1. Durros, Irwin. 1990. "Calling for Cooperation," Bellcore Exchange, November–December, p. 7.

2. For example, 18 midsize paper companies with collective annual revenues of $4 billion pooled their resources to create a $50 million global information network that links the companies, offices of major customers, and international sales offices. This system permits same-day responses to inquiries from customers, as compared with the industry average of 12 days. (Konsynski, Benn R., and F. Warren McFarlan. 1990. "Information Partnerships—Shared Data, Shared Scale," Harvard Business Review, September–October, pp. 115–118.)

Also, a number of Wall Street security firms—where information technology expenditures can account for 15 percent to 20 percent of expenses—are engaged in several types of cooperative activities, including sharing disaster-recovery sites, combining and distributing their analytical libraries, and developing a shared Electronic Data Interchange network. (Ambrosio, Johanna. 1991. "Wall Street Firms Try Shared Technology," ComputerWorld, June 24.)

3. Computer Science and Technology Board, National Research Council. 1988. The National Challenge in Computer Science and Technology, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. See also the September 1991 issue of Scientific American, which has several articles relating to information infrastructure.

4. Department of Commerce. 1991. U.S. Industrial Outlook 1991, Information Services, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., p. 27-5.

5. As reported in Gartner Group Inc. 1990. "Systems Integration Scenario," Gartner Group Inc., Greenwich, Conn., p. 7.

6. Rothfeder, Jeffrey, Peter Coy, and Gary McWilliams. 1990. "Taming the Wild Network," Business Week, October 8, p. 143.

7. Shapiro, Eben. 1991. "AT&T Buying Computer Maker in Stock Deal Worth $7.4 Billion," New York Times, May 7, p. A1.

8. Bellcore Technical Liaison Office. 1990. "Japanese Telecommunications," unpublished paper, Bellcore, Morristown, N.J., July, p. 2-1.

9. For a compelling discussion of the enormous potential for an information infrastructure to transform society as seen by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the reader is referred to the so-called "Sixth Generation" or New Information Processing Technology (NIPT) project currently proposed by MITI and discussed in its Report of the Research Committee on New Information Processing Technology, Industrial Electronics Division, Machinery and Information Industries Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, March 1991.

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