, 147 productivity and, 43

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169 proprietary refinements to, 37 Computerized numerical control, 89. See Also Numerical control Computers, 10, 32. See also Computer- aided design; Computer-aided en- gineering; Computer-aided man- ufacturing; Computer-integrated manufacturing in cutting tool design, 91 disk drive industry, 19-20 hierarchy of users, 108 in material handling, 87, 88 natural language software for, 101 and productivity, 147-148 supercomputers, 67 voice communication with, 101 Control Data Corporation, 19 Controlling of materials, 86-87 Coordinate measuring machines, 93 Copyright infringement, 64 Cost of capital, 12, 16, 44 of computer-aided design, 34 control of, 42 of data management, 45 effect of technology on, 42-46 of flexibility, 38, 40 of labor, 11, 13, 42, 43 vet quality, 42-46 ire. responsiveness, 42 of tooling, 44, 91 Cost accounting systems. See also Man- agement accounting systems changes in, 58 computer-integrated manufacturing and, 126-130 real-time, 126 Cutting tools, advances in, 91 D Data bases, 109-112 artificial intelligence and, 111-112 barriers to integration, 108-111 distributed, 121 expert systems and, 111-112 need for integration, 109 probabilistic or incomplete data in, 111 size problems with, 111 Data management, 45-46 Data schemes, 110-111 Decision making criteria for, 56-57 decentralization of, 52-54 factory-level, 56-57 Defense commitments, 23-24 Defense industry, policy recommenda- tions for, 145-146 Defense policies, 68-69 Defense procurement system, short- comings of, 69 Department of Commerce, 143, 152 Department of Defense, 137, 145-146 Design retrieval in group technology, 113 Digital Equipment Corporation, 101 Direct government subsidies, 62 Direct labor, 43 Distributed processing, 121 Dumping, 62 EEducation. See also Training; Retrain- ing engineering, 65-66 government policies toward, 65-66 policy recommendations, 132, 142, 151-152 posteecondary, 65 Electrical discharge machining, 90, 92 Electronics industry, policy recommen- dations for, 13~140 Employee evaluations. See Perfor- mance evaluation Employee participation in decision making, 52-54 Employment, 5 policy recommendations, 151 trends in, 2,12,15 Employment security, 54-56 policy recommendations for, 155-156 Equity ownership, international nature of, 63 Ethernet, 105 Exchange rates, 20, 23 Expert systems, 100, 101

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170 and data bases, 111-112 Export-Import Bank, 137,143 Export markets, competition in, 64 65 F Factory communications and systems technologies, 102-123 Feedback and feedforward systems, 96, 11~115 computer-controlled, 104 large-scale factory systems and, 116 Fixturing, 92-94 Flexibility, 37-42, 44, 117 Flexible manufacturing systems, 31- 32, 35-36, 38-41, 44, 117-119, 121, 122-12S fixturing problems in, 92-93 graphic simulation of, 99 group technology and, 113, 117 narrow range of, 4~41 Food and Drug Administration, 140 Ford Motor Corporation, 18 Foreign manufacturing facilities in United States, 63 France, 11 G General Electric Company, 118-119 General Motors Corporation, 18, 105- 106 Government, 3. See also Policy recom- mendations defense policies of, 68-69 education policies of, 65-66 policies and practices for direct aid to manufacturers, 62 procurement policies, 134 research policies of, 66-68 role in manufacturing, ~4, 61-69 trade policies of, 6S 65 Graphic simulation, 99-100 Group technology, 34, 112-114, 115, 122 applications of, 11~114 and data bases, 34, 110 definition of, 112 in flexible manufacturing systems, 117 H Human resource management, 49-58, 71-72 employee participation, 52-54 employment security, 54-5B policy recommendations, 132, 139, 15~156 I Import quotas, policy recommenda- tions for automobile industry, 138 Income measurement, 128 Industrial Modernization Incentive Program, 68 Industrial Networking, Inc., 106 Information flow within organizations, 53-54 Infringement, 64 In-house production firs. subcontract- ing, 56 Initial Graphics Exchange Standard, 98, 10~107 Instrumentation, 95-96. See also Adap- ti~re closed-loop control; Sensors Intellectual ownership, 52-54, 55 Intellectual property rights, protection of, 64 Interest rates, 20 Interface standards, 10~109 human-machine, 107-108 physical between mechanical devices, 10~109 International Business Machines, 19 International Standards Organization, 106 Investment, policy recommendations for productivity, 135 UIslande of automation," 32, 120 J Japan, 11,13, 18, 50, 84, 90,118 Jigs, 92 Job creation limits on, 59 policy recommendations for automa, tion, 151 Job rotation, 54, 57 Job security. Sac Employment security

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171 K Korea, 19 Labor, 43, 5~55 Labor costs, 11, 13, 42-43 Lasers, 90 Loan guarantees, 62 Location of factories, 44 LOGMARS study, 87 M Machine tool industry policy recommendations for, 142- 143, 14~146 Machine tools, 8~91 Machining centers, 89 Mack Trucks, 118 Makita Electric Works, Ltd., 18 Management middle, decline of, 53 productivity and, 148 responsibilities of, 52-54 scientific, 10 Management accounting systems, 57- 58, 12~130. See Ado Cost account- ing systems Manpower, policy recommendations for machine tool industry, 143 Manufacturing command-and-control view of, 10-11 computer-integrated. See Computer- integrated manufacturing computers in, 10, 32. See Oreo Com- puters current role of, ~11 decline in United States, 5-7 erosion of base, 6-7, 23 flexible systems. See Flexible manu- facturing systems foreign facilities in United States, 63 government role in, ~4, 61-69. See also Government; Policy recommen- dations history of in United States, ~9 information systems, 10 neglect of manufacturing function, 2 networks in, 105-106 output, defense vs. nondefense, 13 recent U.S. performance, 11-16 and research, 67 responsiveness in, 33-37 systems approach to, 3, 5~52, 72, 79, 102-105 traditional view of, 1~11 trends in, 1, 7, 71 Manufacturing automation protocol, 87, 106, 107 Manufacturing resource planning, 120- 121 Manufacturing Studies Board, 61 Manufacturing system, definition of, 102 Manufacturing technology programs, 68 Material handling, 32, 44 data bases and, 110 design technology, 88 equipment technology, 8~87 trends in, 83-88 Material processing, 44-45 Material transformation, developments in, 8~102 Materials, 4~45 automatic identification of, 86-87 controlling of, 86-87 cutting technologies for, 90 developments in, 7~83 general issues related to, 82-83 lack of data on, 82 press-working technologies for, 90-91 recycling and scrap problems, 83 storing of, 85-86 supply and inventory problems, 82- 83 tooling and, 91-92 transporting of, 84-85 Mathematical modeling, 116 Messerschmidt-Boelkow-Blohm, 118 Metals plating of, 77 processing and forming of, 76-gO substitutions among, 77 Metals and metal-based composites, developments among, 77 Microelectronics industry, 99. See also Computers

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172 Microfactories, 44, 59 Microload automated storage and retrieval systems, 8~86 Model Product Liability Law, 143 Modeling and optimization systems, 11~117 Modway, 105 N National Aeronautics and Space Ad- ministration, 137, 146-147 National Bureau of Standards, 106, 107 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 151 Natural language software, 101 Networks, 105-106 in computer communication, 105 interface standards for, 106-109 proprietary protocols for computers, 105 Numerical control, 35, 39, 88, 89, 106, 122 and computer-aided design, 39 and computer-integrated manufac- turing, 39 data bases and, 110 o Occupational Safety and Health Ad- ministration, 143, 151 Office of Technology Assessment report on computerized automation, 15~152 Offshore production, 21 labor costs and, 43 Operations research, 10 Organizational change, 1, 4~60, 71 backlash from, 60 in defense industries, 68 flattening of structure, 53 manager and worker commitment to, 4~50 as response to competition, 4~50 technology and, 49 unions and, 50 Overhead allocation, 127 p Patents infringement, 64 policy recommendations, 134, 135, 140, 152 Performance evaluations, 57-58 Personnel. See Human resource man- agement Pharmaceutical industry, 140 Policy recommendations, 131-156 Polymers and polymer-based compos- ites, 78-80 President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, 133 report on global competition (1985), 153-155 Press working technologies, 9~91 Price determinants of, 6 elasticity, 20 and technology, 34, 42 Process engineering, 9 Process improvements, 2, 22 Process planning data bases for, 10~110 group technology applications to, 114 large-ecale factory systems and, 116 Producibility, 34, 110 Product development, 2 Product differentiation, 34, 42 Product engineering, 9 Product liability, 140, 143 Product life cycle and income mew surement, 128 Production planning, 10 Production process, systems approach and, 50-51 Productivity, 11-13 in compute~integrated manufactur- ing, 43 goals for, 136 go~remment actions to promote, 149- 150 growth worldwide, 11, 12 incentives for, 148 measurement of, 148 policy recommendations for, 135- 136, 147-148, 148-150

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173 priorate sector actions to promote, 150 Programming languages for robots, 97, 108 Project evaluation, 10 Promotions, 57 Purchasing support by group technol- ogy, 113 Q Quality and cost, 42-46 R Regulatory reform, policy recommen- dations, 133, 152 for automobile industry, 138 for machine tool industry, 143 for productivity, 136 for technology, 135 Regulatory relief, 62 Research decline of U.S. share in, 66-67 government policies toward, 66-68 Research and development, 2, 58-59 Research and development, policy recommendations, 132, 152 for competitiveness, 154 for electronics industry, 139 for pharmaceutical industry, 140 for productivity, 136 for technology, 135 Responsiveness, 3~37 computer-aided design and, 34-37 computer-integrated manufacturing and, 36-37 cost of, 42 flexible manufacturing systems and, 35-36 Retraining, 54, 55. See also Education; Training Robots, 87, 93, 94, 122 graphic simulation of, 99 off-line programming of, 99-100 programming languages for, 97, 108 smart, 96-97, 108 RS-232 interface standard, 107 S Scheduling systems, large-scale factory systems and, 116 Scientific management techniques, 10 Sealant systems, 79 Sensors, 94-96, 122 research in, 95 in robots, 96 Service depot streamlining by group technology, 113-114 Services, 5, 24 Shugart Associates, 19 Simulation, 116-117 SLA1VI, 116 Smart robots, 96-97, 108 Standard of living, 24-25 Steel industry, 18-19 policy recommendations for, 144-145 Stockholder information, 58 Storage carousel conveyors, 85 Storing of materials, 85-86 STRADIS, 115 Subcontracting, 56 Supercomputers, 67 Supplier relations, 50 System modeling, 116-117 Systems approach to manufacturing, 3, 5~52 T Table programming systems, 108 Taxes, policy recommendations, 133 for automobile industry, 138 for pharmaceutical industry, 140 for productivity, 135 for technology, 134 for textile industry, 141 Technical schools, 65 Technology, 2, 31-48, 71 capital investment in, 43-44 and defense, 68-69 in design and production, 32 effect on factor costs, 42-46 implementation of, 32, 42 innovations in, 6, 32 objectives of, 32-33 organizational changes required by, 2-3, 32, 33, 42

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174 as response to competition, 2, 21-22, 31 and responsiveness, 33-37 selection of, 31 Technology, policy recommendations, 134-135 for automation, 151 for machine tool industry, 143 for steel industry, 145 for textile industry, 141 Technology modernization programs, 68 Textile industry, policy recommenda- tion~, 141-142 Tooling technology, 91-92 Trade, 11-12, 14, 62 Trade, policy recommendations, 133 for aviation industry, 137 for competitiveness, 155 for electronics industry, 139 for machine tool industry, 142 for steel industry, 144 for textile industry, 141 Trade Act of 1984, 64 Trade adjustment assistance, 62 Trade policy and foreign competition, 63-65, 133 Trademark infringement, 64 Training, S4, 55,65 Training, policy recommendations, 132 for automation, 151-152 for textile industry, 142 Training and relocation assistance by government, 62 Transporting of materials, 84-85 Turning centers, 89 U Underwriters Laboratory, 79 Unemployment compensation, 62 Unions employment security and, 55 and organizational change, 50 productivity and, 136, 148 V Variable costs, 128 Very large scale integration, 95 Vocational schools, 65 W West Germany, 11, 13, 118 White House Conference on Produc- tivity (1984), 148-150 Work environment, policy recommen- dations for automation, 151 Work in America Institute, report on employment security (1984), 155- 156 X Xerox Corporation, 19