sion for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences (in progress).

  1. Grassland typological map of Inner Mongolia (1:1,000,000); Inner Mongolian Remote Sensing Survey on Grasslands (in press).

  2. Grassland typological maps of each league [meng] in Inner Mongolia (1:350,000–500,000); Inner Mongolian Remote Sensing Survey on Grasslands (maps of the Xilin River Basin, Hailar, Dalai Nur, and Chifeng have been published).

  3. Grassland typological map of Ningxia (1:1,000,000); Ningxia Grassland Survey.

  4. Grassland typological map of Xinjiang (1:1,000,000); Xinjiang Grassland Survey (in press).

  5. Grassland typological map of Gansu (1:1,000,000); Gansu Grassland Survey (in progress).

  6. Grassland typological map of China (1:2,500,000); edited by Hu Shizhi, Institute of Botany, CAS, 1978 (published informally).

  7. Grassland resources map of the People's Republic of China (1:1,000,000); edited by the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Fishery and the Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, CAS (in progress).

The grasslands of northern China can be classified into four types according to vegetation: steppe, meadow, desert, and sparse forest brush (ECVC 1980).

Steppe Temperate zone steppe, formed by drought hardened and low-temperature perennial grasses, dominates northeast China from the Songnen Plain to the Hulunbeier Plateau, between latitudes 40° and 50°N (Li et al., 1990). The steppe extends southwestward through Inner Mongolia, the Ordos and Loess plateaus, to the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau. It is also distributed in the desert mountain areas of the Tianshan, Altai, and Kunlun mountains of Xinjiang (Table 2-1). The northern steppe is further divided into five subtypes: meadow steppe, typical steppe, desert steppe, brush steppe, and high-frigid steppe.

Meadow steppe, which is distributed primarily in the eastern steppe zones and high in desert mountains, is a transitional type between steppe and forest. Meadow steppe thrives in a semihumid climate, where annual precipitation is 350–550 mm and the aridity index is 1.1–1.4. The plant community is composed of Aneurolepidium chinensis, Stipa baicalensis, other drought gramineous plants, and forbs. Vegetation in the meadow steppe is abundant and highly productive. The output of dry material on the ground is 150–550 g/m2 per year, and the production of fresh grass is 4000–10,000 kg per hectare. The soil consists of phaiozen and chernozems.

Typical steppe (dry steppe) is found mostly on the central Inner Mongolia plateau and at low to midlevel in the western desert mountains. The annual precipitation in these areas is 200–350 mm, and the aridity is 1.5–2.5. The plant



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