Table 1-2 Human and Grazing Livestock Population, Northern China, by Province or Region, 1989 (millions)

 

 

Grazing Livestock

Province/ Region

Humans

Sheep

Goats

Large livestock

Total

Density (animals/km2)

Heilongjiang

35.1

2.4

0.3

3.2

5.9

13.0

Jilin

24.0

2.1

0.1

2.9

5.1

27.3

Liaoning

38.8

2.2

0.7

3.2

6.1

41.8

Inner Mongolia

21.2

20.9

9.3

7.2

37.4

31.6

Ningxia

4.6

2.5

1.0

0.7

4.2

80.8

Gansu

21.7

9.0

2.3

5.8

17.1

38.0

Qinghai

4.4

13.5

1.9

5.9

21.3

29.5

Xinjiang

14.5

23.5

4.3

5.7

33.5

20.9

Total

164.3

76.1

19.9

34.6

130.6

27.2

China

1111.9

113.5

98.1

128.0

339.6

35.4

NOTE: Large livestock include cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels.

SOURCE: Zhongguo tongji nianjian (1990), 91, 376–377.

the same reasons that motivated their imperial predecessors: to relieve population pressure in the south and east, to expand the area under cultivation, and to secure control over strategically sensitive areas. The result of these policies has been to intensify an established Han dominance in the east and transform the demographic profile of the west. Tables 1-3 and 1-4 show the distribution of ethnic groups in the region covered by this study, in broad categories for the most recent census (1990) and in greater detail, where the numbers are available, for the previous census (1982).

Finally, since 1949, the social, political, and economic organizations that sustain herding (and everything else) in China have undergone major, rapid, and repeated changes, initiated by authorities in Beijing in a series of wavelike campaigns and applied in various ways throughout the country. The broad effect of these changes has been to transform the ownership and management of livestock from private hands and local elites that dominated the pre-Communist period, to the collectives of the Maoist era (1949–1976), and finally to a larger role for private producers, still operating within the framework of state control, during the last decade.

The ''reform'' era in China dates from 1978, when Deng Xiaoping and the Communist Party leadership launched a program to revive rural production, first by increasing the prices paid by the state for procurement of basic commodities, and later by leasing land and other assets to private producers and freeing prices and markets to open competition. These reforms have had dramatic effects, increasing the total output of the rural sector and raising the standard of living of many farmers and animal husbandrists. It is important to



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