Click for next page ( 82


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 81
APPENDIX E PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS The following tables and project descriptions were provided to vessel chartering organizations by the committee in order to solicit cost data for the types of charter arrangements described below. Project descriptions for bathymetric, fisheries, and oceanographic and atmospheric research missions were modeled after standard NOAA vessel project specifications. Day rate cost estimates were made for bareboat, time charter, and turnkey charters over short-term and long-term time frames. MULTIBEAM SWATH SURVEY 1. Geographic area of survey: Washington, Oregon, and California coasts. 2. Bottom coverage: 100 percent. 3. Accuracy: depth--1 percent of depth (International Hydro- graphic Office (IHO) Standards; position--50 m. Calibration data, including sound velocity information, shall be provided to verify horizontal and vertical accuracy. 4. Scale of survey: 1:50,000. 5. Datum: vertical--mean lower low water (data must be corrected for tide); horizontal--NAD 1927 6. Security classification: secret. 7. Additional requirements: All floating aids to navigation and drilling structures shall be located and described. Bottom samples at 5-nary spacing. Loran C verification. Review and supplement Coast Pilot Text. Inspect all National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charts and maps in the area and submit any recommendations for improvements. Meteorological observations (wind speed and direction, wet and dry bulb temperatures, wave height, visibility, barometric pressure) every 3 furs. 81

OCR for page 81
82 EXAMPLE CHARTER OPPORTUNITIES DIRECT COST COMPARISON Short-Term (1 and 2 years) Charter Alternatives* Bathymetry/mapping Fisheries Oceanography and Atmospheric Research Bare Boat Ship w/crew Ship "/contractor Long-Term** (10 years) Charter Alternatives* Bathymetry/mapping Fisheries Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Bare Boat Ship w/crew Ship "/contractor *Assume boat includes necessary sea-going and specialized equipment. Assume cost base on 1987 dollars and option for build-to-lease arrangement. FIGURE E- 1 Example charter opportunities direct cost comparison.

OCR for page 81
83 VESSEL COST CATEGORIES PROJECT: CHARTER VESSEL COST CATEGORY CHARTER COST A. SHIP'S OPERATING CREW Salaries Benefits Overtime Travel Rations Training Total B. SCIENTIFIC CREW Salaries Benefits Overtime Travel Rations Training Total TOTAL SALARIES AND WAGES C. SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT OTHER SHIP-OPERATING EXPENSES Rents (Port fees, etc.) Contractual Services Fuel (assume $1.00/gal) Expendable supplies Equipment Utilities Insurance SHIP MAINTENANCE COST DEPRECIATION/CAPITAL COSTS GENERAL ADM. OVERHEAD PROFIT TOTAL COST CATEGORIES ABOVE COST ADJUSTMENTS--TABLE A TOTAL OPERATING COSTS (TOC) OPERATING DAYS Assume: YEARS 1 2 10 A. 250 operating days (includes transit time and down-time for weather) B. 85 days alongside (with scientific party aboard). C. 30 maintenance days (with full crew aboard). FIGURE E-1 Continued.

OCR for page 81
84 expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts every 12 furs. 3.5-kHz subbottom profile. 8. Deliverables: Contour plot (20-m contours). Raw data tapes. Position plot. Calibration data (for position control and vertical reference). Tide data. Floating aids to navigation and drilling structure report. Bottom samples and report. Loran C report (ancillary task for Coast Guard network verification). Coast pilot report. Chart inspection report. Meteorological data. XBT data. 3.5-kHz data. 9. Endurance: 20 to 30 days at sea, up to Sea State 5, speed of 12 knots. 10. Space requirements: Crew--contractor to specify size of crew to operate ship. Scientific personnel--two electronic technicians, six watch- standers, and one or two data-processing people. Equipment Requirements Deck Equipment --Oceanographic winch with 12,000 ft of .292-in. electromechanical cable. --Oceanographic winch with 4,000 ft 5/16 wire rope --Movable A-frame with 4 ft over-the-side clearance --2 deck cranes with 2,800 lb capacity (boom extended) Electronic and Support Equipment --Multibeam Swath Survey System, including data-processing equipment (Raydist positioning system). --VHF/FM transceivers. --High frequency (HF) transceivers. --Teletype capability. --Portable emergency transceiver. --Emergency position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs). --Two LORAN C systems. --Satellite navigation (SATNAV).

OCR for page 81
85 --Two radars. --Gyrocompass and autopilot. --Shallow water survey fathometer. --Conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) system. --XBT system. --Sound velocity system. --Meteorological system. --Nansen bottles and reversing thermometers. --Salinity, temperature, depth (STD). --Lab salinometer. --Bottom samplers. --Tide measurement system. GROUNDFISH ASSESSMENTS The government has conduct a bottom-trawl, groundfish resources in of Alaska region. The mid-June of each year. Washington. Vessel requirements a requirement for the charter of a vessel to resource assessment-type survey of the continental shelf and slope waters of the Gulf charter periods are for 90 days starting in The charters commence and terminate in Seattle, under this charter are: Completely rigged and ready-to-fish with government-provided otter trawl gear. Vessel equipment shall include stanchions, a minimum of two separate net reels--each with capacity to hold one standard commercial-type roller-rigged bottom trawl and ready to fish alternately--and a split-trawl winch equipped with approximately 1,200 fathoms of trawl cable of not less than 5/8-in. diameter. The vessel shall be equipped with contractor-provided 6 x 9 ft vee-type trawl doors (1,500 to 2,000 lb each). The vessel shall have been involved in commercial fishing (trawl) during the past 12 months. O Appropriate modern electronic navigation and communication equipment including emergency (battery-powered) radio, ~HF radio, synthesized single sideband radio covering the frequency range from 2 to 18 mHz; dual automatic Loran Cs; Loran-C plotter; dual radars; a headrope transducer system (either third wire or acoustic link), preferably with independent paper recorder; a colorscope depth sounder and a recording depth sounder, each with the capacity to detect bottom conditions down to 800 fathoms with white-line or gray-line and bottom-scale expansion features. The crew shall consist of a captain, two fishermen, a cook- fisherman, and an engineer-fisherman. The captain shall have a minimum of 3 years fishing experience as a master of a comparable-sized otter trawler and at least 5 years fishing experience as a master (not necessarily of a trawler). One fisherman (lead) shall have a minimum of 10 years experience in otter trawl fishing and in building, rigging, repairing, and operating bottom and mid-water trawls. The other

OCR for page 81
86 fishermen or crewmen shall have a minimum of 3 years experience in the otter trawl fishery. At least 3 crewmen shall have competent knowledge of otter trawl construction and repair. The crew, when not required by the master for vessel operations, shall assist the government scientific staff in sorting the catch and obtaining biological data. (It is the contractor's responsibility to obtain any necessary licenses and permits and to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws in connection with performance of this contract.) The government's scientific party shall consist of not more than five employees or cooperators, who may include female employees. Accommodations shall be clean and sanitary and include a two-bunk stateroom for female scientists. The head and shower shall be separated from the living quarters. Meals shall be provided by the contractor at no additional cost and include three meals per day plus a light evening snack. Meals shall be well-balanced with a proper variety of nutritious foods. The vessel shall also have the following: --A minimum of 200 cu ft of freezer storage, exclusive of cook's stores, for stowing scientific samples. --A clean flush deck area of approximately 750 sq ft for working catches and taking biological information, with room for the contractor to securely fasten government-owned livefish tank and work table (each requiring about 4 x 8 ft deck space), positioned so as not to obstruct fishing operations and not be in the bight of the trawl warps. --Three deck bins, approximately 6 x 8 x 2 ft each. --A movable boom or crane for handling trawl gear and catches, and for self-loading and unloading of fishing gear. --Raw seawater pump and hose to supply on-deck cleaning needs and government-provided fish holding tanks. Continuous supply may be required for several hours at a time. --Dry storage area of approximately 50 cu ft in the deck house for holding scientific supplies. --Dry storage area of approximately 3,000 cu ft in the fish hold for fishing gear and accessories. This area should be easily accessible under normal conditions. --A suitable desk or shelf area in deck house of about 2-1/2 x 2 ft for installation of a government-provided data logger. --A suitable desk or dry counter work space of about 6 sq ft for data analysis and recording, plus a suitable chart table. --Laundry facilities, i.e., washer and dryer. --Potable fresh water supply adequate for vessel and personal use of lo people for about 4 weeks (minimum 3,500 gal). Workday length will be determined each day by the field party chief in consultation with the vessel master. Contractor will be responsible for thoroughly cleaning, washing, and baling all nets used.

OCR for page 81
87 o The contractor shall provide arctic-type survival suits for all vessel crewmen. The contractor shall provide all operating expenses of the vessel exclusive of: (1) fishing nets and associated hardware, (2) net bridles, (3) net-mending supplies, and (4) echo sounder paper and (5) Loran-C plotting paper. The contractor shall provide a stable 12-ft minimum (LOA) skiff and a 15 HP outboard motor. The survey period will be divided into three legs. A 1- or 2-day break between legs, during which time the vessel would be "off charter' with no payment, may be scheduled at contractor's option. Equipment Requirements Deck Equipment --Two net reels each with the capability to hold one standard commercial roller rigged bottom trawl. --Trawl winch equipped with 1,200 fathoms of trawl cable of 5/8-in. diameter. --6 x 9 ft vee-type trawl doors; 1,500 to 2,000 lb each. --Fixed length boom or crane. --CTD winch with 6,000 m of .292-in. CTD cable. --A-frame. --Net sonde winch. --Pot hauler. --Line coiler. Electronic and Support Equipment --Portable emergency transceiver. --VHF/FM transceiver. --One to 18-mHz SSB transceiver. --Two automatic Loran-Cs with plotter. --SATNAV system. --Two radars. --Headrope transducer system; third wire or acoustic link with independent recorder. --Colorscope depth sounder and recording depth sounder capable of detecting bottom conditions to 800 fathoms with white-line or gray-line bottom scale expansion features. --EPIRBs. --Gyrocompass. --12-ft work boat with 15 HP outboard (CTD system). --XBT system. --Speed log. --Meteorological data system.

OCR for page 81
88 GULF OF MEXICO FISH SURVEY The government has a requirement for a 3-year charter of a vessel to conduct a bottom-trawl, resource assessment-type survey of the finfish resources in the continental shelf waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico region. The charter periods are for 30 to 40 days (minimum, 30; maximum, 40~. There will be a cruise starting in mid-April of each year for 15 to 20 days, and a second cruise each year starting in late October of each year for 15 to 20 days. Vessel requirements under this charter are: Minimum overall length of 95 ft. Minimum main engine continuous horsepower of 600. Completely rigged and ready to fish with government-provided, high-opening bottom trawls. Vessel equipment shall include stanchions, a minimum of 1 net reel with the capacity to handle 1 standard 80-ft otter trawl and split winches equipped with a minimum of 7,000 ft of trawl cable of not less than 1/2-in. diameter in good condition to perform the fishing requirements under this charter. The vessel shall be equipped with contractor-provided 6 x 9 ft vee-type trawl doors (1,200-1,500 lb each). Designated deck work areas for biological processing of the catch should be relatively clear of running gear, equipment, and stowage, and not be in the bight of trawl warps. The vessel shall have been involved in commercial fishing or fisheries research (trawl) during the past 12 months. Appropriate modern electronic navigation and communication equipment, including emergency (battery-powered) radio, VHF radio, synthesized single sideband radio covering the frequency range of 2-18 mHz; dual automatic Loran-Cs; Loran-C plotter; dual radars; a colorscope depth sounder and a recording depth sounder each with the capacity to detect bottom conditions down to 800 fathoms with white-line or gray-line and bottom-scale expansion features. The colorscope depth sounder and recording depth sounder should be independent systems using separate transducers. Proof of testing and tuning of all communication equipment shall be supplied to the government before the charter commences. 0 The crew shall consist of a captain, two fishermen, a cook- fisherman, and an engineer-fisherman. The captain shall be competent in the use of modern navigational and fish-detecting equipment. The captain shall have a minimum of 3 years experience as a master of a comparable-sized otter trawler/research vessel and at least 5 years fishing experience as a master. One fisherman shall have a minimum of 10 years experience in otter trawl fishing and in building, rigging, repairing, and operating bottom and mid-water trawls. The other fishermen or crewmen shall each have a minimum of 3 years of experience in the otter trawl fishery. At least two crewmen shall have competent knowledge of otter trawl construction and repair. The crew, when not required by the master for vessel operations, shall assist the government scientific staff in sorting the catch and obtaining biological data.

OCR for page 81
89 The government's scientific party shall consist of not more than five employees, which may include female employees. Accommodations shall be clean and sanitary and include a two-bunk stateroom for female scientists. The head and shower shall be separate from the living quarters. Meals shall be provided by the contractor and include three meals per day plus a light evening snack. Meals should be well-balanced with a proper variety of nutritious foods. The vessel shall also have the following: --A minimum of 50 cu ft of freezer storage, exclusive of cook's stores, for stowing scientific samples. --A movable boom or crane for handling trawl gear and catches, and for self-loading and unloading of fishing gear. --Raw seawater pump and hose to supply on-deck cleaning needs. --Potable freshwater supply adequate for vessel and personal use of 10 people for about 4 weeks. o Vessel shall be ballasted to maintain sea kindliness while operating under the charter. o Work-day length will be determined each day by the field party chief in consultation with the vessel master. The government Field Party Chief has final authority except for work stoppage resulting from uncontrollable situations such as unsafe weather and sea conditions and other safety-of-life-at-sea considerations as determined by the vessel master. Contractor will be responsible for thoroughly cleaning, washing, and baling all nets used. The contractor shall provide all operating expenses of the vessel exclusive of: (1) fishing nets and associated hardware, (2) net bridles, and (3) net-mending supplies. The government will repair or replace contractor-provided trawl cable that is damaged beyond normal wear and tear or lost during fishing operations. Fuel oil purchased by the contractor to replace that used for charter operations shall be billed to and payable by the contractor who shall, in turn, bill the government for reimbursement through the contracting officer's technical representative (COTR). Fuel tanks must be filled at beginning of charter and at end of charter unless other arrangements are made between contractor and government. All fish and shellfish taken shall remain the property of the government, and the field party chief is authorized to dispose of the catch as he/she sees fit. The contractor shall provide to the government a list of medical supplies carried on board the vessel and a description of the first-aid training of the vessel's captain and crew. PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC PROJECT 1. Operating area--North Pacific Ocean. 2. Cruise duration--approximately 20 days.

OCR for page 81
go 3. Period--early spring. 4. Project overview--The Radiatively Important Trace Species (RITS)/Acid Rain program is a large national program assessing the natu- ral sources of sulfur and nitrogen to the atmosphere and is specifically intended to further the understanding of the role of the ocean in global and regional sulfur and nitrogen cycles. Reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds are produced biologically in the ocean surface. The compounds escape to the atmosphere where they form ammonium sulfate aerosols. These atmospheric aerosols play an important role in determining the acidity of rainfall, the optical depth of clouds, and hence the albedo of the earth. The program is designed to measure oceanic and atmospheric concentrations of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds in order to calculate the significance of the oceanic source of sulfur and nitrogen to the atmosphere. 5. Accommodations--berthing and mess facilities are required for a scientific party of five. 6. Scientific measurements--surface seawater sampling for reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds, nitrate, chlorophyll a, productivity, temperature, salinity, and pH. Air sampling for reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds, ozone, total particle number, major ions and elements, and temperature. Rain-water sampling. CTD/rosette casts to 500 m. XBT casts and routine weather observations. Marine mammal observations. 7. Vessel equipment required--Sufficient consumables, backup units and on-site spares, and technical support must be in place to prevent operational interruptions. All measurement instruments are expected to have current calibrations. The following systems are essential to the cruise . Navigation, 0.1 nm or better. Echo sounder. CTD/rosette sampling system capable of 500-meter casts and data outputs compatible with NOAA laboratories. O Reversing thermometers (0-15C). Salinometer, salinity sample bottles, and standard seawater. o SSB transceiver. Continuously flowing seawater to the vessel laboratories (minimum 10 l per minute). Scientific lab space (150 sq ft). 8. Ancillary projects--the following projects will be conducted by ship personnel in accordance with existing NOAA instructions: Shipboard environmental data aquisition system (SEAS) data collection and transmission. Marine mammal reporting. Nautical charting.

OCR for page 81
91 9. Support personnel--In addition to those responsibilities associated with safe vessel operations the vessel personnel will: Conduct CTD operations. Calibrate the continuous nitrate system. Conduct productivity and chlorophyll measurements. Conduct salinity measurements. Load and change all filter packs. These responsibilities will continue 24 hours per day Equipment Requirements Deck Equipment . --Oceanographic winch with 4,000 ft of .292-in. CTD cable. --Oceanographic winch with 30,000 ft of 3/16 in. wire rope. --Two A-rames. --Two deck cranes with minimum 2,500-lb capacity Electronic and Support Equipment --VHF/FM transceivers. --HE transceivers. --Teletype system. --Portable emergency transceiver. --EPIRBs. --Two radars. --Gyrocompass and autopilot. --LORAN-C system. --SATNAV system. --Speed log system. --Shallow water fathometer system. --Deep-water fathometer system. --Rosette/CTD system. --Salinometer. --Calibrated reversing thermometers. --XBT system. --Meteorological system. --Scientific data processing system (VAX, POP 11/34, and so on). . GENERAL PURPOSE OCEANOGRAPHIC VESSEL 1. Operating area--Atlantic Ocean. 2. Cruise duration--10 weeks with port calls. 3. Period--fall to early winter.

OCR for page 81
92 4. Project overview--The project will include physical, chemical, geological, and biological investigations. Scientific operations will include CTD/rosette casts to 5,000 m, side scan and bottom camera tows, core sampling, continuous sea surface temperature measurements, continuous upper-ocean current velocity measurements, XBT casts, and the deployment and recovery of deep oceanographic moorings. 5. Accommodations--Berthing and mess facilities are required for a scientific party of 26. 6. Vessel equipment required--GPS, SATNAV, Loran-C, 3.5-kHz sub- bottom profiler, multibeam survey system, CTD and deep-ocean traction winch systems for 5,000-m CTD casts and bottom cores, crane/winch system for deployment of deep-ocean moorings (4,000 lb), CTD/rosette system with bottles, reversing thermometers, salinometer, XBT system, acoustic current profiler. 7. Vans--One radiochemistry and one trace metal van will be installed aboard the vessel prior to the cruise. Suitable tie downs, power, and fresh water must be available. 8. Laboratory space--dry oceanographic laboratory of 1,800 sq ft. wet laboratory of 150 sq ft. meteorology laboratory of 150 sq ft. photography laboratory of 160 sq ft. 9. Storage space--Freezer and refrigerator space is required for samples. Deck storage required for 15 railroad wheel anchors and 6 each 4 x 4 x 4 ft baskets of mooring gear. 10. Support personnel--Vessel crew will operate all equipment pro- vided by the vessel. Operations will continue 24 hours per day. The current profiler and XBT system will operate continuously; the 3.5-kHz profiler, multibeam survey system, and bottom coring will take place simultaneously; CTD, rosette sampling, and salinometer operations will take place simultaneously; camera tows and multibeam survey operations will occur simultaneously; side scan and multibeam surveying will occur simultaneously; no other operations will take place during mooring deployment and recovery. Deck Equipment Equipment Requirements --Two oceanographic winches with 30,000 ft of 3/16-in. wire rope. --Oceanographic winch with 30,000 ft of .292-in. electromechanical cable. --Deep-sea traction winch with 42~000 ft of 1/2-in. wire rope. --Two deck cranes with 4,700 lb lifting capacity. --Two A-frames. --Stern A-frame or gantry frame. Electronic and Support Equipment --VHF/FM transceivers. --HE transceivers.

OCR for page 81
93 -Teletype. Portable emergency transceivers. EPIRBs. ARGO positioning system for offshore surveys. Multibeam Swath Survey System with data processing equipment. Deep-water fathometer system. Shallow-water fathometer system. 3.5-kHz profiler. Gyrocompass and autopilot. Two radars. Two LORAN-C systems. GPS system. Two SATNAV systems. -Radio-direction finder (RDF) -Magnetometer system. --Meteorological system. Termosalinograph. CTD/rosette system. Laboratory salinometer XBT system. -Reversing thermometers. -Acoustic current profiler -INMARSAT system. Scientific computer system (VAX, DEC, and so on). . - . .

OCR for page 81