Herskovitz, M.J. 1926. The cattle complex in East Africa. American Anthropol. 28:230–272.

Jagchid, Sechin, and Van Jay Symons. 1989. Peace, War, and Trade Along the Great Wall: Nomadic-Chinese Interaction Through Two Millennia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


Khazanov, Anatoly M. 1984. Nomads and the Outside World. Translated by Julia Crookenden. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Lamprey, H. 1988. Report on the desert encroachment reconnaissance in northern Sudan: 21 October to 10 November 1975. Desertification Control Bulletin 17:1–7.

Lattimore, Owen. 1940. Inner Asian Frontiers of China. New York: American Geographic Society.

Lusigi, W.J. 1981. Combatting Desertification and Rehabilitating Degraded Population Systems in Northern Kenya. Technical Report A-4, UNESCO-UNEP Integrated Project in Arid Lands, Nairobi.


Mace, R. 1991. Conservation biology: Overgrazing overstated. Nature 349:280–281.


National Research Council. 1986. Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Pielke, R.A., and R. Avissar. 1990. Influence of landscape structure on local and regional climate. Landscape Ecology 4:133–155.

Pielke, R.A., G. Dalu, J. Weaver, J. Lee, and J. Purdom. 1990a. Influence of landuse on mesoscale atmospheric circulation. Fourth Conference on Mesoscale Processes, Boulder, Colo., June 25–29, 1990.

Pielke, R.A., T.J. Lee, J.F. Weaver, and T.G.F. Kittel. 1990b. Influence of vegetation on the water and heat distribution over mesoscale sized areas. Eighth Conference on Hydrometeorology, Kananaskis Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada, October 22–26, 1990.

Pielke, R.A., G. Dalu, J.S. Snook, T.J. Lee, and T.G.F. Kittel. 1991. Nonlinear influence of mesoscale landuse on weather and climate. Journal of Climate (forthcoming).


Rodd, F. 1938. The Sahara. Geographical Journal 91:354–355.


Sandford, S. 1983. Organization and management of water supplies in tropical Africa. ILCA Research Report (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) December 1983, 20–31.

Sinclair, A.R.E., and J.M. Fryxell. 1985. The Sahel of Africa: Ecology of a disaster. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:987–994.

Stebbing, E.P. 1935. The encroaching Sahara: The threat to the West Africa Colonies. Geographical Journal 85:506–524.

Swift, J., and A. Maliki. 1984. A Cooperative Development Experiment Among Nomadic Herders in Niger. Overseas Development Institute, Paper 18c.


Tucker, C.J., H.E. Dregne, and W.W. Newcombe. 1991. Expansion and contraction of the Sahara desert from 1980 to 1990. Science 253:299–301.


Wade, N. 1974. Sahelian drought: No victory for Western aid. Science 185:234–237.

Waldron, Arthur. 1990. The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement