Appendix A—
Telephone Survey of Human Factors Specialists



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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Appendix A— Telephone Survey of Human Factors Specialists

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey This page in the original is blank.

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Human Factors Questionnaire INTRODUCTION: Hello, may I speak to      . My name is      and I'm calling from the Survey Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois. We're doing a survey for the National Research Council about the tasks performed by people in the human factors field and I'd like to ask you some questions. 1. In your current position are you primarily concerned with human factors? That is, human capabilities and limitations related to the design of operations, systems or devices? Yes........................................... 1 No ........................................... 2 2. Do you supervise any people who perform human factors activities? Yes........................................... 1 No ........................................... 2 IF ''NO'' TO Q.1 AND Q.2 END INTERVIEW 3a. Are you employed in a private business, an educational institution, a government agency, or something else? Private business (Skip to Q.4a)...................... 1 Educational institution ................................... 2 Government agency (Skip to Q.4a)................. 3 Something else (Specify) (SKIP to Q.4a)........ 4

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 3b. Do you do paid consulting on human factors problems outside your institution? Yes (GO TO VERSION 2)......................... 1 No (END INTERVIEW)............................ 2 4a. How many hours a week do you usually work as part of your job?      Hrs. 4b. During the past year, what is the main area in which you personally have worked? Is it aerospace, communications, computers, industrial processes, health and safety, land vehicles or transportation, ships, or something else? (Accept up to two answers.) Aerospace..................................... 1 Communications............................. 2 Computers...................................... 3 Industrial processes......................... 4 Health and safety............................ 5 Land vehicles or transportation......... 6 Ships............................................... 7 Something else (SPECIFY).............. 9                                                             5. What percentage of your own work is related to military systems?      % (ASK ONLY IF "PRIVATE BUSINESS" IN Q.3A) 6. What percent of your work is funded by contracts from outside your company?      % 7. Are you currently working on any MANPRINT, HARDMAN, RAM-PARTS, or IMPACT programs? Yes (SKIP TO Q.9)........................... 1 No ................................................... 2 8. Do you expect to work on any of these programs in the future? Yes......................................... 1 No.......................................... 2 9. What is your current job title?                                                                                                      

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 10a. How many years have you held this job?      Years If less than one year 10b. How many months?      Months 11. What was the title of the job you held just before this one?                                                            ... 1 No previous job (SKIP TO Q.16)........... 2 12. In that job were you primarily concerned with human factors? Yes........................................ 1 No......................................... 2 13. Was that in the same organization for which you now work? Yes (SKIP TO Q. 16)........................ 1 No.................................................... 2 14. Was that in .... A private business.............................. 1 An educational institution.................. 2 A government agency, or.................... 3 Something else? (Specify).................. 4                                                              15. What percentage of your work there was related to military systems?                % 16. Do you consider yourself to be a human factors specialist or something else? Human factors specialist................... 1 Something else (Specify)................... 2                                                             17. How important is human factors to the project which you spend most of your time working on (or have just completed)? On a scale of 1 through 7, where one means not at all important and seven means very important, how would you rate its importance? Not at all important Very important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey I'D LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME MORE QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR PRESENT JOB. 18a. Do you yourself (READ ITEMS 18-1 through 18-53 below) as part of your present job? You may just want to refer to the list we sent you and read the number by the tasks you perform. Yes=1 No=2 18b. How important a part of your present job is ( )? If 1 means not at all important and 7 means very important, where would you put this task? Not at all important Very important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18c. Where did you learn about ( )? Was it through... Formal education...................................... 1 Continuing education................................. 2 Company training...................................... 3 Personal study, or...................................... 4 On the job experience................................ 5 OTHER (SPECIFY)................................. 6 (ACCEPT MULTIPLE RESPONSE; ENTER CODE NUMBER AND IF "OTHER," PLEASE SPECIFY ON LINE BELOW.)                                                                                                                                                 18-1. (Do you yourself) Specify human user, operator, or maintainer requirements? 18-2. Analyze tasks? 18-3. Conduct network analyses? 18-4. Assess mental workload? 18-5. Assess physical workload? 18-6. Develop or conduct computer simulations? 18-7. Write or debug computer programs? 18-8. Perform human reliability analyses? 18-9. Analyze the effects of environmental stressors?

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 18-10. Apply human factors criteria and principles? 18-11. Verify design conformance to human factors specifications? 18-12. Prepare or review design drawings for conformance to human factors specifications? 18-13. Prepare design mockups? 18-14. Design human-equipment interfaces? 18-15. Design workspace layouts? 18-16. Prepare specifications for software? 18-17. Design software user interfaces? 18-18. Prepare product warnings? 18-19. Define instructional requirements? 18-20. Prepare instructional or procedural documents? 18-21. Specify training objectives? 18-22. Develop training content and instructional methods? 18-23. Design training aids? 18-24. Conduct training? 18-25. Assess the effectiveness of training (systems, courses, aids, simulators)? 18-26. Design simulation systems? 18-27. Specify evaluation objectives? 18-28. Plan and coordinate evaluations? 19-29. Design evaluations? 18-30. Develop criterion measures? 18-31. Design data collection procedures and questionnaires?

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 18-32. Specify or perform data analysis procedures and statistical tests? 18-33. Collect data in laboratory settings? 18-34. Collect data in field settings? 18-35. Interpret test and evaluation results? 18-36. Support product liability litigation? 18-37. Develop analytical models and methods? 18-38. Collect data on errors, failures, or accidents? 18-39. Conduct root cause analyses? 18-40. Perform failure-mode-and-effects analyses? 18-41. Develop and analyze fault trees? 18-42. Assess performance risks? 18-43. Perform safety analyses? 18-44. Perform human reliability analyses? 18-45. Prepare or contribute to written reports? 18-46. Evaluate reports written by others? 18-47. Prepare or contribute to project proposals? 18-48. Prepare and conduct oral presentations? 18-49. Prepare engineering drawings? 18-50. Interpret engineering drawings? 18-51. Review and summarize the results of previous research? 18-52. Develop hypotheses and theories? 18-53. Interpret research results?

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 19. What is your immediate supervisor's training and experience? Is it mainly in human factors, behavioral science, engineering, business, some other science, or something else? (Allow for more than one answer.) Human factors.......................... 1 Behavioral Science................... 2 Engineering.............................. 3 Business................................... 4 Other Science........................... 5 Something else (Specify).......... 6                                                     No immediate supervisor (SKIP TO Q.22A).... 7 20. How important does your supervisor consider human factors to be to the project on which you spend most of your time working (or you have just completed)? On a scale of 1 through 7, where one means not at all important and seven means very important, how would you rate it? Not at all important Very Important   Don't know 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 21. How much does your supervisor know about the field of human factors? If one means nothing at all and seven means a great deal, how would you rate him/her? Knows Nothing Knows A Great Deal Don't Know 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 22. I'm going to read you a list of some other kinds of people that you may interact with on your job. Do you have at least weekly interactions with....                                                       Yes            No (a) Other human factors personnel?....... 1 ............ 2 (b) Marketing or sales staff?................... 1 ............ 2 (c) Industrial designers?......................... 1 ............ 2 (d) Systems analysts?............................. 1 ............. 2 (e) Engineers?........................................ 1 ............. 2

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey (f) If yes to 22e, what kind of engineers?                                                                                                                                                              Yes     No (g) Health professionals? ..................................... 1 ....... 2 (h) Computer scientists or programmers? ............ 1 ....... 2 (i) Systems users? ............................................... 1 ....... 2 (j) Other types of people? ................................... 1 ....... 2 (Specify)                                                                               (If yes to 22a: How many of them are... (l) your co-workers?                                                             (n) subordinates? (Only if Yes to Q.2)                                  (o) clients?                                                                            (If no to Q.22a skip to Q.24) 23a. We are trying to add to our sample of human factors personnel. Could you give me the names of the human factors people you interact with on the job? Yes.......................................... 1 No (Skip to Q.24).................... 2 23b. What are their names?                                                                                         23c. Could you please tell me his/her telephone number                                                                                          23d. Could you please tell me the name of the company he/she works for and its location?                                                                                          Are there other human factors personnel with whom you interact on the job? (23e-h) Name, Phone Number, Company and Location (23i-l) Name, Phone Number, Company and Location 24a. In the past year was your salary on your current job before taxes... Less than $50,000, or (SKIP TO Q.24f) ............... 1 More than $50,000 .............................................. 2 Exactly $50,000 (SKIP TO Q.25) ........................ 3 Don't know (SKIP TO Q.25) ................................ 8 Refused (SKIP TO Q.25) ..................................... 9

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 24b. Was it Less than $70,000, or ..........................................1 More than $70,000 (SKIP TO Q.24d)..................2 Exactly $70,000 (SKIP TO Q.25)........................3 Don't know (SKIP TO Q.25) ...............................8 Refused (SKIP TO Q.25).....................................9 24c. Was it less than $60,000? Yes (SKIP TO Q.25) ...........................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.25).............................................2 Exactly $60,000 (SKIP TO Q.25)........................3 Don't know (SKIP TO Q.25)................................8 Refused (SKIP TO Q.25).....................................9 24d. Was it more than: $80,000? Yes.....................................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.25)............................................2 Exactly $80,000 (SKIP TO Q.25).......................3 Don't know (SKIP TO Q.25)..............................8 Refused (SKIP TO Q.25)....................................9 24e. Was it more than $90,000? Yes (SKIP TO Q.25)...........................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.25)............................................2 Exactly $90,000.................................................3 Don't know (SKIP TO Q.25................................8 Refused (SKIP TO Q.25)....................................9 24f. Was it.... Less than $30,000, or.........................................1 More than $30,000 (SKIP TO Q.24h)................2 Exactly $30,000 (SKIP TO Q.25).......................3 Don't know (SKIP TO Q.25)...............................8 24g. Was it less than $20,000? Yes (SKIP TO Q.25)...........................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.25.)...........................................2 Exactly $20,000 (SKIP TO Q.25).......................3 Don't know (SKIP TO Q.25)...............................8 Refused (SKIP TO Q.25)....................................9

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 31. For the 1988–89 academic year, in total, how many students applied for admission to all of your human factors programs?           Students 32. Including those who did not enroll, how many did you admit?           Students 33. How many new students actually entered your program(s) in the 1988–89 academic year?           Students 34a. In the past five years, has the number of students admitted increased, decreased, or remained about the same? Increased...................................................1 Decreased.................................................2 Remained the same (SKIP TO Q.35).........3 34b. To what do you attribute this increase or decrease? 35a. Do you have any absolute requirements for admission, such as minimum grade point average, GRE score, or specific undergraduate degrees or courses taken? Yes...........................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.36)..................................2 35b. What are these requirements? 36. What is the average undergraduate grade point of the students you accept? (PLEASE INDICATE WHETHER THIS IS A FOUR-OR FIVE-POINT SCALE)           /4.0           /5.0 37. What is the average GRE score of the students you accept? Verbal                                      Quantitative                              Analytical                                 Overall                                     

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 38. What are the most common undergraduate degrees of the students you accept? 39. What other qualities do you look for when accepting students into your program? 40. What percentage of your admitted students have had relevant work experience before entering your program?      % 41a. Do you have any part-time students? Yes.....................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.42a)..........................2 41b. What percentage of your students are part-time?      % 42a. Do you make any special efforts to recruit students? Yes.....................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.43)............................2 42b. What do you do? 43. In the past few years, has the support that your human factors program has received from the university increased at an above average, average, or below average rate compared to other university programs? Above average rate....................................1 Average.....................................................2 Below average...........................................3 44a. If you could change any parts of your program, what would you change? 44b. What is preventing the change(s) from happening?

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 45a. Do you see any major changes occurring in the human factors field in the next decade? Yes......................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.46a)...........................2 45b. What changes do you see happening? 46a. Do you think that job opportunities for people in the field will increase, decrease or remain the same in the next five years? Increase...............................................1 Decrease..............................................2 Remain the same (SKIP TO Q.47).......3 46b. What percentage increase or decrease do you expect?      % 47. Do you think that the quality of students in human factors programs will increase, decrease, or remain the same in the next five years? Increase..............................................1 Decrease.............................................2 Remain the same.................................3 48a. Do you think that human factors education will change in the next five years? Yes......................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.49a)...........................2 48b. How will it change? 49a. Has your program responded in any way to new DoD human component/system initiatives such as MANPRINT, RAMPARTS and IMPACT? Yes......................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.50a)...........................2 49b. How has the program responded?

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey 50. Has your program responded to special societal problems such as the needs of the elderly and disabled? Yes....................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.51a).........................2 50b. How? 51a. Has your program responded to technological developments such as advanced manufacturing technologies, robotics, or expert systems? Yes...................................................1 No (SKIP TO Q.52)..........................2 51b. How? 52. Below is a list of topics that are sometimes included in human factors programs. Please indicate, by circling the appropriate code number, which of these are covered in required coursework, which are covered in elective coursework, and which are not covered as part of your program.   Covered in required coursework Covered in elective coursework Not covered as part of HF program (01) Biomechanics 1 2 3 (02) Work physiology 1 2 3 (03) Anthropometry 1 2 3 (04) Visual processes 1 2 3 (05) Auditory processes 1 2 3 (06) Attention 1 2 3 (07) Perception 1 2 3 (08) Cognitive processes 1 2 3 (09) Motor abilities and limitations 1 2 3 (10) Learning 1 2 3 (11) Group dynamics 1 2 3 (12) Team performance 1 2 3 (13) Group problem solving 1 2 3 (14) Work design (motivation and reward structures) 1 2 3

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey   Covered in required coursework Covered in elective coursework Not covered as part HF program (15) Physical environmental effects on behavior (such as temperature, noise, weightlessness) 1 2 3 (16) System requirements analysis 1 2 3 (17) Human needs analysis 1 2 3 (18) Function allocation 1 2 3 (19) Task analysis 1 2 3 (20) Workload analysis 1 2 3 (21) Operations research 1 2 3 (22) Error-failure-accident analysis 1 2 3 (23) Human reliability analysis 1 2 3 (24) Computer simulation 1 2 3 (25) Manual control theory 1 2 3 (26) Analytical models (such as signal detection theory, decision theory, GOMS) 1 2 3 (27) Organizational impact analysis 1 2 3 (28) Experimental design 1 2 3 (29) Laboratory instrumentation 1 2 3 (30) Univariate statistics 1 2 3 (31) Multivariate statistics 1 2 3 (32) Usability evaluation 1 2 3 (33) Psychometrics, 1 2 3 (34) Survey methods 1 2 3 (35) Physical measurement 1 2 3 (36) Psychological measurement 1 2 3 (37) Psychophysics and subjective measurement 1 2 3 (38) Time and motion study 1 2 3 (39) Design walk-throughs 1 2 3 (40) Design checklists 1 2 3 (41) Design guidelines 1 2 3 (42) Development and use of mockups 1 2 3 (43) Software tools (e.g. UIMS) 1 2 3 (44) Instructional system design 1 2 3 (45) MANPRINT, HARDMAN, RAMPARTS, or IMPACT 1 2 3 (46) Health and safety 1 2 3 (47) Computer programming languages 1 2 3

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey   Covered in required coursework Covered in elective coursework Not covered as part of HF program (48) Computer internal architecture 1 2 3 (49) Artificial intelligence 1 2 3 (50) Speech recognition and synthesis 1 2 3 (51) CAD/CAM 1 2 3 (52) Technical writing and illustration 1 2 3 (53) Oral presentation 1 2 3 (54) Project management 1 2 3 (55) Cost estimation and budgeting 1 2 3 (56) Product liability law 1 2 3 (57) Negotiation 1 2 3 (58) Panel display design 1 2 3 (59) Computer display design 1 2 3 (60) Control design 1 2 3 (61) Hand tool design 1 2 3 (62) Computer input tool design 1 2 3 (63) Human-computer dialogue design 1 2 3 (64) Workstation design 1 2 3 (65) Facilities design 1 2 3 (66) Office automation 1 2 3 (67) Communication systems 1 2 3 (68) Transportation systems 1 2 3 (69) Aerospace systems 1 2 3 (70) Manufacturing and quality control 1 2 3 (71) Process control 1 2 3 (72) Command and control 1 2 3 (73) Teleoperations 1 2 3 (74) Robotics 1 2 3 (75) Maintainability 1 2 3 (76) Aging 1 2 3 (77) Handicapped 1 2 3 53. Please indicate which of the following human factors activities your students do as part of their classwork. (CIRCLE THE CODE NUMBERS OF ALL THAT APPLY.) Analyze tasks.......................................................................................................................................01 Conduct network analyses...................................................................................................................02 Assess mental workload.......................................................................................................................03 Assess physical workload.....................................................................................................................04 Develop or conduct computer simulations.............................................................................................05

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Write or debug computer programs....................................................................................................06 Perform human-reliability analyses.....................................................................................................07 Analyze the effects of environmental stressors....................................................................................08 Verify design conformance to human factors specifications.................................................................09 Prepare or review design drawing for conformance to human factors specifications............................10 Prepare design mockups...................................................................................................................11 Design human-equipment interfaces...................................................................................................12 Design workspace layouts.................................................................................................................13 Prepare specifications for software.....................................................................................................14 Design workspace layouts.................................................................................................................15 Prepare specifications for software.....................................................................................................16 Design software-user interfaces..........................................................................................................17 Prepare training course materials and training aids...............................................................................18 Prepare product warnings..................................................................................................................19 Prepare instructional or procedural documents....................................................................................20 Design training aids.............................................................................................................................21 Conduct training.................................................................................................................................22 Assess the effectiveness of training (systems, courses, aids, simulators)................................................23 Specify evaluation objectives..............................................................................................................24 Plan and coordinate evaluations..........................................................................................................25 Develop criterion measures.................................................................................................................26 Design data collection procedures and questionnaires..........................................................................27 Specify or perform data analysis procedures and statistical tests..........................................................28 Collect data in laboratory settings.......................................................................................................29 Collect data in field settings................................................................................................................30 Interpret test and evaluation results.....................................................................................................31 Develop analytical models and methods.............................................................................................32 Collect data on errors, failures, or accidents......................................................................................33 Conduct root cause analyses.............................................................................................................34 Perform failure-mode-and-effects analyses........................................................................................35 Develop and analyze fault trees.........................................................................................................36 Assess performance risks..................................................................................................................37 Perform safety analyses.....................................................................................................................38 Perform human reliability analyses.....................................................................................................39 Evaluate reports written by others.....................................................................................................40 Prepare or contribute to project proposals........................................................................................41 Prepare and conduct oral presentations.............................................................................................42 Prepare engineering drawings...........................................................................................................43 Interpret engineering drawings..........................................................................................................44 Review and summarize the results of previous research.....................................................................45 Develop hypotheses and theories.....................................................................................................46 Interpret research results..................................................................................................................47

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR COOPERATION PLEASE RETURN IN THE ENCLOSED POSTAGE-PAID ENVELOPE TO: SURVEY RESEARCH LABORATORY UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 1005 WEST NEVADA STREET URBANA, ILLINOIS 61801

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey Appendix C— Data Base Availability Two data gathering techniques were used to survey the human factors community: a computer-assisted telephone interview of human factors specialists and their supervisors, and a mail-in questionnaire of graduate programs offering specialized education in human factors. A copy of the surveys can be found in Appendices A and B, respectively. The coded response data and the command files that explain each set of data can be obtained by contacting: CSERIAC Program Office AAMRL/HE/CSERIAC Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-6573 Phone: (513) 255-4842 Autovon: 785-4842 Facsimile: (513) 255-4823 Email (Internet): CSERIAC@Falcon.AAMRL.WPAFB.AF.MIL The files can be obtained on a cost recovery basis, and they can be sent to the requestor on either two 5-1/4'' disks or two 3-1/2'' disks. The files were produced using SPSSX (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software). The names of the data files (which contain the interviewees' responses to the questionniares) end with a .DAT. The names of the command files (which contain information on the structure and identification of responses in the data files) end with a .TXT.

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey If you have any questions about the data structure, format, etc., please contact: Dr. Beverly Huey Committee on Human Factors, HA156d National Academy of Sciences 2001 Wisconsin Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20007 Phone: (202) 334-3027 Facsimile: (202) 334-2854 Email (Bitnet): BHUEY@NAS.BITNET Human Factors Specialists Survey The Human Factors Specialists Questionnaire was administered to both human factors specialists and to the supervisors of human factors personnel. The purpose of the survey was to question human factors specialists and supervisors about their professional and job related activities and education. If you are requesting 5-1/4" disks, the data set is large and has been compressed so that it would fit on one 360K disk. To get the data in a useable, uncompressed format, you need to copy the compressed data file (called HF.EXE) to your hard disk before conducting any analyses. After you copy the file HF.EXE to your hard disk, go to your hard drive and type the letters HF and press the enter key. This will uncompress the data file into a 1.3 megabyte file called HF.DAT. This HF.DAT file is the data file that is accessed by the command files. Please note that you cannot analyze the data directly in the HF.EXE file; you must uncompress it first! If you are requesting 3-1/2" disks, the data set has not been compressed, and you may copy the HF.DAT file directly from the diskette to your hard drive. There are three command files to analyze the data from the human factors specialists survey. The first file (called HF1.DAT) contains the commands to analyze the data from the first seven of seventeen records of data for each interviewee. This contains the responses to almost all questions on the survey, but it omits the responses to questions number 18 and number 52 of the survey. This is due to the limitations of the software to handle this large a number of variables. The command files for questions 18 and 52 are HF2.TXT and HF3.TXT, respectively. Human Factors Survey—University Questionnaire The University Questionnaire was used to obtain information about university graduate programs in engineering, psychology, and other departments that offer specialized education in human factors.

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Human Factors Specialists' Education and Utilization: Results of a Survey The data file for this survey is called UNIV.DAT; while the command file is called UNIV.TXT. All data for the University Questionnaire is contained in one uncompressed file, and all commands relating to that data file are contained in another uncompressed file. These files can be copied directly onto the hard drive of your computer system.