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Advances in Understanding Genetic Changes in Cancer: Impact on Diagnosis and Treatment Decisions in the 1990s 6 References 1. Langer-Safer P, Levine M, Ward D. Immunological method for mapping genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1982; 79:4381–4385. 2. Lichter P, Cremer T, Tang CJ, et al. Rapid detection of human chromosome 21 aberrations by in situ hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988; 85:9664–9668. 3. Pinkel D, Landegent J, Collins C, et al. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with human chromosome-specific libraries: Detection of trisomy 21 and translocations of chromosome 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988; 87:9138–9142. 4. Southern E. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975; 98:503–517. 5. Chu G, Voltrath D, Davis RW. Separation of large DNA molecules by contour-clamped homogeneous electric fields. Science. 1986; 234:1582–1585. 6. Saiki R, Bugawan T, Horn G, et al. Analysis of enzymaticatly amplified betaglobin and HLA-DQ DNA with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Nature. 1986; 324:163–166. 7. Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, et al. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science. 1988; 239:487–491. 8. Myers RM, Larin Z, Maniatis T. Detection of single base substitutions by ribonuclease cleavage at mismatches in RNA:DNA duplexes. Science. 1985; 230:1242–1246. 9. Veelken H, Tycko B, Sklar J. Sensitive detection of clonal antigen receptor gene rearrangements for the diagnosis and monitoring of lymphoid neoplasms

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