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APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bonderant is acting president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. BOSTID's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation publishes topical reviews of technical processes and biological resources of potential importance to developing countries. This report has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Develop- ment, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN-5538-G-00-1023-00, Amendments 27 and 29. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 91-68331 ISBN 0-309-04685-8 S526 Printed in the United States of America COVER DESIGN by DAVID BENNETT

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Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods ELMER L. GADEN, JR. (Chairman), Department of Chemical Engi- neering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia MPOKO BOKANGA, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria. SUSAN HAREANDER, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota CLIFFORD W. HESSELTINE, Northern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois KEITH H. STEINKRAUS, Institute of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Advisory Group K. E. A~Doo, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom SAMuE~ ANGEL, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel MOGESSTE ASHENAF1, Awassa College of Agriculture, Awassa, Ethiopia E. V. CARPIO, Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Philippines HAMID A. DIRAR, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan SARA FERESU, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe ABED HAMAMA, Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire, Hassan II, Rabat-Instituts, Morocco DAVID B. HARPER, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom H~RosH~ MoTA~, Research Division, Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba, Japan FE~xT~NA E. JONSYN, Njala University College, Freetown, Sierra Leone J. MAUD KoRDY~As, Arkloyd's Food Laboratory, Douala, Cameroon M. KROGER, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania J. A. KURMAN, Agricultural Institute, Grangeneuve, Switzerland L. B. MABESA, Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Philippines REYNALDO MABESA, Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Philippines NGUYEN HoA~ HUONG, Institute for Experimental Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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NGUYEN NGOC THAO, Institute for Experimental Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam M. J. R. NOUT, Food Science Department, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands NDUKA OKAFOR, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria M~NERvA SD. OLYMPIA, Institute of Fish Processing Technology, College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines in Visayas, Iloilo, Philippines O. B. OYEwo~E, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria OCTAVIO PAREDEs-LoPEz, CIEA-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Irapuato, Gto., Mexico J. L. RAs~c, Food Research Institute, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia S. SALMINEN, Dairies Cooperative Association, Helsinki, Finland TAKAsH~ HAMADA, Research Division, Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba, Japan PAIROTE WIRTYACHAREE, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand MARGY J. WOODBURN, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon YATCH! FUKUSHIMA, Research Division, Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba, Japan LEs~E FooK-M~N YONG, Aroma Biotech Pte. Ltd., Singapore National Research Council Staff GRIFFIN SHAY, Senior Program Officer and Staff Study Director F. R. RUSKIN, Editor CONSTANCE REGES, Administrative Secretary MICHAEL MCD. DOW, Acting Director, Board on Science and Technol- ogy for International Development

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Contents I. RESEARCH PRIORITIES Research Priorities in Traditional Fermented Foods by the Advisory Panel, 3 II. OVERVIEW 1. Upgrading Traditional Biotechnological Processes by M. J. R. Nout, 11 2. Genetic Improvement of Microbial Starter Cultures by Susan Harlander, 20 3. Sudan's Fermented Food Heritage by Hamid A. Dirar, 27 4. Lesser-Known Fermented Plant Foods by Kofi E. Aidoo, 35 5. Lactic Acid Fermentations by Keith H. Steinkraus, 43 6. Mixed-Culture Fermentations by Clifford W. Hesseltine, 52 III. MILK DERIVATIVES 7. Fermented Milks Past, Present, and Future by M. Kroger, J. A. Kurmann, and J. L. Rasic, 61 8. Lactobacillus GO Fermented Whey and Human Health by Seppo Salminen and Kari Salminen, 68 9. The Microbiology of Ethiopian Ayib by Mogessie Ashenafi, 71 10. Moroccan Traditional Fermented Dairy Products by Abed Hamama, 75 11. Fermented Milk Products in Zimbabwe by Sara Feresu, 80 IV. PLANT DERIVATIVES 12. Cassava Processing in Africa by Olusola B. Oyewole, 89 13. Improving the Nutritional Quality of Ogi and Gari by T. G. Sokari, 93 14. Solid-State Fermentation of Manioc to Increase Protein Content by Nguyen Ngoc Thao and Nguyen Hoai Huong, 100 v

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V1 15. Leaf and Seed Fermentations of Western Sudan by David B. Harper and M. A. Collins, 105 16. Continuous Production of Soy Sauce in a Bioreactor by Takashi Hamada, Yaichi Fukushima, and Hiroshi Motai, 114 V. ANIMAL DERIVATIVES 17. Using Mixed Starter Cultures for Thai Nham by Pairote Wiriyacharee, 121 18. Starter Cultures in Traditional Fermented Meats by Margy Woodburn, 128 19. Fermented Fish Products in the Philippines by Minerva SD. Olympia, 131 20. Fish-Meat Sausage CONTENTS by Sam Angel and Eliana Mora P., 140 21. An Accelerated Process for Fish Sauce (Patis) Production by R. C. Mabesa, E. V. Carpio, and L. B. Mabesa, 146 VI. HUMAN HEALTH, SAFETY, AND NUTRITION 22. Nutrition and Safety Considerations by O. Paredes Lopez, 153 23. Mycotoxin Flora of Some Indigenous Fermented Foods by Felixtina E. Jonsyn, 159 VII. COMMERCIALIZATION 24. Commercialization of Fermented Foods in Sub-Saharan Africa by Nduka Okafor, 165 25. Biotechnology for Production of Fruits, Wines, and Alcohol by J. Maud Kordylas, 170 26. Future Directions by Leslie Fook-Min Yong, 184 Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID), 189 BOSTID Publications, 190

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Preface The purpose of this report is to create greater awareness of the opportunities to reduce hunger and improve nutrition in developing countries through the application of biotechnology to widely practiced methods of food preparation and preservation. The report discusses opportunities for the application of biotechnology to traditional fer- mented foods. Scientists from developed and developing countries describe their research in this field and provide their recommendations on priorities for future research. Preparation of this report was coordinated by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development in response to a request from the U.S. Agency for International Development. vat