Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization

Results of a Survey

Harold P. Van Cott and Beverly Messick Huey, Editors

Panel on Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization

Robert C. Williges, Chair

Committee on Human Factors

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1992



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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization Results of a Survey Harold P. Van Cott and Beverly Messick Huey, Editors Panel on Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization Robert C. Williges, Chair Committee on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard to appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work relates to Department of the Army grant MDA903-C-0739 issued by the Defense Supply Service Washington. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, dispose of, and to authorize others so as to do, all or any portion of this work. ISBN 0-309-04693-9 Available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 S-552 Printed in the United States of America

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey PANEL ON HUMAN FACTORS SPECIALISTS' EDUCATION AND UTILIZATION ROBERT C. WILLIGES (Chair), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University MOHAMED M. AYOUB, Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University KENNETH R. BOFF, AAMRL/HEX, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio DAVID BLOOM, Russell Sage Foundation, New York CHARLES W. GEER, Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, Seattle OSCAR GRUSKY,* Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles DOUGLAS H. HARRIS, Anacapa Sciences, Inc., Charlottesville, Va. DAVID KNOKE, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota ALAN S. NEAL, IBM Santa Teresa Lab, San Jose, Calif. RICHARD PEW, BBN Laboratories, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. MARK S. SANDERS, California State University, Northridge CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS, Aviation Research Laboratory, Savoy, Ill. HAROLD P. VAN COTT, Study Director BEVERLY MESSICK HUEY, Associate Study Director *   Member and cochair until 1989

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey COMMITTEE ON HUMAN FACTORS RAYMOND NICKERSON (Chair), BBN Laboratories, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. PAUL ATTEWELL, Information Systems Area, New York University MOHAMED M. AYOUB, Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University PAUL GOODMAN, Center for Management and Technology, Carnegie Mellon University JOHN GOULD, IBM Corporation, Yorktown Heights, New York ROBERT HELMREICH, NASA/UT Aerospace Crew Resource Project, Austin, Tex. ROBERTA KLATZKY, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara HERSCHEL LEIBOWITZ, Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University NEVILLE MORAY, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana WILLIAM B. ROUSE, Search Technology, Inc., Norcross, Ga. JOYCE SHIELDS, HAY Systems, Washington, D.C. CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS, Aviation Research Laboratory, Savoy, Ill. J. FRANK YATES, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor LAURENCE YOUNG, Man Vehicle Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Foreword The Committee on Human Factors was established in October 1980 by the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council. The committee is sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Army Advanced Systems Research Office, the Army Human Engineering Laboratory, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The principal objectives of the committee are to provide new perspectives on theoretical and methodological issues, to identify basic research needed to expand and strengthen the scientific basis of human factors, and to attract scientists both inside and outside the field for interactive communication and needed research. Human factors issues arise in every domain in which humans interact with the products of a technological society. To perform its role effectively, the committee draws on experts from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. Members of the committee include specialists in such fields as psychology, engineering, biomechanics, physiology, medicine, cognitive sciences, machine intelligence, computer sciences, sociology, education, and human factors engineering. Other disciplines are represented in the working groups, workshops, and symposia organized by the committee. Each of these disciplines contributes to the basic data, theory, and methods required to improve the scientific basis of human factors.

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Acknowledgments The activities of the panel and the preparation of this report are a special achievement, in light of the circumstances under which they occurred. The panel was established with Oscar Grusky and myself as cochairs. Just prior to the initiation of our work, I was involved in a serious automobile accident. My extensive hospitalization and rehabilitation precluded my participation in most of the panel deliberations. Oscar Grusky graciously accepted all the responsibilities of chairing the panel throughout my recovery. Unfortunately, personal responsibilities required that he resign from the panel shortly after my return to professional activities. In addition to the effort and contributions of each member of the panel, six resource people participated in meetings addressing questionnaire development. These people included Earl Alluisi, assistant for training and personnel technology at the Pentagon; Thomas McCloy, associate professor and deputy for human factors at the United States Air Force Academy; John O'Brien, of the Human Factors Research Division, Electric Power Research Institute; Judith Olson, associate professor in the Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Michigan; Brian Peacock, human factors head at General Motors Corporation; and Ben Schneiderman, professor in the Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland. Their contribution is gratefully acknowledged. This report is unusual in that its conclusions are based on the results of a survey of human factors specialists that was conducted for the study panel by the Survey Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Seymour Sudman directed all the survey activities, provided an initial summary of results, and was extremely responsive to additional

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey information requests of the panel members. Staff member Beverly Huey diligently conducted subsequent analyses of the survey data as needed by the panel and provided documentation for the statistical command files. The Close Combat (Light and Heavy) Division of the Human Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provided access to their facilities for the follow-up analyses. Three panel members, Douglas Harris, Mark Sanders, and Richard Pew, accepted the major responsibility for summarizing and interpreting the survey results for the panel. Their summaries are presented in Chapters 3, 4, and 5, respectively, of this report. The diversity of authorship and the integration of survey results and analyses required a major editing responsibility. Beverly Huey and Harold Van Cott expertly provided the necessary technical editing. As chair of this study panel, I gratefully acknowledge the unselfish efforts of each of these individuals as well as the thoughtful deliberations and contributions of all our panel members. Without such a coordinated effort, we would not have been able to complete our study panel activities. Robert C. Williges Chair, Panel on Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Contents     Summary   1     Selected Findings   2     Conclusions and Recommendations   7 1   Introduction   8     Background   8     Objectives of the Study   13     Organization of the Study   14 2   Survey Methodology   16     The Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview Survey   16     The Mail-In Questionnaire   23 3   Characteristics and Utilization of Human Factors Specialists   25     The Work Setting   25     The Role of Human Factors in the Work Setting   29     Supervision and Interaction   31     The Nature of the Work   34     Characteristics of Human Factors Specialists   43 4   The Education of Human Factors Specialists   48     Scope and Quality of Education   48     Educational Programs   55     Keeping Current   67

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 5   Supply and Demand of Human Factors Specialists   70     Supply   70     Demand   72     Relationship of Supply to Demand   75 6   Conclusions and Recommendations   77     Conclusions   77     Recommendations   78     References   83     Appendices     A   Telephone Survey of Human Factors Specialists   85 B   Mail-In Questionnaire on Graduate Human Factors Programs   109 C   Data Base Availability   126

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