Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

JOSEPH G. GAVIN, JR., served as a Senior Management Consultant for Grumman Corporation until 1991 after retirement as President of Grumman in 1985. During the Apollo years, Mr. Gavin was Director of the Lunar Module Program. In 1971, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) awarded him its Distinguished Public Service Medal for his contributions ''as the leader and representative of the Lunar Module team at Grumman.'' Mr. Gavin received a B.S. and M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the American Astronautical Society, a member of the International Academy of Astronautics and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). Mr. Gavin has participated in many committee activities within the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Energy (DoE), and the National Research Council (NRC). He recently served as Chairman on the DoE Research Advisory Board's Panel on Magnetic Fusion, as a board member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and as a member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's governing board. He is currently a member of the Corporation and was a Director of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.

EDMUND BLOND is retired from the Aerospace Corporation where he spent the last 30 years of his professional career, leaving in 1991. His assignments at The Aerospace Corporation were split between technology, as Manager of Special Studies in the Fluid Mechanics Department, and systems analyses, as Senior Project Engineer and Director of Systems Analysis in the Launch Vehicle Division specializing in the area of costing/trade-offs of launch vehicles for future space missions. His report on space launch vehicle costs (1984), prepared for the Office of Commercial Space Transportation, served as a primary reference for U.S. launch vehicle costs for the U.S. Department of Transportation (DoT). He received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California (UCLA), an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Southern California, and an M.B.A. from California State University at Dominguez Hills.



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From Earth to Orbit: An Assessment of Transportation Options Biographical Sketches of Committee Members JOSEPH G. GAVIN, JR., served as a Senior Management Consultant for Grumman Corporation until 1991 after retirement as President of Grumman in 1985. During the Apollo years, Mr. Gavin was Director of the Lunar Module Program. In 1971, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) awarded him its Distinguished Public Service Medal for his contributions ''as the leader and representative of the Lunar Module team at Grumman.'' Mr. Gavin received a B.S. and M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the American Astronautical Society, a member of the International Academy of Astronautics and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). Mr. Gavin has participated in many committee activities within the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Energy (DoE), and the National Research Council (NRC). He recently served as Chairman on the DoE Research Advisory Board's Panel on Magnetic Fusion, as a board member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and as a member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's governing board. He is currently a member of the Corporation and was a Director of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. EDMUND BLOND is retired from the Aerospace Corporation where he spent the last 30 years of his professional career, leaving in 1991. His assignments at The Aerospace Corporation were split between technology, as Manager of Special Studies in the Fluid Mechanics Department, and systems analyses, as Senior Project Engineer and Director of Systems Analysis in the Launch Vehicle Division specializing in the area of costing/trade-offs of launch vehicles for future space missions. His report on space launch vehicle costs (1984), prepared for the Office of Commercial Space Transportation, served as a primary reference for U.S. launch vehicle costs for the U.S. Department of Transportation (DoT). He received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California (UCLA), an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Southern California, and an M.B.A. from California State University at Dominguez Hills.

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From Earth to Orbit: An Assessment of Transportation Options YVONNE C. BRILL is currently a consultant for Telespace, Ltd. In 1991 she retired from the International Maritime Satellite Organization, where she was a staff engineer in Space Segment Engineering. She began her career as a mathematician with Douglas Aircraft Company and subsequently served as a research analyst with the RAND Corporation, then as project engineer and consultant at several aerospace firms throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. In 1978, she became Manager of NOVA Propulsion Systems for RCA Astro-Electronics Division and later served as Manager of the Solid Rocket Motor program in NASA's Office of Space Flight. Ms. Brill received her B.Sc. in mathematics from the University of Manitoba, Canada, and her M.S. in chemistry from the University of Southern California. She is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics and the NAE, and a Fellow of both the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the Society of Women Engineers. She is also a member of the NAE Advisory Committee on International Affairs. BERNARD BUDIANSKY is currently Gordon McKay Professor of Structural Mechanics, and Abbott and James Lawrence Professor of Engineering at Harvard University. Dr. Budiansky began his career in 1944 with the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) at Langley Field, serving as Head of the Structural Mechanics Branch from 1952 to 1955. In 1955, he joined the faculty of Harvard University. Dr. Budiansky obtained his B.C.E. from the City College of New York and his Sc.M. and Ph.D. from Brown University. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the NAE. He has served on a number of boards and committees for NASA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and the NRC, and is a fellow of the AIAA and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He also has received numerous awards from universities and professional organizations. ROBERT S. COOPER is President, Chief Executive Officer, and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Atlantic Aerospace Electronics Corporation. Throughout more than 30 years of involvement in military and space technology, he has held positions that include Director of DARPA; Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Technology; Engineering Vice President of Satellite Business Systems; and Division Director at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. Dr. Cooper was Director of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from 1975 to 1979 and was responsible for determining the direction for major NASA research programs and operation of the Thor-Delta launch vehicle. He holds a D.Sc. degree in electrical engineering and mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Cooper's background also extends to research in plasma physics and electromagnetic scattering from plasmas, and laser, radar, and infrared systems engineering. WOLFGANG H. DEMISCH is Managing Director at UBS Securities in New York City, where he is responsible for equity investment strategy and aerospace equity research. After

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From Earth to Orbit: An Assessment of Transportation Options graduating from the Harvard Business School in 1972, Mr. Demisch worked at Smith Barney Harris Upham & Co. Inc.; at Morgan Stanley, Inc.; and at the First Boston Corporation, where he was responsible for equity research regarding the aerospace industry. Mr. Demisch is a member of the AIAA, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Financial Analysis Federation, and the NRC's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. CLARK W. HAWK is currently Director of the Propulsion Research Center and Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. From 1958–1991, Dr. Hawk worked for the U.S. Air Force (USAF) as an Air Force civilian. During this time, he served at the Astronautics Laboratory and its precursor organizations in numerous capacities. He was Chief of the Liquid Rocket Division, created and served as the Chief of the Nozzle Technology Section, and most recently, was the Director of the Propulsion Division. Under his management, this division was responsible for providing all solid rocket motor and liquid rocket engine technology for the USAF. He received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Pennsylvania State University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Purdue University. Dr. Hawk is an Associate Fellow of the AIAA where he has been active on a number of its committees related to rocket propulsion and was an associate editor of the Journal of Propulsion and Power. Dr. Hawk is a member of the National Society of Professional Engineers and received numerous performance awards for outstanding service during his Air Force career. JACK L. KERREBROCK is currently R.C. Maclaurin Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His career began in 1951 at NACA Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, and he later held senior positions at California Institute of Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, MIT, and NASA Headquarters, where he was Associate Administrator for Aeronautics and Space Technology from 1981 to 1983. His research and teaching emphases have included nuclear rockets, space propulsion and power, magnetohydrodynamic generators, and aircraft engines. Dr. Kerrebrock received his doctoral degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1956. He was elected to the NAE in 1978. He has served on the Presidential National Commission on Space, several Air Force and NASA advisory boards, and on the NRC's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Air Force Studies Board, and Engineering Research Board. Dr. Kerrebrock served as Chairman of the NRC's Committee on Hypersonic Technology for Military Applications. He is a Fellow of the AIAA, the AAAS, the Explorer's Club, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a senior member of the American Astronautical Society. BYRON K. LICHTENBERG is currently the President and Chief Executive Officer of Omega Aerospace, Inc. In 1983, Dr. Lichtenberg became the first non-NASA Payload Specialist astronaut to fly aboard the Space Shuttle on the flight of Spacelab 1. This multinational, multidiscipline, space science mission lasted for 10 days and included the first

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From Earth to Orbit: An Assessment of Transportation Options flight of a non-US. astronaut as well. During the 168 orbits of the Earth, Dr. Lichtenberg conducted more than 70 experiments in five different scientific disciplines including Earth observation, plasma physics, materials science, and life science. He received his B.S. from Brown University, cum laude, in aerospace engineering and entered the U.S. Air Force Pilot Training Program. After a combat tour in Vietnam, where he received 10 Air Medals and two Distinguished Flying Crosses, he returned to graduate school at MIT. Dr. Lichtenberg was awarded an M.S. in mechanical engineering and a D.Sc. in biomedical engineering from MIT. In 1984, he founded Payload Systems, Inc., a space flight engineering and support services company that assists commercial, academics, government, and foreign users in preparing for space experiments. Payload Systems, Inc., is probably best known for being the first U.S. company to negotiate a launch agreement with the Soviet Union. Dr. Lichtenberg recently completed his second spaceflight mission in April, 1992. ARTUR MAGER is currently an aerospace consultant. He is a former Group Vice President of the Engineering Group and member of the Executive Council of The Aerospace Corporation. In that position he had responsibility for all aspects of the engineering support of the company's work on the U.S. Air Force's launch vehicle and space programs. He has authored many publications in the areas of three-dimensional boundary layers, swirling flows, supersonic burning, heat transfer, thrust vectoring, space vehicle design, propulsion, and reliability. Upon his retirement, he was honored by the establishment of the Artur Mager Prize at the California Institute of Technology, where he received his Ph.D. in aeronautics and physics in 1953. As a consultant, he has served on numerous DoD, NASA, NRC, Los Alamos, and aerospace company advisory boards and committees. He is a member of the NAE and a Fellow and former President of the AIAA. Dr. Mager is a Trustee of the West Coast University, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Institute for the Advancement of Engineering, and has been honored by several organizations for his work aimed at helping individuals with developmental disabilities. FRANK E. MARBLE is currently the Richard L. and Dorothy M. Hayman Professor Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology. He is a member of the NAS and NAE. His career began with the NACA at Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in 1942, where he also served as an instructor at the Case School of Applied Science. In 1948, Dr. Marble joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology, where he has served in numerous capacities. Throughout his career he has been a consultant to a number of aeronautics and other engineering companies and has served as a visiting professor at many U.S. and foreign universities. Dr. Marble received his Ph.D. in aeronautics and mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. He has served on numerous committees and advisory groups for NACA, NASA, the Air Force, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the NRC's Aeronautics and

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From Earth to Orbit: An Assessment of Transportation Options Space Engineering Board. Dr. Marble is a Fellow of the AIAA and was the recipient of its Annual Propellants and Combustion Award for 1991. ALTON D. SLAY retired from the U.S. Air Force in 1981 after more than 38 years of military service, rising from the rank of private to four-star general. General Slay's last assignment on active duty was as Commander, Air Force Systems Command. Prior to that, he held a series of distinguished assignments including Deputy Chief of Staff, Research and Development and Acquisition, Headquarters, USAF. General Slay has accumulated more than 9000 hours of flying time, mostly in fighter aircraft. He flew every USAF fighter and attack aircraft from the P-40 through the F-16 and was current in the F-15C at the time of his retirement. General Slay accumulated 181 combat missions in fighters in Southeast Asia. He holds a degree in mathematics from George Washington University and is a graduate of the Harvard Advanced Management Program. He was the Chairman of the NAS Committee on Shuttle Criticality Review and Hazard Analysis Audit subsequent to the loss of Challenger. General Slay is currently President of Slay Enterprises, Inc., which has performed more than 450 "Red Team" reviews for its clients in the last 10 years. JASPER A. WELCH is currently a private consultant in the aerospace field. General Welch retired from the U.S. Air Force after more than 30 years experience in conducting and directing advanced technology programs in the aerospace industry. He held a number of posts within the government, including Defense Policy Coordinator for the National Security Council, USAF delegate to NATO's Council of National Armaments Directors, and technical lead for the Air Force Research, Development and Acquisitions Program. General Welch received his doctorate in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1958. He is a member of the NAE and the Council on Foreign Relations. He currently chairs a special advisory panel for the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and has led the NASA Task Force on Space Transportation. General Welch also serves on a number of corporate boards and senior advisory boards for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lincoln Laboratories of MIT.