1. Community study of semiagricultural and semipastoral areas of Wengniute Banner, Inner Mongolia, one village (1989): This study focuses on migration and ethnicity, although ecological issues are also covered in the context of local economic development. It shows that the in-migration of farmers increased population density, shifted the focus of the local economy from animal husbandry to agriculture, and caused serious environmental deterioration.

  2. Three-village survey of social networks, Hailar, Inner Mongolia, (1990): This second survey of Hailar examines the basic patterns and process of formation of social networks among local residents.

  3. Survey of local migration and economy, Alashan, Inner Mongolia, one town (1988): Alashan, a desert region of western Inner Mongolia, is very sparsely populated. This survey examines the migration patterns of a salt-producing town and compares them with migration in other regions.

  4. Survey of local community and division of labor, Hailar, Inner Mongolia, four sites (1990): The third Hailar survey, also conducted in cooperation with Professors Pasternak and Salaff, explores factors affecting community development and daily life in four communities.

  5. Community studies of four villages, Tibet (1990): This survey applies anthropological methods to study local economic organization, social networks, neighborhood formation, income and consumption, daily life, and religious activities in Tibetan agricultural, pastoral, and small-town communities.

  6. Survey of local economic development and ethnic relations in Linxia, Gansu (1990): This study focuses on ethnic relations and economic exchanges between different areas of Gansu Province.

These surveys have made use of sociological, demographic, and anthropological approaches, quantitative and qualitative analyses, and a combination of large-scale sampling and community studies. The Institute of Sociology has been supported in this effort by the Department of Sociology of Peking University, in large part through the cooperation of Professor Pan Naigu, who serves concurrently as associate director of the institute and chairperson of the department. Cooperation has also come from local authorities in Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Tibet. A list of publications produced under this project appears in section 4 of the references.

During the same period, 1985–1990, researchers from the Institute of Sociology visited Qinghai, Ningxia, Heilongjiang, and other regions that have large grassland areas to collect local statistics, studies, and reports, and to discuss the issues of local economic development, relations between ethnic groups, social changes, and related topics with local authorities and scholars.

These surveys have produced four major findings that continue to guide social science research in the grassland areas. First, the in-migration of Han peoples has reshaped society in areas that were previously dominated by mi-

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