Index

A

Academia Sinica

Institute of Botany, 67

Institute of Zoology, 67

Integrated Expedition in Inner Mongolia and Ningxia, 70

Lanzhou Institute of Desert Research, 5-6, 164-166

Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, 170

Acarina, 79

Achnatherum splendens, 46, 97, 113

Acridoids, 78-79

Acta Pratacultura Sinica (Zhongguo Caoye xuebao), 164, 169

Actinomycetes, 79

Aeluropus littoralis, 113

Aerial seeding, 62-63, 102-103

Agren, G., 78

Agricultural Economy (Nongye jingji), 128, 131

Agriculture

limits on spread of, 185

overview of, 27

population growth and expansion of, 32

reform era in, 28-29, 32

Agroclimatic suitability analysis, 100

Agroforestry, 52

Agropyron, 79

Aropyron cristatum, 52, 63, 97, 100, 102, 113

Agropyron michnoi, 17, 69

Ai Nanshan, 100

Alashan Plateau, 17, 21, 39

characteristics of, 46

climate of, 40

sociological survey of, 126

Alfalfa, 52, 63, 102

Alhagi sparsifolia, 46, 113

Alkalinization, 19, 61

Allactaga sibirica, 78

Alpine meadow

characteristics of, 46, 94

example of ecosystem in, 23-24

in Xinjiang, 111, 113

Altai Mountains, 24, 26, 39, 109, 111

Altun Mountains, 21

Andre, J.-C., 185

Andrews, Roy, 73, 193

Aneurolepidium, 15, 155

Aneurolepidium chinense, 17, 42, 52, 55, 69, 70, 75-77, 79, 87, 144, 157

Aneurolepidium dasystachys, 113



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Index A Academia Sinica Institute of Botany, 67 Institute of Zoology, 67 Integrated Expedition in Inner Mongolia and Ningxia, 70 Lanzhou Institute of Desert Research, 5-6, 164-166 Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, 170 Acarina, 79 Achnatherum splendens, 46, 97, 113 Acridoids, 78-79 Acta Pratacultura Sinica (Zhongguo Caoye xuebao), 164, 169 Actinomycetes, 79 Aeluropus littoralis, 113 Aerial seeding, 62-63, 102-103 Agren, G., 78 Agricultural Economy (Nongye jingji), 128, 131 Agriculture limits on spread of, 185 overview of, 27 population growth and expansion of, 32 reform era in, 28-29, 32 Agroclimatic suitability analysis, 100 Agroforestry, 52 Agropyron, 79 Aropyron cristatum, 52, 63, 97, 100, 102, 113 Agropyron michnoi, 17, 69 Ai Nanshan, 100 Alashan Plateau, 17, 21, 39 characteristics of, 46 climate of, 40 sociological survey of, 126 Alfalfa, 52, 63, 102 Alhagi sparsifolia, 46, 113 Alkalinization, 19, 61 Allactaga sibirica, 78 Alpine meadow characteristics of, 46, 94 example of ecosystem in, 23-24 in Xinjiang, 111, 113 Altai Mountains, 24, 26, 39, 109, 111 Altun Mountains, 21 Andre, J.-C., 185 Andrews, Roy, 73, 193 Aneurolepidium, 15, 155 Aneurolepidium chinense, 17, 42, 52, 55, 69, 70, 75-77, 79, 87, 144, 157 Aneurolepidium dasystachys, 113

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Angaracris barabensis, 78-79 Angaracris rhodopa, 78-79 Anguang, 58 Animal ecology studies, 78-79 Animal husbandry. See also Livestock combined with agriculture, 118-119 in Gansu, 21, 23 grassland research and, 195 household responsibility system and, 29, 31 in Inner Mongolia, 18-20, 34, 35, 70-72 overview of, 27 in Qinghai, 20-21, 23 research needs regarding, 26-27 seasonal, 95 in Xinjiang, 26, 70-72, 80, 116-118 Animal product markets, 24 Animal Product Unit (APU), 95 "Applying Remote Sensing in the Survey of Inner Mongolia Grassland Resources," 77 Argali sheep (Ovis ammon), 193 Aridisols, 11 Artemisia, 18, 43, 47, 157 Artemisia frigida, 18, 69, 70, 75, 100, 113 Artificial fodder, 118-119 Artificial grasslands creation of, 50 forage plant selection for, 51-52 income derived from, 51 studies in, 77, 87 Asiatic ibex (Capra ibex), 193 Astragalus adsurgens, 52, 62, 63, 102, 103 Astragalus cicer L., 102 Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), 151, 152 Avena sativa, 98 Avissar, R., 185 B Bacteria, 79 Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), 193 Baical needlegrass, 63 Baiyinxile Livestock State Farm, 70-73, 75, 76, 79 Balinyouqi, 63 Bao Yin, 77 Baotou, 124 Barfield, Thomas, 184 Barth, Fredrik, 184 Beall, C. M., 187 Beijing Forest Ecosystem Research Station, 135 Beijing University, 77 Biggins, Dean, 173 Binns, T., 189 Biomass production, 75-76 Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), 193 Bos grunniens, 193 Bothriochloa ischaemum, 113 Botrytis fabae, 100 Brassica campestris, 23, 171 Bromus inermis, 52, 75, 98, 102 Brown, L. H., 192 Brush steppe, 43 Bureau of Animal Husbandry, Grassland Division (MOA), 140-141 Bureau of Resources and Environmental Science (CAS), 5, 137-138 Bush desert, 46 Buteo hemilasius, 99 C Cai Weiqi, 88 Calamagrostis epigojos, 97 Calligonum mongolicum, 47 Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), 144 Cao Xinsun, 61-62, 65 Cao Zhizhong, 99 Caodian caoyuan (meadow steppe), 17, 42 Capra ibex, 193 Capreolus, 78 Caragana, 18, 69, 118 Caragana intermedia, 43, 52 Caragana korshinskii, 52 Caragana microphylla, 63, 69, 102

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China CARE, 169 Carex, 113 Ceratoides, 113 Cervus albirostris, 193 Chang, David. See Zhang Xinshi Chang Hsin-shi. See Zhang Xinshi Changbai Mountains, 15 Chen Baoshu, 102 Chen Fenglin, 87 Chen Kai, 78, 79 Chen Min, 77, 155 Chen Qingcheng, 100 Chen Quangong, 94, 168 Chen Shan, 86 Chen Youchun, 141 Chen Zuozhong, vi, 76, 136, 157, 159-161 Cheng Erjin, vi Cheng Jingxian, 99 Chernozem soil, 57, 58 Chi Hongkang, 136 Chifeng City, 56, 58, 62, 124 Chin Shihuong, 154 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) background information regarding, 5 Grassland Research Institute, 85-87, 89, 149-153 Institute of Animal Science, 6, 141-142 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) background information regarding, 5 Bureau of International Cooperation, 3 jurisdiction of, 5 research institutes of, 5. See also individual institutes support of, vi Chinese Ecological Research Network (CERN), 135, 137-138, 161, 176 Chinese Grassland Association, 141 Chinese Grassland Society (CGS), 141 Chorthippus dubius, 78, 79 Chorthippus fallax, 78-79 Cincotta, Richard, 172 Citellus danricus, 78, 89 Cleistogenes, 63 Cleistogenes spuarrosa, 69 Cleistogenes thoroldu, 113 Climate. See also individual areas of Inner Mongolia, 11, 41 landscape composition and, 185 of northern China, 40-41 of steppe, 56-57 supporting pastoralism, 27 Trewartha classification system, 11 variations in, 11 of Xinjiang, 11, 68-69, 111, 112, 116 Coleoptera, 79 Colleges and universities. See also individual institutions sociological research in, 123-124 studies in grassland sciences in, 6. See also Grassland research Colorado State University, 101, 168, 169 Commission for the Integrated Survey of Natural Resources (CAS), 5, 139-140 Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC), 172 goals of, v report produced by, xiii, 1-4 Common pool resource management, 190-191 Computer technology, 196 Conservation, wildlife, 193-194 Copeland, Robert, 144 Coronilla, 102 Crested wheat, 63 Cricetulus barabensis, 78 Cui Yongxia, 101 Cultural Revolution agricultural policy during, 32 decline in wildlife during, 193 impact of, 70, 73, 146 D Dactylis glomerata, 52 Dalai Nur, 161 Damao Banner, 87 Daqing Mountains, 20 Daqingou Conservation Area, 64

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Dasyhippus barbipes, 78 David, P. A., 72 Daxinganling Mountains, 15, 17, 39, 57, 69 climate of, 40 forest steppe in, 43 de Haan, C., 192 Degradation, xiv abiotic factors and, 189 causes of, 14-15, 20, 24, 34, 48, 59, 88, 172, 191, 192 explanation of, 31, 48, 188-189 improvement in, 49-50 productivity and, 48, 86, 188-189 in Wengniute Banner, 19 in Xinjiang, 115 Deng Xiaoping, 28 Department of Agriculture, U.S., 73 Desert characteristics of, 46-47 land converted to, 48 Desert grasslands, 113 Desert steppe characteristics of, 43 dynamics and stability of, 90 Desertification abiotic factors and, 189 in Africa, 189 causes of, 191-192 definition of, 189 studies in, 61-64 trends in, 64 in Wengniute Banner, 61 Desertification and Rehabilitation—Case Study in Horqin Sandy Land (Zhu Zenda), 165 Dianxing caoyuan (typical steppe), 17, 42-43 Diseases destruction of grasslands due to, 52 of forage plants, 52, 79, 89 fungal, 79, 100 Dodd, Jerrold, 4 Dong Jingshi, 87, 88 Dong Weihui, 52, 89 Double responsibility system, 20, 31, 32 Dregne, H. E., 189 Du Guozheng, 101 Du Jizeng, 170 Du Zhanchi, 76 Duan Shunshan, 103 Duan Shuying, 161 Dunzhiyan, 23 E Ecodistricts, 77 Ecological engineering, 50-51 Ecological Modeling, 101 Ecological regions, 76-77 Economic policy applied to grassland issues, 122-123 land use and, 27, 28 Ecoregion, 77 Ecosystem modeling in Gansu and Qinghai, 100-101 introduction of concept of, xv use of, 80 Ecosystem science approaches to, 2, 195-197 concept of, xv Ecosystems. See Grassland ecosystems Ellis, James, 3, 4, 192 Elymus nutans, 101 Elymus sibiricus, 52, 87 Energy flows, in grassland ecosystem, 88, 95 Entisols, 11 Ephedra, 18 Ephemeral desert, 47 Equus hemionus, 193 Erysiphe folygoni, 100 Ethnic groups, 27-30, 125. See also individual ethnic groups, Minority groups Evapotranspiration ratio, 94 Experimental Research Center for Modern Grassland Husbandry (Xilingele), 73 F Fan Naichang, 52, 99 Fei Xiaotong, 124

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Felco cherrug, 99 Felis manul, 78 Fencing, 49-50, 79 Feng Guanghan, 99 Fertilization, 49-50 Festuca, 113 Festuca dahurica, 70 Festuca kryloviana, 113 Festuca ovina, 17 Festuca pseudoovina, 113 Festuca rubra, 113 Filifolium sibiricum, 17, 70 Floodplain meadow, 46 Fodder, artificial, 118-119 Forage germ plasm, 150 Forage plants. See also individual plants; Vegetation for artificial meadow, 51-52 breeding of, 86-87 cultivation of, 87-88 improvement and nutritive value of, 101-103 introduction of improved breeds of, 86 research on diseases of, 52, 89, 100 seasonal variability of, 95, 116 studies of wild, 86-87 yields of, 47-49 Forest meadow, 43 Forest steppe characteristics of, 55-57 livestock rotation in, 63-64 North American, 57 population of, 58 Formicidae, 79 Frigid desert, 47 Fryxell, J. M., 189, 192 Fu Xiangqiang, 154 Fu Yikun, 98 Fukang County, 177 Fukang Desert Ecosystem Observation and Experiment Station (CAS), 176-178 Fungal diseases, 100 Fungi, microbial biomass for, 79 G Ganhan caoyuan (dry grassland), 17, 42 Gansu, xiii, 3, 9 characteristics of, 20-24 forage and feed in, 101-103 Grassland Agricultural System in, 95-97 grazing animals in, 34, 35 map of, 42 pests and pathology in, 99-100 productivity and nutrient cycling in, 98-99 reclamation of salinized lands in, 97-98 scientific research in, 73, 103 sociological surveys in, 125 soil of, 11 surveys, standards, and classification schemes in, 93-95 use of modeling in, 100-101 Gansu Agricultural University, 6 Department of Grassland Science, 163-164 Gansu Grassland Ecological Research Institute (GGERI), 6, 93, 95-97, 101 description of, 166-169, 196 Gansu Institute of Social Sciences, 96 Gao Chongyue, 96 Gao U. G., 90 Gao Yubao, 76 Gao Zianzhao, 164 Gazella subgutturosa, 193 Gazelle, 193 Ge Tang, 94 Ge Wenhua, 96, 97, 100, 167 Geographical Information Systems (GIS), 80 Geographical Society of Russia, 72-73 Gerbillon, J. F., 72 Glycyrrhiza, 113 Glycyrrhiza uralensis, 46 Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), 193 Goldstein, M. C., 187, 192 Gorse, J. E., 188

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Grain consumption, 50 Grassland Agricultural System, 95-97 Grassland classification for Inner Mongolia, 17-18, 74 integrated orderly system of, 93-94 in Xinjiang, 111, 113-115 Grassland ecosystems. See also Ecosystem modeling; Ecosystem science energy flows through, 88 human impact on, 31-35 nitrogen circulation pattern and animal production in alpine, 98-99 research on, 80 responses to overgrazing or restoration, 64 social dimensions of, 186-188 Grassland management comments regarding rational, 191-192 and common pool resources, 190-191 in Inner Mongolia, 88-90 methods of, 86, 87 pastoralism and, 192-193 proposals for Xinjiang, 117-119 recommendations for, 49-52, 62, 118 Grassland productivity degradation and, 48, 86, 188-189 energy flows and, 95 in Gansu and Qinghai, 98-99 grazing practices and, 87 studies in, 75-76, 88 Grassland research application of, 65 conducted by Institute of Sociology, 124-127 history of, in Inner Mongolia, 72-73 nature of Chinese, 5-6 shortcomings of previous, 80 social science and, 121-124 Grassland Research Institute (CAAS) description of, 85, 149-153 research conducted by, 86, 87, 89 Grassland Study Review Panel recommendations for report by, 3-4 role of, vi, xiii Grassland Study Review Panel comments on atmosphere-biosphere interactions, 185 on conservation of wildlife, 193-194 on desertification and degradation, 188-189 on management of common pool resources, 190-191 on organization and conduct of science, 195-197 on pastoral frontier, 183-185 on rational rangeland management, 191-193 on social dimensions of grassland studies, 186-188 Grassland Systems Engineering Society, 141 Grasslands. See also individual areas artificial, 50, 77, 87 Chinese use of term, 2 Chinese vs. American, 1-2 conservation of wildlife on, 193-194 development of machinery for, 89 geology of, 9-11, 39-40 human impact on, 31-35, 70-72, 195-196 land classified as, 9, 14, 86. See also Grassland classification maps of, 41-42 methods of protection of, 89 mown, 75 of northern China, 42-47 problems of, 47-49 utilization studies of, 79-80 Grasslands Research Institute, 6 Grazing animals. See Livestock Grazing practices as cause of degradation, 34, 61, 75, 115. See also Degradation and decline in productivity, 87. See also Livestock productivity recommendations regarding, 61, 117-118 results of, 60-61 rotational, 63-64, 89-90, 117-118 study of intensity in, 172 vegetation dynamics and, 75 Grazinglands. See Grasslands Great Leap Foward (1958-1960) agricultural policy during, 20, 32

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China decline in wildlife during, 193 Gu Hengyue, 100 Guizhou, 86 Guizhou Plateau Grassland Experimental tation, 167-168 Guo Bo, 102 Guo Jingwen, 102 H Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station, 23, 138, 170-173 Hailar, 125, 126 Hainan, 86 Halocnemum, 47 Halostachys belangeriana, 47 Haloxylon ammodendron, 46 Haloxylon persicum, 46 Han, 26 impact on economics, politics, and ecology of grasslands, 187 migration of, 27, 32, 121, 123-127, 186 population growth among, 31-32 tensions between ethnic minorities and, 123 Han Fenglin, 52 Hardin, G., 192 Harvard-Yenching Library, 128 Hashun Gobi, 39 He Dongmei, 79 Heavenly Lake, 177 Hedysarum, 18 Hedysarum fruitcosum, 63 Hedysarum mongolicum, 52, 150 Hedysarum scoparium, 43 Heilongjiang, 9, 15, 16 Helanshan Mountains, 39 Helland, J., 192 Hellden, U., 188, 189 Herskovitz, M. J., 192 Heshou Mountains, 21 Hexi Corridor, 21, 39, 97-100 High-frigid steppe, 43 Himalayan Mountains, 9 Hohhot, 85, 184 Hong Fuzeng, 141 Hordeum, 52 Hordeum brevisubulatum, 97 Horqin Plain, 58, 60, 63, 65 Horqin Zuoyi Banner, 64 Hou Tianjue, 52, 100 Hou Xixian, 52, 89 Hou Zhanming, 76 Household responsibility system explanation of, 29 grazing animal distribution and, 19-20, 31 Howard, Pat, 29 Hu Huanyong, 123 Hu Zizhi, 50, 52, 93, 95, 98, 163, 164 Huang Dehua, 76 Huang Wenhui, 141 Huang Wenxiu, 48, 49, 52, 140 Huang Zhaohua, 164 Huangmo (wasteland), 18, 177 Hui, 23, 27 in Linxia, 127 in Menyuan Horse Farm, 171 Human behavior grassland ecosystem and, 31-35 grassland research and, 195 impact on grasslands of Xilingele, 70-72 I Ih Nur Pilot Demonstration Area, 63 Ili Basin, 47 Industrial development, 124 Inner Mongolia, xiii, 3, 9 agricultural reform in, 29 animal husbandry in, 18-20, 34, 35, 70-72 characteristics of, 11, 17-20, 49, 55, 191 classification of grasslands in, 17-18, 74 climate of, 11, 41 cultivation of forage grasses and herbage crops in, 87-88 dynamics and stability of grasslands in, 90 grassland production and range management in, 88-90

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China herbage resources and forage grass breeding in, 86-87 human impact on, 70-72 industrial development in, 124 map of, 42 migration of Han to, 125-127 scientific research in, 72-80, 85-90 soil erosion in, 59, 60 Inner Mongolia College of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 6, 73, 85, 86, 90 Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station description of, 157-161, 196 studies by, 67, 69, 75, 135, 138 Inner Mongolia Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Department of Grassland Science, 153-155 Inner Mongolia Plateau, 39 Inner Mongolia University information regarding, 85 Natural Resources Institute, 155-156 research conducted by, 67, 73, 75, 77, 79 studies by, 6, 67, 73, 75, 77, 79 Insects destruction of grasslands by, 48, 52 studies of, 99-100 Inseptisols, 11 Institute of Animal Science (CAS), 6, 141-142 Institute of Applied Ecology (CAS), 5, 61, 62 Institute of Botany (CAS) description of, 67, 135-137 studies by, 5, 73, 75, 85 Institute of Grassland Science (Northeast Normal University), 143-144 Institute of Remote Sensing (CAS), 5 Institute of Sociology (Peking University) grassland research conducted by, 124-127 publications of, 130-131 Institute of Zoology (CAS) description of, 67, 138-139 research conducted by, 5, 78 Integrated Expedition in Inner Mongolia and Ningxia (Academia Sinica), 70 Integrated Rate Methodology (IRM), 100, 167 International Biological Program (IBP), 5 International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 137 Interseeding, 87 Iris, 113 J Jagchid, Sechin, 184 Jia Fengsheng, 88 Jiang Fengqi, 56-57 Jiang Runxiao, 100 Jiang Shu, 72, 79, 80 Jiang Su, 47-49 Jiang Youquan, 52, 86, 150 Jiao Bin, 50 Jilin, 9, 15, 16, 136 Jingtai County, 100, 168 Jingtai Grassland Agricultural Experimental Station, 97, 167 Jirem grassland, 60 Junggar Basin, 39, 109 characteristics of, 24, 26, 46, 177 climate of, 41, 111 Junggar Desert, 47 K Kalidium, 47 Karelinia caspica, 46 Kazakhs, 26, 27 herding practices of, 177 pastoral nomadism of, 186 Khazanov, Anatoly, 184 Kirghiz, 26 Kobresia, 23, 46, 113, 171 Kobresia meadow, 98 Kochia prostrata, 52, 118 Koko Khota, 184 Kong Zhaochen, 161 Kong Zhaofang, 99 Kou Zhenwu, 145, 146 Kunlun Mountains, 24, 39, 46, 109, 113

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China L Lamprey, H., 189 Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery, 59 Landscape ecology, 80 Lang Baining, 98 Lantai Turf Development Company, 166 Lanzhou Herbage Experimental Station, 164 Lanzhou Institute of Desert Research (Academia Sinica), 5-6, 164-166 Lanzhou University, 6 Department of Biology, Ecology Research Laboratory, 169 Lattimore, Owen, 184 Leach, Beryl, vii, 3, 138 Lepus capensis, 78 Lespedeza, 63 Leucopoa olgae, 113 Li Bo, 17, 39, 69-80, 86, 149, 150, 155, 156 Li Dexin, 90, 154 Li Hongchang, 139 Li Jiandong, 58, 136, 144 Li Jianhua, 93 Li Jichang, 99, 103 Li Qi, 102 Li Shaoliang, 76 Li Shugang, 176 Li Tianjie, 58, 59 Li Yang, 100 Li Yonghong, 72 Li Yuchen, 62, 63 Li Yutang, vi, 33, 95, 140, 141, 156 Li Zizhen, 101 Liang Jierong, 99 Liao Guofan, 140 Liao Yangnan, 79, 155 Liaoning, 9, 15, 16 Lin Xiaoquan, 150 Linxia, 125-127 Linze County, 100, 168 Linze Sandland Utilization Experiment Station, 165 Liu Defu, 85, 86, 153, 154 Liu Fangzheng, 178 Liu Jike, 99, 100-101 Liu Qi, 49, 52, 71, 72 Liu Rongtang, 99 Liu Ruo, 100 Liu Shusen, 139 Liu Xianzhi, 57, 60-61 Liu Yongjian, 155 Liu Zhongling, 17, 74, 77, 79, 155, 156 Liupanshan Mountains, 39 Livestock. See also Animal husbandry; Grazing practices distribution of, 19-20, 34, 35 increases in, 32, 34, 35, 49 rotation of, 63-64, 89-90, 117-118 statistics regarding, 187 transformation of ownership of, 28 wildlife coexisting with, 194 Livestock productivity. See also Animal husbandry maximization of, 51, 95 seasonal forage and, 116 Locusts, 99 Loess Plateau, 39 brush steppe in, 43 climate of, 40 map of, 41-42 Lonicera microphylla, 118 Loucks, Orie, vi, 55 Lowland meadow, 46 Lu Pengnan, 94 Lu Shengli, 96, 101 Lu Ting, 99 Lu Xinshi, 52 Lusigi, W. J., 192 M Ma Helin, 154 Ma Hetian, 124 Ma Hongliang, 93 Ma Rong, vi, 3, 121 Ma Shijun, 50, 51 Ma Zhiguang, 87, 89, 149-150 Ma Zhongxue, 99 Mace, R., 189, 192 Maliki, A., 192 Mammals, 78

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Man-and-the-Biosphere (MAB) Biological Reserve, 69, 176 Manitoba, steppe of, 57 Mao Tse-tung, 31 Mao Yulin, 98 Mapping advances in, 196-197 significance of, 74 Mazong Mountains, 21 Meadow alpine, 23-24, 46, 94, 111, 113 artificial, 51-52 characteristics of, 43, 46 floodplain, 46 forest, 43 Kobresia, 98 lowland, 46 subalpine, 46 Meadow steppe (Caodian caoyuan), 17, 42 Medicago falcata, 87, 101 Medicago media, 101 Medicago ruthenica, 150 Medicago sativa, 87, 100, 101 Medicago sativa-falcata, 87 Melilotus, 52 Melilotus officinalis, 100, 102 Meng Xianzheng, 98 Menyuan Horse Farm, 23-24, 171 Menyuan Hui Autonomous County, 23-24, 170-171 Meriones unguiculatus, 78, 89, 99 Messerschmidt, D. G., 72 Microphanerophytes desert, 46 Microtus brandti, 78, 89 Microtus oeconomus, 99, 172 Migration in Alashan Plateau, 126 circular, 125, 127 due to reservoir construction, 125 of Han, 27, 32, 121, 123-127, 186 patterns of, 27-28 Wengniute Banner, survey of, 124-125 Min Jichun, 178 Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) description of, 140-141 jurisdiction of, 5 responsibilities of, 6, 33 Minnesota, 57 Minority groups. See also individual minority groups distribution of, 28-30 economic activity of, 27-28 pastoralism and, 186-187 studies of, 124-127, 129 tensions between Han and, 123 Moisture index, 94 Mollisols (Borolls), 11 Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa), 193 Mongolian Plateau, 9, 11, 17 Mongols, 21, 26, 27 adaptability of, 184 impact of agricultural reform on, 29 pastoral nomadism of, 186 Mu Xindai, 93, 98 Mustela altaica, 78, 173 Mustela eversmanni, 78, 173 Mustela nivalis, 78 Mustela sibirica, 78 Myospalax baileyi (zokor), 24, 99 Myrmeleotettix palpalis, 78, 79 N Naiman Desertification Rehabilitation Experiment and Research Station, 165 Nan Yinhao, 57 Nan Zhibiao, 100 Nanjiang County, 177 Nanjing University, 73 Naserwa, Halima, 178 National Academy of Sciences, vi, xiii, 3 National Research Council, Report Review Committee, 4 National Science Foundation (NSF), Division of International Programs, 1 National Science Foundation of China (NSFC), 135

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Natural History Museum (New York), 73 Natural Resources Institute (Inner Mongolia University), 155-156 Nematoda, 79 Nie Hualin, 101 Ningxia, xiii, 9 grazing animals in, 34, 35 map of, 42 topography of, 21, 23 Nomadism explanation of, 27 impact of technology on, 184 pastoral, 185-187 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), 185 North China Plain, 15 North Dakota, 57 Northeast Normal University, 6 Institute of Grassland Science, 143-144 Northwest College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, 163 Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, 6, 170 Nutrient cycling studies, 98-99 O Ochotona curzoniae, 99, 101 Ochotona daurica, 78, 89 Onobrychis sativa, 101 Ordos Plateau, 9, 17, 21, 23, 39, 43 Ostrom, E., 190 Overgrazing. See Grazing practices Ovis ammon, 193 P Pamir Plateau, 109, 114 Pan Naigu, 126 Pantholops hodsoni, 193 Paparcyptera microptera meridionalis, 78 Pasternak, Burton, 125, 126 Pastoral frontier, 183-185 Pastoralism agrarian peoples vs., 184 analysis of sociology of, 187 climates supporting, 27 rangeland management practices and, 192-193 requirements of, 186-187 size of herds and, 187-188 Pastures classification of, 114-115 disequilibrium in, 117 Peking University, Institute of Sociology, 123-127, 130-131 Peronospora aestivalis disease, 100 Pest control methods of, 99-100, 118 need for, 52 Pesticides, 118 Pests, 48, 52, 89, 115. See also Insects; Rodents Phleum alpinum, 113 Phleum pratense, 52 Phodopus sungorus, 78 Phragmites communis, 46, 97, 113 Pi Nanlin, 98, 170 Piao Shunji, 75 Pielke, R. A., 185 Pika, 99, 194 Pinus sylvestris, 62 Plowing, 49-50 Poacynum Hendersomu, 113 Poisonous weeds/grasses, 116, 118 Polygonum songoricum, 113 Polygonum viviparum, 113 Population in forest steppe zone, 58 plant communities and distribution of, 76 Population density in northern China, 27, 28 vegetation and, 19 Population growth effect on grasslands, 33-34 environmental degradation resulting from, 127 trends in, 31-32 Population of China, 128 Populus euphratica, 47, 113 Potentilla, 75

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Potentilla fruticosa, 23, 171 Pratacultural Science (Caoye kexue), 164, 169 Pratacultural Science of China (Zhongguo caoye kexue), 169 Prataculture, 51 Precipitation. See Climate Procapra gutturosa, 78, 193 Procapra picticaudata, 193 Procapra przewalski, 193 ''Project on Optimum Ecological Modeling of Grasslands in Northern China,'' 135, 144 Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalski), 193 Pseudois nayaur, 193 Pseudopeziza medicaginis, 100 Puccinellia, 97-98, 168 Puccinellia chinampoensis, 97 Puccinellia tenuiflora, 52 Q Qaidam Basin, 39, 46 Qi Qiuhui, 76 Qian Xuesen, 51, 141 Qilian Mountains, 21, 39 Qinghai, xiii, 3, 9, 41 characteristics of, 20-23, 49 forage and feed in, 101-103 Grassland Agricultural System in, 95-97 grazing animals in, 34, 35 pests and pathology in, 99-100 productivity and nutrient cycling in, 98-99 reclamation of salinized lands in, 97-98 surveys, standards, and classification schemes in, 93-95 use of modeling in, 100-101 wildlife in, 193 Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 93, 170 Qingyang Loess Plateau Experimental Station (QLPES), 95-96, 167 R Rangeland Law (1985), 32-33 Rangelands. See Grasslands Reardon-Anderson, James, vii, 3, 4 Red deer (Cervus elaphus), 193 Redmond, Robert, 144 Remote sensing to monitor grasslands, 59 to monitor trends, 86 studies in, 77-78 to survey and map, 93 use by Chinese, 196 Ren Jizhou, 11, 88, 93-98, 136, 141, 164, 166, 168 Research on Grassland Ecosystem (Caoyuan shengtai xitong yanjiu), 75 Rodd, F., 189 Rodents communities and control of, 99, 172 grassland distruction by, 48, 52, 89, 115 policy to control or eliminate, 194 studies of grassland, 78 Roegneria turczaninovii, 87 Root vole, 99 Rosa, 118 S Sagebrush desert, 47 Sahara, 189 Sainfoin, 102 Salaff, Janet, 125, 126 Salinized lands control of, 62 reclamation of, 97-98 in Wengniute Banner, 19 Salix, 18 Salsola dendroides, 47 Sandford, S., 192 Sandization (sha-hua), 59 Sandlands, 11, 64 Sanjiang Plain, 15 Schaller, George, vi Seeding, aerial, 62-63, 102-103 Shamo (desert), 18 Shapotou Desert Experiment and Research Station, 165 She Zhixiang, 117 Sheehy, Dennis P., 58, 63-64

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Shelterbelt systems, 61-62 Shen Daoqi, 117 Shen Shiying, 98 Shen Yuying, 97 Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology (CAS), 145 Shi Dingsui, 178 Shi Peijun, 59, 60 Shi Shunhai, 98 Shrub desert, 47 Sichuan, xiii, 3 Simulation modeling, 196 Sinclair, A. R. E., 189, 192 Siziwang Banner, 18, 20 Snow storing, 118 Sociological studies, 123-124 Soil. See also Degradation; Desertification chernozem, 57, 58 of Gansu, 23 of grasslands, 11 of Inner Mongolia, 17-19, 43 of Menyuan County, 23 of northern China, 57-60 of Xilingele, 69 Soil animals, 79 Soil cover degradation, 58-59. See also Degradation Soil erosion. See also Degradation classification of, 59-60 in Gansu, 23 methods of monitoring, 59 Soil inventory, 58 Soil microbial ecology, 79 Soil microorganisms, 79 Solar radiation, 40 Song Binfang, 101 Song Bingyu, 155 Song Kai, 99 Songnen Basin, 136 Songnen Plain, 15, 58 Sophora alopecuroides, 46 Sorgham sudanense, 52, 102 Spiraea hypericifolia, 118 Spodosols, 11 State Educational Commission (SEdC) function of, 6 jurisdiction of, 5 State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC), 73 Statistical publications, 128, 132 Stebbing, E. P., 188-189 Steeds, D. R., 188 Stemphylium botryosum, 100 Step development theory, 123 Steppe brush, 43 characteristics of, 42-45 climate of, 56-57 desert, 43, 90 forest, 55-58, 63, 64 interseeding of degraded, 87 meadow, 17, 42 montane, 113 types of, 17-18, 42-43 typical, 17, 42-43 in Xinjiang, 113 Stipa, 113 Stipa baicalensis, 17, 42, 70 Stipa breviflora, 18, 90, 100 Stipa bungeana, 17-18 Stipa grandis, 15, 17, 69, 70, 75, 76, 79, 157 Stipa klemenzii, 90 Stipa krylovii, 17, 67, 70 Stipa purpurea, 43, 113 Stipa subsessiliflora, 113 Strobilaceum, 47 "Studies of Socioeconomic Development in the Chinese Frontier Areas" (Institute of Sociology, Peking University), 124-126 Su Jiakai, 52, 141 Suaeda microphylla, 47 Subalpine meadow, 46 Subecoregion, 77 Succulent halophytic bush desert, 47 Suffrutescent halophytic bush desert, 46 Sun Honglie, vi, 138, 139 Sun Shu, 137 Survey of Inner Mongolia Grassland Resources Using Remote Sensing (Inner Mongolia Grassland Resources Remote Sensing Expedition), 78

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries, 165 Swift, J., 192 Symons, Van Jay, 184 Symphytum peregrinum, 102 System dynamics, 101 T Taklimakan Desert, 26 Tamarix, 47 Tarim Basin, 11, 21, 26, 39, 46, 109, 114 Temperature. See Climate Texas A&M University, 169 Thymus serpyllum, 17-18 Tian Shuning, vi, 93 Tianshan Mountains, 24, 26, 39, 40, 109, 111, 116-118 Tianzhu Alpine Grassland Experimental Station, 164 Tianzhu County, 93-95 Tibet, xiii, 3 sociological surveys in, 125, 126 wildlife in, 193 Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, 20 characteristics of, 14, 46 climate of, 40, 41 Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodsoni), 193 Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata), 193 Tibetan Plateau, 11, 109 Tibetans in Haibei station, 23, 171 pastoral nomadism of, 27, 127, 187 in Qilian Mountains, 21 Tongliao, 58 Trachomitum lancifolium, 113 Trading patterns, 125 Trewartha climate classification system, 11 Trifolium pratense, 52 Trifolium repens, 52 Trigonella ruthenica, 100 Tucker, C. J., 189 Turpan Basin, 39-41 Typical steppe (Dianxing caoyuan), 17, 42-43 U Uighurs, 26 Ulmus, 18, 47 UNESCO, 69 United Nations Development Program, 169 Uromyces orobi, 100 Uromyces striatus disease, 100 V Van Dyne, George, 73 Vegetation. See also Forage plants; individual areas; specific plants in northern China, 42-47 population density and, 19 productivity studies of, 75-76 regional distribution of, 11-14 in Xilingele, 74-75 Vicia sativa, 100, 102 Vulpes corsac, 78 Vulpes vulpes, 78 W Wade, N., 189 Waldron, Arthur, vi, 184 Wan Changgui, vi, 93, 98 Wang Chopin, 154 Wang Dong, 86 Wang Gang, 101 Wang Hongzhen, 11 Wang Huizhu, 98, 99 Wang Pei, 52 Wang Qiji, 98 Wang Yanhua, 77 Wang Yifeng, 17, 74, 76 Wang Yimou, 55, 58, 64-65 Wang Yiqiu, 127 Wang Zhigang, vi, 85 Wang Zuwang, 98, 170 Water improvements in supply of, 118 lack of surface, 116, 117

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Weeds destruction of grasslands due to, 52 poisonous, 116, 118 Wengniute Banner characteristics of, 18-19 description of, 61 sociological surveys of, 124-126 Western development theory, 122-123 White-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris), 193 Wild ass (Equus hemionus), 193 Wild yak (Bos grunniens), 193 Wildlife, 193-194 Wind, in northern China, 41 World Bank, 151-153, 179 Wu Fengshan, 86 Wu Jianguo, vi, 55 Wu Ni, 153 Wu Qingnian, 97-98 Wu Renrun, 102 Wu-yun-gao-wa, 87 Wulanaodu, 19, 61 Wulanaodu Grassland Ecosystem Research Station, 61, 62, 146-147 Wulanchabu Plateau, 87, 89-90 Wulsin, R., 73 Wuwei Herbage Experimental Station, 164 X Xi Libu, 154 Xia Wuping, 98 Xia Xuncheng, 175 Xiaoxinganling Mountains, 15 Xiazui, 96 Xilin River Basin agriculture in, 70-71 composition of, 69-70, 74, 86 research conducted in, 67, 69, 75-76 78 Xilingele. See also Inner Mongolia characteristics of, 18-20, 68-70 future opportunities for, 80 human impact on, 70-72 research conducted in, 72-80 research problems regarding, 80 Xilingele Station. See Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station Xilinhot, 86 Xinjiang, xiii, 3, 9, 39 characteristics of, 24-26 elements of disequilibrium in grasslands of, 116-117 factors limiting utilization of grasslands in, 115-116 grassland types and utilization in, 111, 113-115 grazing animals in, 34, 35 map of, 42, 110 migration of Han to, 125, 127 proposals for management and use of grasslands in, 117-119 research conducted in, 86 soil of, 11 survey of migration and ethnic relations in, 125 vegetation and climate of, 11, 40, 41, 68-69, 109, 111-113, 116 Xinjiang August 1st Agricultural College, 6, 178-179 Xinjiang Institute of Biology, Pedology, and Psammology (CAS), 6, 175-176 Xu Bainian, 160 Xu Linren, 86 Xu Peng, 116, 117, 119, 136, 178 Y Yan Shunguo, 98 Yang Dianan, 47 Yang Futun, 98 Yang Zhi, 76 Yang Zonggui, 76 Yellow River, 17, 21 Yilehuli Mountains, 15 Yinshan Mountains, 39, 58 Yokous, 21 Yong Shipeng, 70, 74, 75, 79, 155, 156 Yuan Dynasty, 184 Yunnan, xiii

OCR for page 199
Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China Z Zhang Dayong, 101 Zhang Dianmin, 116, 117 Zhang Guizhi, 79 Zhang Juming, 100 Zhang Liyun, 176 Zhang Shuyuan, 98 Zhang Songling, 98 Zhang Xinshi (Chang Hsin-shih, David Chang), vi, 3, 39, 47-50, 52, 58, 119, 135-136, 161 Zhang Yanqing, 172 Zhang, Z. M., 11 Zhang Zhixue, 102 Zhang Zihe, 167 Zhang Zutong, 90, 154-155 Zhangye Saline Soil Grassland and Animal Production Experimental Station, 167 Zhao Jianping, 138 Zhao Lili, 85 Zhao-na-sheng, 88 Zhao Shanmin, 145 Zhao Shidong, vi, 58 Zhao Songling, 103 Zhao Xianying, 55 Zhao Xinquan, 98 Zheng Huiying, 136 Zheng Rongliang, 169 Zhi Zhongsheng, 153 Zhong Hao, 99 Zhong Wenqin, 52, 78, 139 Zhong Yankai, 75, 155 Zhou Qingqiang, 52, 78, 139 Zhou Wenyang, 52, 173 Zhou Xingmin, 93, 98, 170, 172 Zhu Tingcheng, 51, 61, 143 Zhu Xingyun, 97, 98, 168 Zhu Zhenda, 164, 165 Zokor, 24, 99 Zou Zouying, 98