8. Lopez, Julie Amparano, and Mary Lu Carnevale. 1990. ''Glassed Houses: Fiber Optics Promises Revolution of Sort If the Sharks Don't Bite," Wall Street Journal, July 10, pp. A1 and A10. The NTIA infrastructure report referenced in note 4 comments on the lower rate of ISDN implementation in the United States as compared to several other countries (pp. 183–187), and it also references efforts to deploy fiber to the home and fiber to the curb (pp. 100–109) as part of the improvements to transmission systems under way.

9. Although the SSA implemented a comprehensive systems modernization plan during the 1980s that brought its information systems back from the brink of failure, a recent assessment concluded that the "SSA can do a great deal more to exploit the benefits of on-line automation" (National Research Council, 1991, Elements of Systems Modernization for the Social Security System, and 1990, Systems Modernization and the Strategic Plans of the Social Security Administration, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.).

The IRS is itself on the threshold of a major Tax Systems Modernization program that will significantly enhance its ability to exploit the benefits of dealing with information in electronic, as opposed to paper, form. That program is under evaluation by the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board.

10. Kleinrock, Leonard. 1991. "ISDN—The Path to Broadband Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 79, No. 2, February, p. 112.

11. Dorros, Irwin. 1990. "Calling for Cooperation," Bellcore Exchange , November–December, pp. 7–8.

12. The impediments and other issues are similar to those found impeding progress in systems technology generally and notably in the area of software engineering. A discussion of these issues in the context of software engineering can be found in the following report: Computer Science and Technology Board, National Research Council. 1989. Scaling Up: A Research Agenda for Software Engineering, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

13. Boehm, B. W. 1981. Software Engineering Economics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

14. Brandt, Richard. 1991. "Can the U.S. Stay Ahead in Software?" Business Week, March 11, p. 98.

15. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council. 1991. Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., p. 7.



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