REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON DATA AND METHODS FOR RISK ANALYSIS OF CONSTRUCTED FACILITIES

CITED REFERENCES

Building Research Board, Committee on Advanced Maintenance Concepts for Buildings. 1990. Committing to the Cost of Ownership—Maintenance and Repair of Public Buildings. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press.

Building Research Board. 1989. Use of Building Codes in Federal Agency Construction. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Dezern, J. N. 1988. Risk Assessment and ASTM: Reasons for and against ASTM's involvement. ASTM Standardization News, Feb. 1988:42–55.

Diewald, W. 1989. Risk Analysis in Public Works Facilities Planning, Design, and Construction. Risk Analysis and Management of Natural and Man-Made Hazards, Y. Y. Haimes and E. Z. Stakhiv, eds. Proceedings of the third conference sponsored by the Engineering Foundation in 1987, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.


Events Analysis, Inc. 1989. Risk Analysis/Assessment for Safety, Fire Protection, Industrial Hygiene, and Environmental Management Personnel: Student Manual. Published for use by the General Services Administration (August 1989).


Federal Construction Council. 1990. Building Product Approval Systems—Summary of a Conference. Report Number 100. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.



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Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON DATA AND METHODS FOR RISK ANALYSIS OF CONSTRUCTED FACILITIES CITED REFERENCES Building Research Board, Committee on Advanced Maintenance Concepts for Buildings. 1990. Committing to the Cost of Ownership—Maintenance and Repair of Public Buildings. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. Building Research Board. 1989. Use of Building Codes in Federal Agency Construction. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Dezern, J. N. 1988. Risk Assessment and ASTM: Reasons for and against ASTM's involvement. ASTM Standardization News, Feb. 1988:42–55. Diewald, W. 1989. Risk Analysis in Public Works Facilities Planning, Design, and Construction. Risk Analysis and Management of Natural and Man-Made Hazards, Y. Y. Haimes and E. Z. Stakhiv, eds. Proceedings of the third conference sponsored by the Engineering Foundation in 1987, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. Events Analysis, Inc. 1989. Risk Analysis/Assessment for Safety, Fire Protection, Industrial Hygiene, and Environmental Management Personnel: Student Manual. Published for use by the General Services Administration (August 1989). Federal Construction Council. 1990. Building Product Approval Systems—Summary of a Conference. Report Number 100. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations Freund, A. 1988. Double the Neutral and Derate the Transformer-or Else. Pp. 81–85 in EC&M (December 1988). Fischoff, B. 1984. Setting Standards: A Systematic Approach to Managing Public Health and Safety Risks. Management Science 30(7):823–843. General Services Administration (GSA). 1988. Safety and Environmental Management Program handbook. PBS P 5900.2C(August 2, 1988). Green, M. and A. L. Watson. 1989. Evaluating Buildings in Seismic Zones. Building Standards (July–August, 1989):4–8. Hammer, W. 1972. Handbook of Systems and Products Safety. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Printice Hall. Head, G. L., and S. Horn II. 1985. Essentials of the Risk Management Process. Malvern, Pennsylvania: Insurance Institute of America. Henley, E. and H. Kumamoto. 1981. Reliability Engineering and Risk Assessment. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Printice Hall. International Masonry Institute. 1990. The Loma Prieta, California Earthquake of October 17, 1989; Observations Regarding Performance of Masonry Buildings . Washington, D.C. Journal of Code Enforcement. 1990. II(2). Kaplan, S. and B. J. Garrick. 1981. On the Quantitative Definition of Risk. Risk Analysis 1(1):11–27. Kraus, N. N., and P. Slovic. 1988. Taxonomic Analysis of Perceived Risk: Modeling Individual and Group Perceptions Within Homogeneous Hazard Domains. Risk Analysis 8 (3):435–455. Kreis, D. 1989. Harmonic Analyzer Helps Solve Power Problems. Pp. 73–76 in EC&M (March 1989). Kummer, R. E., and R. B. Sprankle, editors. 1973. Multi-Protection Design. Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, Washington, D.C., TR-20, Volume 6, December 1973. Lew, H.S., ed. 1990. Performance of Structures During the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989. NIST Special Publication 778. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Linstone, H. A., and M. Turoff. 1975. The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications. Addison Wesley. National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control. 1974. America Burning. Washington, D.C. National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards (NCSBCS). 1987. Directory of State Building Codes and Regulations, Herndon, Virginia. National Institute of Building Sciences. 1982. Development and Preliminary Testing of Benefit-Cost and Risk Analysis Methods, Project Report, NIBS, Washington, D.C., November 1982.

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Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations National Research Council. 1988. Building for Tomorrow: Global Enterprise and the U.S. Construction Industry. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council, Committee on Fire Toxicology. 1986. Fire Smoke-Understanding the Hazards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council, Committee on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health. 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council, Committee on Risk Perception and Communication. 1989. Improving Risk Communication. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council, Committee on Seismology. 1988. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Public Risk Management Association (PRIMA). 1988. Public Risk Management: State of the Profession 1987–88, Washington, D.C. Rowe, W. D. 1977. An Anatomy of Risk. New York: Wiley & Sons. Rowe, W. D. 1987. Standardizing Safety: Is Risk Assessment a Viable Tool? Standardization News, ASTM 15(6):38–41. Sandman, P. M. 1988. Covering Waste Management Controversies: The Hazard and the Outrage; Environmental Communication Research Program. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University. Snell, J. 1989. Quantitative Evaluation of Building Fire Safety. Center for Fire Research. Gaithersburg, Maryland: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Slovic, P., B. Fischoff, and S. Lichtenstein. 1985. Characterizing Perceived Risk. Perilous Progress: Technology as Hazard, R. W. Kates, C. Hohenemser, and J. Kasperson, eds., Westview, Boulder, Colorado. Transportation Research Board. 1984. 55: A Decade of Experience. Special Report 204, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Wilson, R. 1979. Analyzing the Daily Risks of Life. Technology Review, February 1979:41–46. GENERAL REFERENCES The following selected references typify the sort of information on specific hazards and procedures of risk analysis that are relevant to dealing with risk in and around buildings. No attempt has been made to be exhaustive in this listing. The general references illustrate how this information has been used to improve procedures for design and evaluation of constructed facilities.

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Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations Risk, Probability, and Safety for Buildings American National Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. 1982. ANSI A58.1-1982. American National Standards Institute, New York. American Nuclear Society and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 1983. PRA Procedures Guide. Report NUREG/CR-2300, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. Ellingwood, B. et al. 1982. Probability Based Load Criteria: Load Factors and Load Combinations. J. Str. Div., ASCE 108(5):978–997. Galambos, T. V. et al. 1982. Probability Based Load Criteria: Assessment of Current Design Practice. J. Str. Div., ASCE 108(5):959–977. Okrent, D. 1980. Comment on Societal Risk. Science 208:372–375. Pugsley, A. 1966. The Safety of Structures. Edward Arnold, London. Rubin, C., et al. 1986. Summary of Major Natural Disaster Incidents in the U.S. 1965–1985. Special Publication 17, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of Risk. Science 236:280–285. Starr, C. 1969. Social Benefit versus Technological Risk. Science 165:1232–1238. Wilson, R., and E. A. C. Crouch. 1987. Risk Assessment and Comparisons: An Introduction. Science 236:267–270. Occupancy Live Load Bryson, J. O., and D. Gross. 1967. Techniques for the Survey and Evaluation of Live Floor Loads and Fire Loads in Modern Office Buildings. Building Science Series No. 16, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. Chalk, P. L., and R. B. Corotis. 1980. Probability Models for Design Live Loads. J. Str. Div., ASCE 106(10):2017–2033. Corotis, R. B., and V. A. Dishi. 1977. Probability Models for Live Load Survey Results. J. Str. Div., ASCE 103(6):1257–1274. Ellingwood, B., and C. Culver. 1977. Analysis of Live Loads in Office Buildings. J. Str. Div., ASCE 103(8):1551–1560. Harris, M. E., R. B. Corotis and C. J. Bova. 1981. Area-Dependent Processes for Structural Life Loads. J. Str. Div., ASCE 107(5):857–872. McGuire, R., and C. A. Cornell. 1974. Live Load Effects in Office Buildings. J. Str. Div., ASCE 100(7):1351–1366. Peir, J. C., and C. A. Cornell. 1973. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Life Loads. J. Str. Div., ASCE 99(5):903–922.

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Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations Snow, Ice, Rain and Temperature Ellingwood, B., and R. Redfield. 1983. Ground Snow Loads for Structural Design. J. Str. Engr. ASCE 109(4):950–964. Ellingwood, B., and R. Redfield. 1984. Probability Models for Annual Extreme Water-equivalent Ground Snow. Monthly Weather Review 112(6):1153–1159. Hershfield, D. 1962. Extreme Rainfall Relationships. J. Hydraulics Div., ASCE 88(6):73–92. Ho, F. P., and J. T. Riedel. 1980. Seasonal Variation of 10-square mile Probable Maximum Precipitation Estimates-United States East of the 105th Meridian. Hydrometeorological Report No. 53, NUREG/CR-1486, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. Isyumov, N., and A. Davenport. 1974. A Probabilistic Approach to the Prediction of Snow Loads. Canadian J. Civil Eng. 1(1):28–49. Nicodemus, M. L., and N. B. Guttman. 1980. Probability Estimates of Temperature Extremes for the Contiguous United States. Report NUREG/CR-1390, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. O'Rourke, M. P., R. Redfield, and P. Van Bradsky. 1982. Uniform Snow Loads on Structures. J. Str. Div., ASCE 108(12):2781–1798. O'Rourke, M. P., and Stieffel. 1983. Roof Snow Loads for Structural Design. J. Str. Eng., ASCE 109(7):1527–1537. Steyaert, L., et al. 1980. Estimating Water-equivalent Snow Depth from Related Meteorological Variables. Report NUREG/CR-1389, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. Wind, Hurricane and Tornado Abbey, R. F. 1976. Risk Probabilities Associated with Tornado Wind Speeds. Pp. 177–236 in Proceedings of the Symposium on Tornadoes, Inct. Disaster Research, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. Batts, M. et al. 1980. Hurricane Wind Speeds in the United States. Building Science Series 124, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. Russell, L. R. 1971. Probability Distributions for Hurricane Effects. J. Waterways, Harbors, and Coastal Eng., Div., ASCE 97(1):139–154. Twisdale, L. A., and W. L. Dunn. 1983. Probabilistic Analysis of Tornado Wind Risks. J. Str. Eng., ASCE 109(2):468–488. Wen, Y. K., and S. L. Chu. 1973. Tornado Risks and Design Wind Speed. J. Str. Div., ASCE 99(12):2409–2421.

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Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations Earthquake Bernreuter, C., et al. 1984. Seismic Hazard Characterization of the Eastern United States: Methodology and Interim Results for Ten Sites. Report NUREG/CR-3756, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. Bernreuter, C., J. B. Savy, and R. W. Mensing. 1987. Seismic Hazard Characterization of the Eastern United States: Comparative Evaluation of the LLNL and EPR Studies. Report NUREG/CR-4885, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D. C. Cornell, C. A. 1968. Engineering Seismic Risk Analysis. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 58(5):1583–1606. Electric Power Research Institute. 1986. Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States. Report NP-4726, Palo Alto, California. Reiter, L. 1986. Current Trends in the Estimation and Application of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in the United States. International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Safety TC/NENS-09, Vol. 1. Explosions, Vehicular Impact, and Progressive Collapse Burnett, E. F. P. 1975. The Avoidance of Progressive Collapse: Regulatory Approaches to the Problem. Report GCR-75-48, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. Ellingwood, B., and E. V. Leyendecker. 1977. Approaches for Design Against Progressive Collapse. J. Str. Div., ASCE 104(3):413–423. Leyendecker, E. V., and E. F. P. Burnett. 1976. The Incidence of Abnormal Loading in Residential Buildings. Building Science Series No. 89, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. Mainstone, R. J. 1974. The Hazards of Explosion, Impact and Other Random Loadings on Tall Buildings. Building Research Establishment Current Paper CP 64–74, Garston, Watford, United Kingdom. Fire Burros, R. 1975. Probability of Failure of Buildings from Fire. J. Str. Div., ASCE 101(9):1947–1960. CIB W14. 1983. A Conceptual Approach Towards a Probability Based Design Guide on Structural Fire Safety. Fire Safety Journal 6(1):1–79.

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Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations Culver, C. G. 1976. Survey Results for Fire Loads and Live Loads in Office Buildings. Building Science Series No. 85, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. Issen, L. A. 1980. Single-Family Residential Fire and Live Loads Survey. NBSIR 80-2155, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. Lie, T. T. 1974. A Probabilistic Approach to Structural Fire Safety. Division of Building Research Technical Paper No. 438, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. Lie, T. T. 1979. Safety Factors for Fire Loads. Canadian J. Civil Engr. 6(4):617–628. Mehaffey, J. R., and T. Z. Harmathy. 1984. Failure Probabilities of Constructions Designed for Fire Resistance. Fire and Materials 8(2):96–104.

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