KEEPING THE U.S. COMPUTER INDUSTRY COMPETITIVE: SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

A COLLOQUIUM REPORT BY

THE COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1992



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Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: System Integration KEEPING THE U.S. COMPUTER INDUSTRY COMPETITIVE: SYSTEMS INTEGRATION A COLLOQUIUM REPORT BY THE COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1992

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Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: System Integration NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bondurant is acting president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the following organizations and agencies: Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. N00014-87-J-1110), Apple Computer, Inc., Control Data Corporation, Cray Research, Inc., the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Grant No. N00014-87-J-1110), Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett Packard, IBM Corporation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Grant No. CDA-860535), the National Science Foundation (Grant No. CDA-860535), the Office of Naval Research (Grant No. N00014-87-J-1110), and Pacific Bell. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 91-62172 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04544-4 Available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 S404 Printed in the United States of America

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Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: System Integration COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD JOSEPH F. TRAUB, Columbia University, Chairman ALFRED V. AHO, Bellcore RUZENA BAJCSY, University of Pennsylvania DAVID J. FARBER, University of Pennsylvania SAMUEL H. FULLER, Digital Equipment Corporation JOHN L. HENNESSY, Stanford University MITCHELL D. KAPOR, ON Technology, Inc. SIDNEY KARIN, San Diego Supercomputer Center KEN KENNEDY, Rice University LEONARD KLEINROCK, University of California at Los Angeles ROBERT L. MARTIN, Bell Communications Research ABRAHAM PELED, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center WILLIAM PRESS, Harvard College Observatory RAJ REDDY, Carnegie Mellon University JEROME H. SALTZER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARY SHAW, Carnegie Mellon University EDWARD SHORTLIFFE, Stanford University School of Medicine IVAN E. SUTHERLAND, Sun Microsystems LAWRENCE G. TESLER, Apple Computer, Inc. GEORGE L. TURIN, Teknekron Corporation WILLIS H. WARE, The RAND Corporation WILLIAM WULF, University of Virginia MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Staff Director HERBERT LIN, Staff Officer MONICA B. KRUEGER, Staff Officer RENEE A. HAWKINS, Staff Associate FRANK PITTELLI, CSTB Consultant DONNA F. ALLEN, Administrative Secretary CATHERINE A. SPARKS, Project Assistant ARTHUR L. McCORD, Project Assistant

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Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: System Integration COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS NORMAN HACKERMAN, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Chairman PETER J. BICKEL, University of California at Berkeley GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University DEAN E. EASTMAN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center MARYE ANNE FOX, University of Texas PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS, Institute for Advanced Study NEAL F. LANE, Rice University ROBERT W. LUCKY, AT&T Bell Laboratories CLAIRE E. MAX, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California at Berkeley JAMES W. MITCHELL, AT&T Bell Laboratories RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science ALAN SCHRIESHEIM, Argonne National Laboratory KENNETH G. WILSON, Ohio State University NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: System Integration Preface This report on systems integration is the second in a series of Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) reports focusing on the competitive status of the U.S. computer industry. In CSTB's initial report, Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: Defining the Agenda (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990), leaders of the computing field surveyed each of the major sectors of the computer industry. To no one's surprise, the hardware sector was considered to be under serious competitive pressure, with the semiconductor memory market all but ceded to Japanese companies. The U.S. competitive position in the software market was deemed to be strong but precarious, given the weakness in basic hardware components. However, systems integration was identified as a large and rapidly growing market in which the United States was a clear leader; unfortunately, few could agree on just what systems integration was! The present report is based on a colloquium held in January 1991 in which participants from industry, academia, and government discussed what systems integration is, its importance and prospects for growth, and why the United States is perceived to have a strong competitive advantage. A distillation of the colloquium discussions, this report is designed, in particular, to inform policymakers, but it should also be of value to anyone with an interest in computing and telecommunications. The colloquium was organized by a steering committee chaired by Laszlo Belady, then vice president for Software Technology and Advanced Computing Technology Programs at the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (he is now chairman and director of Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories Inc.). Other members of the steering committee

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Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: System Integration were Samuel Fuller, vice president of research at Digital Equipment Corporation; Robert Lucky, executive director of research, Communications Sciences Division, AT&T Bell Laboratories; and Irving Wladawsky-Berger, assistant general manager of development and quality for IBM's Enterprise Systems. Among CSTB staff, Damian Saccocio and Catherine Sparks had principal responsibility for the colloquium; they were aided by CSTB meeting consultant Pamela Rodgers and free-lance science writer Mark Bello. Joseph F. Traub, Chairman Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

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Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: System Integration Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   OVERVIEW   4 2   APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: EVOLUTION IN CONCEPT AND PRACTICE   16 3   ENABLING TECHNOLOGY: COMMUNICATIONS AND SOFTWARE   41 4   THE NEXT TIER: BUILDING SYSTEMS OF SYSTEMS   62 5   PREREQUISITES FOR PROGRESS   74     APPENDIXES         A Colloquium Program   93     B Colloquium Participants   96

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