tion and technology, where the payoffs may be more than five years away, if you are not convinced that that is very important—that you either push at the leading edge of technology or you go out of business."
1. Computer Science and Technology Board, National Research Council. 1990. Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: Defining the Agenda, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., p. 66.
2. Gilder, George. 1991. "Into the Telecosm," Harvard Business Review , March–April, p. 158.
3. For example, within the European Community the Research and Development in Advanced Communications technologies for Europe (RACE) program represents a collaborative effort to develop the telecommunications infrastructure required to support future computer networks. The program was initiated in 1988 as a five-year effort with eight nations contributing over half a billion dollars to develop an integrated broadband communications system for high-speed operation. (Blackburn, J. F. 1989. The RACE Program in 1988, Office of Naval Research Europe Report (ONREUR), Washington, D.C., March; or RACE DG XIII-F (Directorate General XIII). 1990. Research and Development in Advanced Communications Technologies in Europe. RACE '90, European Commission, Brussels, March.)
Japan, for its part, has committed more than $130 billion through the MITI New Media Community and the NTT Information Network System project to building a national ISDN network and achieving full digitization of Japanese telephone service before the turn of the century (Bellcore Technical Liaison Office, "Japanese Telecommunications," unpublished paper, p. 2-1, July 1990).
4. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration. 1991. The NTIA Infrastructure Report: Telecommunications in the Age of Information, NTIA Special Publication 91-26, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., October.
5. Gilder, 1991, "Into the Telecosm," p. 156.
6. Arthur D. Little, Inc., 1991, Can Telecommunications Help Solve America's Transportation Problems?, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., May, as reported on in: Passel, Peter, 1991. "The Faxes Are Coming," New York Times, April 10, p. D2.
7. The NTIA infrastructure report referenced above (see note 4) argues for increased competition in relevant markets as a stimulus to the development of infrastructure, and it also advances an updated concept of universal service, which it calls Advanced Universal Service Access (Advanced USA). The report recommends:
Thus, instead of seeking only to provide a specified package of services, the FCC, the states, and the telecommunications industry should seek to make advanced network capabilities and access to non-network based services available to all users on an optional, low-cost basis. Policymakers should generally define, in a technologically-neutral way, the features or functionalities that are elements of Advanced USA. (pp. xxiv–xxv)