APPENDIX C
REFERENCES AND SELECTED READINGS

By 1991 the scientific literature dealing specifically with neem and its products had reached more than 1400 articles. In this appendix we highlight just a few of the more general reviews as well as the articles referred to in each chapter.

CONFERENCE REPORTS

Three international neem conferences have been held at Rottach-Egern, Germany, in 1980; at Rauischholzhausen, Germany, in 1983; and at Nairobi, Kenya, in 1986. The proceedings from each are available from the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany. The citations are as follows:

Schmutterer, H., K.R.S. Ascher, and H. Rembold, eds. 1981. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.).

Schmutterer, H. and K.R.S. Ascher, eds. 1984. Natural Pesticidesfrom the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Other Tropical Plants.

Schmutterer, H. and K.R.S. Ascher, eds. 1987. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Other Tropical Plants.

Two neem conferences have been held recently in the United States:

Locke, J.C. and R.H. Lawson, eds. 1990. Neem's Potential in Pest Management Programs, Proceedings of the USDA Neem Workshop.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-86, 136 pp. Copies are available from James Locke, Plant Pathologist, Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory, USDA/ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.

Ahmed, S., ed. In press. Neem (Azadirachta indica) for pest control and rural development in Asia and the Pacific. Special session on neem from the 17th Pacific Science Congress, May 27 to June 2, 1991.



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APPENDIX C REFERENCES AND SELECTED READINGS By 1991 the scientific literature dealing specifically with neem and its products had reached more than 1400 articles. In this appendix we highlight just a few of the more general reviews as well as the articles referred to in each chapter. CONFERENCE REPORTS Three international neem conferences have been held at Rottach-Egern, Germany, in 1980; at Rauischholzhausen, Germany, in 1983; and at Nairobi, Kenya, in 1986. The proceedings from each are available from the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany. The citations are as follows: Schmutterer, H., K.R.S. Ascher, and H. Rembold, eds. 1981. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.). Schmutterer, H. and K.R.S. Ascher, eds. 1984. Natural Pesticidesfrom the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Other Tropical Plants. Schmutterer, H. and K.R.S. Ascher, eds. 1987. Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Other Tropical Plants. Two neem conferences have been held recently in the United States: Locke, J.C. and R.H. Lawson, eds. 1990. Neem's Potential in Pest Management Programs, Proceedings of the USDA Neem Workshop.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-86, 136 pp. Copies are available from James Locke, Plant Pathologist, Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory, USDA/ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA. Ahmed, S., ed. In press. Neem (Azadirachta indica) for pest control and rural development in Asia and the Pacific. Special session on neem from the 17th Pacific Science Congress, May 27 to June 2, 1991.

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NEWSLETTER Since 1984, a team of dedicated Indian scientists1 have published the Neem Newsletter. This quarterly newsletter is supplied free of charge to those engaged in neem research and utilization. Copies are available from the Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India. BIBLIOGRAPHY At least one comprehensive bibliography of recent neem articles is available: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1989. The Neem Tree: An Inhibitor of Insect Feeding and Growth, January 1982-April 1989.NAL-BIBL. QB 89-89. Updates QB 86-27, July, 1989. Quick Bibliography Series. USDA, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. THE VISION (Chapter 1) A number of books and review articles describing neem and various aspects of its promise are available. These include the following: Ahmed, S.1985. Utilizing Indigenous Plant Resources in Rural Development: Potential of the Neem Tree. East-West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. Arnason, T.J., B.J.R. Philogène, and P. Morand, eds. 1988. Insecticides of Plant Origin.American Chemical Society (ACS) Symposium Series, Vol. 387. Symposium on Insecticides of Plant Origin at the Third Chemical Congress of North America, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 5-11, 1988. ACS, Washington, D.C. Benge, M.1986. Neem: The Cornucopia Tree. S&T/FENR Agro-Forestation Technical Series No. 5. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. Cutler, H.G., ed. 1988. Biologically Active Natural Products: Potential Use in Agriculture.American Chemical Society (ACS) Symposium Series, Volume 380. Symposium on Biologically Active Natural Products, 194th meeting of the American Chemical Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, August 30 to September 4, 1987. ACS, Washington, D.C.483 pp. Jacobson, M., ed. 1988. 1988 Focus on Phytochemical Pesticides: Volume 1, the Neem Tree.CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA. Ketkar, C.M.1976. Utilization of Neem (Azadirachta indica Juss.) and Its By-products.Final technical report of Directorate of Non-Edible Oils and Soap Industry, Khadi and Village Industries Commission. Published by V. Lahshmikanthan, Irla Road, Vile Parle, Bombay 400 056. Radwanski, S.1977a. Neem tree 2: Uses and potential uses. World Crops and Livestock29:111-113. Radwanski, S.1977b. Neem tree 3: Further uses and potential uses. World Crops and Livestock29:167-168. Radwanski, S.A, and G.E. Wickens. 1981. Vegetative fallows and potential value of neem tree in the tropics. Economic Botany35(4):398-414. Schmutterer, H.1990. Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree Azadirachta indica.Annual Review of Entomology 35:271-297. THE REALITY (Chapter 2) Ali, B.H.1987. The toxicity of Azadirachta indica leaves in goats and guinea pigs. Veterinary and Human Toxicology29(1): 16-19. 1   These have included B.S. Parmar, editor; R.P. Singh, associate editor; K.N. Mehrotra; S.K. Bhatia; R. Prasad; and C. Devakumar.

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Jotwani, M.C. and K.P. Srivastava. 1981. Neem: insecticide of the future. III. Chemistry, toxicology and future strategy. Pesticides 15(12):12. Sadre, N.L., V.Y. Deshpande, K.N. Mendulkar, D.H. Nandal. 1984. Male antifertility activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) in different species. Pages 473-482 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see under above conference reports). Sinniah, D. and G. Baskaran. 1981. Margosa oil poisoning as a cause of Reye's syndrome. The LancetFebruary 28, 1981:487-489. Sinniah, D., G. Baskaran, L.M. Looi, and K.L. Leong. 1982. Reye-like syndrome due to margosa oil poisoning: report of a case with postmortem findings. American Journal of Gastroenterology77(3): 158-161. Sinniah, D., P.H. Schwartz, R.A. Mitchell, and E.L. Arcinue. 1985. Investigation of an animal model of a Reye-like syndrome caused by margosa oil. Pediatric Research19(21):1346-1355. THE TREE (Chapter 3) Bakshi, B.K.1976. Forest Pathology: Principles and Practice in Forestry. Controller of Publications, Delhi. Benge, 1986. (See above under chapter 1.) CAB International Institute of Biological Control (CAB-IIBC). 1987. Prospects for Biological Control of the Oriental Yellow Scale, Aonidiella orientallis (Newstead) as a Pest of Neem in Africa.Ascot, Berkshire, UK. Desai, S.G. et al. 1966. A new bacterial leaf spot and blight of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Indian Phytopathology19(3):322-3. Roberts, H.1965. A Preliminary Check List of Pests and Diseases of Plantation Trees in Nigeria. Federal Department of Forestry Research, Ibadan, Nigeria. Sankaram, A.V.B., M.M. Murthy, K. Bhaskaraiah, M. Subramanyam, N. Sultana, H.C. Sharma, K. Leuschner, G. Ramaprasad, S. Sitaramaiah, C. Rukmini, and P.U. Rao. 1987. Chemistry, biological activity, and utilization of some promising neem extracts. Pages 127-148 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see under above conference reports). Schmutterer, H.1990. Observations on pests of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) and of some Melia species. Journal of Applied Entomology 109:390-400. Zech, W.1984. Investigations on the occurrence of potassium and zinc deficiencies in plantations of Gmelina arbores, Azadirachta indica and Anacardium occidentale in semi-arid areas of West Africa. In Potash Review, No. 1.International Potash Institute, Berne, Switzerland. WHAT'S IN A NEEM (Chapter 4) Jacobson (1986b), Schmutterer (1984), and Jacobson et al. (1984) review the chemical work on seed oil extracts. Shin-Foon Chiu. 1984. The active principles and insecticidal properties of some Chinese plants, with special reference to Meliaceae. Pages 255-262 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see under above conference reports). Cutler, 1988. (See above under chapter 1.) Feuerhake, K.J.1984. Effectiveness and selectivity of technical solvents for the extraction of neem seed components with insecticidal activity. Pages 103-114 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports). Jacobson, M.1986a. Natural pesticides. Pages 144-148 in Natural Resources: The 1986 Yearbook of Agriculture.U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Jacobson, M.1986b. The neem tree: natural resistance par excellence. Pages 220-232 in Natural Resistance of Plants to Insects, ed. M.B. Green and P.A. Hedin. American Chemical Society (ACS) Symposium Series No. 296. ACS, Washington, D.C. Jacobson, M.1987. Neem research and cultivation in the western hemisphere. Pages 33-44 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports). Sanguanpong, U. and H. Schmutterer. In press. Laboratory trials on the effects of neem oil and neem-seed extracts against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. Schmutterer, H.1984. Neem research in the Federal Republic of Germany since the first international neem conference. Pages 21-30in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports). Stoll, G.1986. Natural Crop Protection, Based on Local Resources in the Tropics.Josef Margraf, Publisher, Aichtal, Germany. 186 pp.

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EFFECTS ON INSECTS (Chapter 5) Adler, V.E. and E.C. Uebel. 1985. Effects of a formulation of neem extract on six species of cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blaberidae, Blattidae, and Blattellidae). Phytoparasitica13(1):3-8. Akou-Edi, D.1984. Effects of neem seed powder and oil on Tribolium confusum and Sitophilus zeamais.Pages 445-451 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports). Arnason, J.T., B.J.R. Philogène, N. Donskov, M. Hudon, C. McDougall, G. Fortier, P. Morand, D. Gardner, J. Lambert, C. Morris, and C. Nozzolillo. 1985. Antifeedant and insecticidal properties of azadirachtin to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata38(1):29-34. Champagne, D.E., M.B. Isman, and G.H.N. Towers. 1989. Insecticidal activity of phytochemicals and extracts of the Meliaceae. Pages 95-109 in Arnason et al., 1988 (see above under general reviews). Devakumar, C., B.K. Goswami, and S.K. Mukerjee. 1985. Nematicidal principles from neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). I. Screening of neem kernel fractions against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood. Indian Journal of Nematology15(1):121-124. Lange, W. and K. Feuerhake. 1984. Increased activity of enriched neem seed extracts with synergist piperonyl butoxide under laboratory conditions. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie98:368. Locke and Lawson, 1990. (See above under conference reports.) Mansour, F., K.R.S. Ascher, and N. Omari. 1987. Effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and the phytophagous mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.Phytoparasitica15(2):125-130. Plant Protection Directorate. n.d. The Preservation of Beans (Cowpeas) with Neem Oil.Technical Leaflet Plant Protection No. 3. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. B.P. 1263, Lomé-Cacaveli, Togo. Plant Protection Directorate. n.d. Treatment of Cabbage and Gboma Against Pests with Neem Seed Extract.Technical Leaflet Plant Protection No. 2. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. B.P. 1263, Lomé-Cacaveli, Togo. Rembold, H.1989. Kairomones-chemical signals related to plant resistance against insect attack. Pages 352-264 in New Crops for Food and Industry. ed. G.E. Wickens, N. Haq, and P. Day.Chapman and Hall, London. Romeo, J.T. and M.S.J. Simmonds. 1989. Nonprotein amino acids feeding deterrents from Calliandra.Pages 59-68 in Arnason et al., 1988 (see above under general reviews). Saxena, R.C.1989. Insecticides from neem. Pages 110-135 in Arnason et al., 1988 (see above under general reviews). Saxena, R.C., P.B. Epino, Tu Cheng-Wen, and B.C. Puma. 1984. Neem, chinaberry and custard apple: antifeedant and insecticidal effects on leafhopper and planthopper pests of rice. Pages 403412 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports). Schmutterer, 1990. (See above under chapter 1.) Schmutterer, H. and T. Freres. 1990. Influence of neem-seed oil on metamorphosis, color and behavior of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.), and of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.). Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz97(4):431-438. Steffens, R.J. and H. Schmutterer. 1982. The effect of a crude methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extract on metamorphosis and quality of adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera, Tephutdae). Zeitschrift für Angewande Entomologie 94:98-103. von der Heyde, J., R.C. Saxena, and H. Schmutterer. 1984. Neem oil and neem extracts as potential insecticides for control of hemipterous rice pests. Schrifteureiche GTZ 161:377. Warthen, Jr., J.D.1989. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss): organisms affected and reference list update. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington91(3):367-388. Zehrer, W.1984. The effect of the traditional preservatives used in Northern Togo and of neem oil for control of storage pests. Pages 453-460 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports). EFFECTS ON OTHER ORGANISMS (Chapter 6) Devakumar et al., 1985. (See above under chapter 5.) Grant, I.F. and H. Schmutterer. 1987. Effects of aqueous neem seed kernel extracts on ostracods (class Crustacea) development and population density in lowland rice fields. Pages 591-607 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports). Hoelmer, K.A., L.S. Osborne, and R.K. Yokomi. 1990. Effects of neem extracts on beneficial insects in greenhouse culture. Pages 100-102 in Locke and Lawson, 1990 (see above under conference reports).

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Indian Leaf Tobacco Co. Ltd.Tobacco Mosaic-Its Control with Neem Leaf Decoction.Pamphlet No. 24 RJY 6'73 3,000Indian Leaf Tobacco Co. Ltd. Isman, M.B., D.T. Lowery, and 0. Koul. In press. Laboratory and field evaluations of neem for control of aphid and lepidopteran pests. In Resources for Sustainable Agriculture: The Use of Neem and Other Plant Materials for Pest Control and Rural Development.Proceedings of the Symposium, XVIIPacific Science Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 26 to June 2, 1991. Ketkar, C.M. and M.S. Ketkar. 1984. Potential of neem oil and neem cake production in India. Proceedings of Research Planning Workshop Botanical Pest Control Project, August 6-10, 1984, Los Baños, Philippines. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Philippines. 30 pp. Locke, J.C.1990. Activity of extracted neem seed oil against fungal plant pathogens. Pages 132-136 in Locke and Lawson, 1990 (see above under conference reports). Mansour, F., K.R.S. Ascher, and N. Omari. 1987. Effect of neem seed kernel extracts from different solvents on the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and the phytophagous mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus as well as on the predatory spider Chiracanthium mildei.Pages 577-587 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports.) Mariappan, V. and R.C. Saxena. 1984. Custard apple oil, neem oil and their mixtures: effect on survival of Nephotettix virescens and on rice tungro virus transmission. Pages 413-429 in Schmutterer et al., 1981 (see above under conference reports). Muley, E.V.1978. Biological and chemical control of the snail vector Melania scabra (Gastropoda: Prosobrachia). Bulletin of the Zoological Survey of India1:1-5. Rössner, J. and C.P.W. Zebitz. 1987a. Effect of neem products on nematodes and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants. Pages 611-621 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports). Rössner, J. and C.P.W. Zebitz. 1987b. Effect of soil treatment with neem products on earthworms (Lumbricidae). Pages 627-632 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports). Saxena, R.C.1987. Neem seed derivatives for management of rice insect pests: a review of recent studies. Pages 81-93 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports). Saxena, R.C., N.J. Liquido, and H.D. Justo. 1981. Neem seed oil, a potential antifeedant for the control of the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.Pages 171-188 in Schmutterer et al., 1981 (see above under conference reports). Saxena, R.C., H.D. Justo, Jr., and P.B. Epino. 1984. Evaluation and utilization of neem cake against the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of Economic Entomology77:502-507. Saxena, R.C., Z.R. Khan, and N.B. Bajet. 1987. Reduction of tungro virus transmission by Nephotettix virescens (Homoptera: Cicadellidea) in neem cake-treated rice seedlings. Journal of Economic Entomology 80:1079-1082. Schmutterer, H. and H. Holst. 1987. On the effect of enriched and formulated neem seed kernel extract AZT-VR-K on the honeybee Apis mellifera.Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie103:208-213. Singh, R.1971. Inactivation of potato virus X by plant extracts. Phytopathologia Mediterranea10:211-213. Singh, U.P., H.B. Singh, and R.B. Singh. 1980. The fungicidal effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on some soil-borne pathogens of gram (Cicer arietinum).Mycologia72:1077-1093. Singh, S.P., V. Pant, A.M. Khan, and S.K. Saxena. 1985. Changes in the phenolic contents, related rhizosphere mycoflora, and nematode population in tomato inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita as a result of soil amendment with organic matter. Indian Journal of Nematology 15(2): 197-201. Tripathi, R.K.R. and R.N. Tripathi. 1982. Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Erperientia38:349. MEDICINALS (Chapter 7) Badam, L., R.P. Deolankar, M.M. Kulkarni, B.A. Nagsampgi, and U.V. Wagh. 1987. In vitro antimalarial activity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf and seed extracts. Indian Journal of Malariology24:11 1-117. Elvin-Lewis, M.1980. Plants used for teeth cleaning throughout the world. Journal of Preventive Dentistry6:61-70. Gandhi, M., R. Lal. A. Sankaranarayanan, C.K. Banerjee, and P.L. Sharma. 1988. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil). Journal of Ethnopharmacology23:39-51. Ganesalingham. V.K.1987. Use of the neem plant in Sri Lanka at the farmer's level. Pages 95-100 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports).

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Garcia, E.S., P. Azambuja, H. Forester, and H. Rembold. 1984. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung39C:1155. Gill, J.S.1972. Studies on Insect Feeding Deterrents with Special Reference to the Fruit Extracts of the Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Ph.D. thesis, University of London. 260 pp. Henkes, R.1986. The neem tree: a farmer's friend. The FurrowOctober 1986:16. Khalid, S.A., A. Farouk, T.G. Geary, and J.B. Jensen. 1986. Potential antimalarial candidates from African plants: an in-vitro approach using Plasmodiumfalciparum.Journal of Ethnopharmacology15:201-209. Khalid, S.A., H. Duddeck, and M. Gonzalez-Sierra. 1989. Isolation and characterization of an antimalarial agent of the neem tree Azadirachta indica.Journal of Natural Products52(2):922-926. Khan, M. and S.W. Wassilew. 1987. The effect of raw material from the neem tree, neem oil, and neem extracts on fungi pathogenic to humans. Pages 645-650 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports). Koul, O., M.B. Isman, and C.M. Ketkar. 1990. Properties and uses of neem, Azadirachta indica.Canadian Journal of Botany68: 1-11. Nath, K., D.K. Agrawal, Q.Z. Hasan, S.J. Daniel, and V.R.B. Sastry. 1989. Water-washed neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel cake in the feeding of milch cows. Animal Production48:497-502. Patel, R.P. and B.M. Trivedi. 1962. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of some medicinal oils. Indian Journal of Medical Research50:218-222. Rae, A. and M.S. Sethi. 1972. Screening of some plants for their activity against vaccinia and fowlpox viruses. Indian Journal of Animal Science42:1066-1070. Rao, A.R., S.S.U. Kumar, T.B. Paramasivam, S. Kamalakshi, A.R. Parashuraman, and M. Shantha. 1969. Study of antiviral activity of tender leaves of margosa tree (Melia azadirachta) on vaccinia and variola virus: a preliminary report. Indian Journal of Medical Research57:495-502. Sadre et al. 1984. (See above under chapter 2.) Schneider, B.H.1986. The effect of neem leaf extracts on Epilachna varivestis and Staphylococcus aureus. Page 73 in Abstracts of the 3rd International Neem Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. Sinha, K.C., S.S. Riar, R.S. Tiwary, A.K. Dhawan, J. Bardhan, P. Thomas, A.K. Kain, and R.K. Jain. 1984. Neem oil as a vaginal contraceptive. Indian Journal of Medical Research79:131-136. Sinniah and Baskaran, 1981. (See above under chapter 2.) INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS (Chapter 8) Anderson, D.M.W. and A. Hendrie. 1971. The proteinaceous gum from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Carbohydrate Research20:259-268. Anderson, D.M.W., A. Hendrie, and A.C. Munro. 1972. The amino acid composition of some plant gums. Phytochemistry11:579-580. Bringi, N.V. and M.S. Thakur. 1987. Neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) seed oil. Pages 118-142 in Non-Traditional Oilseeds and Oils in India, ed. N.V. Bringi. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Mitra, C.R.1963. Neem.Indian Central Oil Seeds Committee, Hyderabad, India. Patrao, M.R.1985. Rare neem tree with sweet leaves. Neem Newsletter 2(3):34. Radwanski, S.A. and G.E. Wickens. 1981. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics. Economic Botany35(4):398-414. Redknap, R.S.1981. The use of crushed neem berries in the control of some insect pests in Gambia. Pages 205-214in Schmutterer et al., 1981 (see above under conference reports). Sarkar, M.S. and P.C. Datta. 1986. Biosynthesis of beta sitosterol in-vitro culture of Azadirachta indica cotyledon tissues. Indian Drugs23(8). REFORESTATION (Chapter 9) Ahmed, S., S. Bamofleh, and M. Munshi. 1989. Cultivation of neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) in Saudi Arabia. Economic Botany 43:35-38. Radwanski, S.A.1969. Improvements of red acid sands by neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in Sokoto, North-West State Nigeria. Journal of Applied Ecology6:507-511.

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NEXT STEPS (Chapter 10) Ahmed, S.1990. Symposium on Natural Resources for a Sustainable Agriculture, proceedings of a meeting, New Delhi, February 6-10, 1990, ed. R.P. Singh. Indian Society of Agronomy, New Delhi. Ahmed, S., M. Grainge, J.W. Hylin, W.C. Mitchel, and J.A. Litsinger. 1984. Some promising plant species for use as pest control agents under traditional farming systems. Pages 565-580 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984 (see above under conference reports). Larson, R.1987. Development of Margosan-O®, a pesticide from neem seed. Pages 243-250 in Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987 (see above under conference reports). Michel-Kim, H. and A. Brandt. 1981. The cultivation of neem and processing it in a small village plant. Pages 279-90 in Schmutterer et al., 1981 (see above under conference reports). Schmutterer et al., 1981. (See above under conference reports.) Schmutterer and Ascher, 1984. (See above under conference reports.) Schmutterer and Ascher, 1987. (See above under conference reports.)