Click for next page ( 266


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 265
Index A Abstractions in computer science and engineering explanation of, 169 functioning of, 172 use of, 171, 172-173 Accountability for research, 48 ACM-CPA Strategic Directions conference (1989), x, 64 Advanced Technology Program (ATP), 230 Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), 219-220 Algorithms for computational biology, 73, 74 computational complexity and, 198- 199 meaning and use of, 19-20, 22, 64, 127, 164 patentability of, 44 study of, 23, 59, 168, 197-198 use of, 193-197 Applications-oriented research. See Interdisciplinary and applications- oriented research 265 Applied research. See Research Army Research Office (ARO), 219-220 Artificial intelligence (AI) explanation of, 199-200 future of, 204 impact on scientific thought, 202-204 impact on society, 200-201 medical and biological applications for, 230 NASA support for, 227 Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) activities of, 235, 236 view of broadening of CS&E, 60,61, 64 B Basic research. See Research Bloch, Erich, 222-223 Broadening of computer science and technology ACM views regarding, 60,61,64 committee views on, 56,65,141 conclusions regarding, 90 educational changes and, 85-86

OCR for page 265
266 need for, 55-61, 123- 124 prerequisites for, 87-89 research opportunities in, 64-67 role of educational institutions in, 38, 86-87, 150 Brooks, Fred, 21, 165 Brown, John Seely, 17 Bruno, John, 196 Business sector. See also Commercial computing attitude of academic CS&E community toward, 62-63 interaction between universities and, 86-87 investment in continuing education by, 134-135 C Chandy, K. Mani, 74 Chip design advances in, 176-178 limits on, 178, 179 Commercial computing collaborative work in, 81-83 concerns that motivate database research, 109- 110 CS&E and, 76-77 interoperation technology for, 79-81 model management and decision support for, 77-78 software development metrics and modeling for, 79 usable software for, 78-79 Committee to Assess the Scope and Direction of Computer Science and Technology, x, xvii areas of concern for future reports identified by, 155- 157 conclusions drawn by, 9, 157- 158 interoperation difficulties experienced by, 79, 80 judgments made by, 4-5 priorities formulated by, 5, 114, 139- 142 recommendations to federal policy INDEX makers regarding education, 8, 151-153 to federal policy makers regarding research, 6-7, 143-146 to universities regarding education, 8-9, 153-155 to universities regarding research, 7 8, 146, 148-151 study made by, 18-19 views on broadening of field, 56, 65, 141 views on education, 117, 121, 125, 130, 133-134, 141-142 Compilers advances in, 97, 189-190 explanation of, 96, 170 Complexity theory, 26, 95, 178, 179, 198-199 Computational biology, 72-76 Computational complexity. See complexity theory Computational science, 62 Computer architecture and development of compiler technology, 96, 97 elements involved in, 22-23 high-speed, 178 Computer graphics advances in, 204-205, 211 history of, 206-207 intellectual challenges in, 209-212 for scientific and engineering community, 207-208 Computer hardware. See Hardware Computer industry changes in, 3, 45-47, 59-60 CS&E areas of interest to, 98 relationship between CS&E and, 38- 45 role in broadening research agenda, 86 view of educational needs, 116- 117 Computer languages advances in, 187-189 development of more effective, 25-26 elements involved in design of, 23 high-level, 172 list of significant, 188

OCR for page 265
INDEX Computer networks gigabit, 101-103 research agenda for, 101 - 103 Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, 237 Computer programming. See also software engineering discussion of, 20-21, 63-64, 165-167 rigor and clarity in, 121-123 study of, 23-24 Computer Science: Achievements and Opportunities (Hopcroft and Kennedy), 97, 174 research agenda on parallelism, 99, 100 research agenda on software engineering, 103, 104 Computer Science Accreditation Board, 236 Computer science and engineering (CS&E) as academic discipline, 87 background information regarding, 1 3, 19-24, 60-64, 163-168 broader agenda for. See Broadening of computer science and technology changing environment for academic, 45-48 contributions to computing practice by, 24-26 core of, 4, 139-140 discussion of field of, vii-viii, 163 168 foreign students in, 251-253 groups to benefit from assessment of, ... . V111-lX intellectual and structural characteristics of, 213-214 as laboratory discipline, 7-8, 150- 151 minorities and women in, 154-155 previous studies in field of, ix-x priorities for, 5, 114, 139-142 professional organizations for, 235- 237 subdisciplines of, 4, 22, 95, 96, 167 267 sustaining core effort in, 5, 139-141 synergy leading to innovations in, 212-213 university-industry-commerce interaction in, 86-87, 150 youth and growth of, 253-258 Computer science and engineering (CS&E) accomplishments, 174. See also individual listing in algorithms, 193- 198 in artificial intelligence, 199-204 in compilers, 189- 190 in computational complexity, 198- 199 in computer graphics and user interface, 204-212 in data communications and networking, 183-185 in database systems, 185- 187 in microelectronics, 175-178 in operating systems, 180-183 in processor and memory design, 178-180 in programming languages, 187- 189 in software engineering, 190-193 in systems and architecture, 175-187 Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), ix, vii, x, 63, 235, 237 Computer software. See Software; Software engineering; Software industry Computer Systems Policy Project (CSPP), 147 Computing benefits and drawbacks of, 26-28 conclusions regarding, 49 CS&E and commercial, 76-81 distributed, 100-101 real-time, 193 speedup in, 25 uses in society for, 13-18 Computing Research Association (CRA), 235, 237 Coons, Steven, 206 Council on Competitiveness, 131, 132

OCR for page 265
268 D Data Communications. See also Computer networks advances in, 183- 185 research agenda for, 101 - 103 Database model, relational, 24-25, 185, 186 Database research, 108- 110 Database systems, 170, 185-187 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 112 role in support of CS&E research, 33-34, 218-220 Defense Department. See Department of Defense Degree production data regarding undergraduate and graduate, 239-246, 251 involvement of foreign students in, 251-253 women and non-Asian minorities and, 246-247 Department of Defense (DOD) involvement of in support of CS&E research, 217-221 Office of the Secretary of Defense, 219, 221 Software Engineering Institute sponsored by, 131 support for CS&E research by, 29-31, 33 Department of Energy (DOE), 29, 34, 228-229 Development distinctions between basic and applied research and, 65 researchers' view of, 40-41 Discovery tools, 191 Distributed computing, 100- 101 Downey, Peter, 196 Dozier, Jeff, 196 E Earth Observing System (EOS) (NASA), 70 INDEX Earth sciences and environmental studies, 69-72, 196 Education broadening agenda for CS&E, 85-86 . . committee recommendations regarding, 8-9, 151 - 155 committee views regarding, 117, 121, 125, 130-134, 141-142 continuing, 133-135, 151-153, 156 different views of, 116- 118 involvement of senior researchers in, 145 master's degree CS&E, 130- 131 Ph.D. CS&E, 119, 131-133, 153-154, 232-233, 239, 240 precollege (high school) CS&E, 135 136, 156-157 summary and conclusions regarding, 136 teaching loads for CS&E faculty, 127, 257-258 undergraduate CS&E, 118- 125, 154, 236. See also Undergraduate education undergraduate service, 125- 130 Educational degrees. See Degree production Educational institutions. See also Faculty changes in environment in, 47-48 and continuing education, 134 cost of computing technology for, 48, 119-120, 155-156, 233-234 education recommendations for, 8-9. 153-155 and interaction with industry and commerce to produce broader agenda, 38, 86-87, 150 need for reorientation of, 87-88 research recommendations for, 7-8, 146, 148-151 role of CS&E within, 231-235 Educators. See Faculty Electronic library, 81, 83-85 Employment expectations for, 133 opportunities for CS&E graduates, 87

OCR for page 265
INDEX Energy Department. See Department of Energy Engelbart, Douglas, 206 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 34 EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), 70-72 Expert systems, 201, 202. See also Artificial intelligence F Faculty age, degrees, and rank of, 253-258 expansion of HPCC to address needs of, 151 overview of CS&E, 118, 119 recognition and rewards for, 154 support for interdisciplinary or applications-oriented research among, 150 teaching loads for, 127, 257-258 women and non-Asian-minorities represented in, 247-248 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 34, 146 Federal government compact between university research and, 48 relationship between CS&E research and, 28-38 Federal policy makers education recommendations to, 8, 151-153 research recommendations to, 6-7, 143-146 Foreign students, 251-253 Funding amounts per academic researcher, 34 35 broadening of agenda to gain nontraditional, 60 critical nature of, 2-3 encouragement for faculty to seek out, 150 269 by federal agencies, 29-31, 60, 217 230. See also individual agencies for HCPP program, 36, 37, 60 impact of fiscal restraints on, 45 G Gesture recognition, 208-209 Global change, 70-72 Graphics. See Computer graphics Greenblatt, Richard, 203 Hardware advances in, 210 components of, 169- 170 Health care computer applications for, 14 physician's assistant for intensive care monitoring, 67, 68 High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program, 67, 223 areas of theoretical research relevant to, 56 committee recommendations regarding, 3, 143-144, 146, 151-153 CSPP position on, 147 description of, 34-36 features and focus of, 37-38, 100, 102 funding of, 36-37 impact on CS&E research of, 29 origin of, 64 High school computer science education, 135-136, 156-157 Hopcroft-Kennedy study. See Computer Science: Achievements and Opportunities (Hopcroft and Kennedy) Human-computer interaction, 111, 112 I Information representation selection of appropriate, 19, 20, 164- 165

OCR for page 265
270 study of, 24 Information storage, 107- 110 Intellectual property issues regarding, 43-44 protection of, 150 Interdisciplinary and applications- oriented research in commercial computing, 76-83 committee recommendations regarding, 144- 146, 148, 149 in computational biology, 72-76 in earth sciences and environment, 69-72 in electronic library, 81, 83-85 faculty support for, 150 funding for, 88, 144-146 importance of, 63, 64 at science and technology centers, 226 Interdisciplinary courses, 154 K Kapor, Mitchell, 78-79 Kay, Alan, 97 Knuth, Donald, 19-20, 164 L Lagunita report, 107-108 Languages. See Computer languages Lewis, Edward, 74 Linear programming (LP) algorithms, 195, 196, 198 M Mathematics comparison of CS&E to, 57 contributions of CS&E to, 58, 59 influences on development of, 56, 57 ~ ~ McCarthy, John, 200 Microelectronics, 175-178 Minorities in CS&E, 154- 156, 246-247 in faculty positions, 247-248 Minsky, Marvin, 200 INDEX Mission to Planet Earth, 228 Morgan, H.E., 87-88 Multiple processors, 97, 100- 101 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 29, 34, 70, 227-228 The National Challenge in Computer Science and Technology (CSTB), ix, 97, 103 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 34, 145, 230 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 34, 230 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 34 National Research and Education Network (NREN), 34-35, 103, 185 National Science Foundation (NSF) CISE Directorate, 222-224 Coordinated Experimental Research (CER) Program, 234-235 funding for HPCC Program by, 36 Institutional Infrastructure Program, 235 science and technology centers of, 226 supercomputer centers of, 225-226 support for CS&E research by, 29, 32-34, 221-225, 234 support for NSFNET, 225, 226 National Security Agency (NSA), 219, 221 Networks. See Computer networks Newell, Allen, 200 o Object-oriented programming, 124 Office of Naval Research (ONR), 219- 220 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 34 Operating systems advances in, 180-183

OCR for page 265
INDEX development of, 26 software, 170-171 p Parallel computing as component of HPCC Program, 100 parallel processing, 96 parallelism, 99, 124 progress in, 96 research agenda for, 97, 99 science and technology center for, 226 in undergraduate programs, 120, 124 Priorities to broaden field, 5, 141 to improve undergraduate education, 5, 141-142 setting of, for the future, 113-114, 139 to sustain core effort, 5, 139-141 Processors advances in, 178-180 capabilities of, 97, 100-101 as component of computer hardware, 169 design of, 178 Professional organizations, 235-237 Programming. See Computer programming Programming languages. See Computer languages Project control systems, 191 R Real-time computing, 193 Reduced-instruction-set computing (RISC), 38, 96, 97, 179 Relational database model, 24-25, 185, 186 Reliability, 110-111 Research. See also Interdisciplinary and applications-oriented research academic vs. industrial, 38-40 basic vs. applied, 29, 65, 67 broader definition of, 88-89 271 computer industry involvement in, 38-45 interaction between computing practice and, 5, 55-56 in non-Ph.D.-granting institutions, 119 overview of federal support for, 28-38 recommendations regarding, 6-8, 143-151 relationship to development, 65 role of, 2 Research agenda for data communications and networking, 101 - 103 formulation of broader, 64-68, 86-89 for future, 95-98 for information storage and management, 107-110 regarding processor capabilities and multiple-processor systems, 97, 99- 101 for reliability, 110- 111 for software engineering, 103- 107 summary and conclusions regarding, 113-114 for user interface, 111 - 113 Research funding. See Funding Researchers academic vs. industrial, 38-40 growth in number of active, 34, 256 need to engage with applications, 61- 63 production of doctoral-level, 47 understanding of development, 40-41 S Scaling Up: A Research Agenda for Software Engineering (CSTB), 97, 103 Scientific visualization, 207-208, 211 Simon, Herbert, 200 Software cost of, in assessment of capitalization, 233 intellectual property issues regarding, 44

OCR for page 265
272 operating system, 170- 171 OSD action plan for, 221 reengineering of existing, 103-105 reuse of, 190, 192 testing of, 98, 107 transfer by network, 226 undergraduate approach to problems in, 121 usability of, 78-79 Software engineering advances in, 190- 193 continuing education in, 134 difficulty of large-scale, 106- 107 research agenda for, 103-105 rigor and clarity in, 121, 122 Software industry, 17, 18 Source code control systems, 191-192 Speech recognition, 112, 203-204 Sutherland, Ivan, 21, 206 T Taulbee Surveys, ix, 232, 237, 247 Technology transfer issues posed by, 41-43 Theoretical research . . . interaction between computing practice and, 5, 55-56 meaning of, 194 Theory, 194 Traveling salesman problem (TSP), 196-197 Turing, Alan, 172, 197, 200 U Undergraduate education. See also Education achievement of breadth in, 123-124 INDEX limits of four-year, 125 mathematics and formalism in, 122- 123 for non-CS&E majors, 125- 130, 154 priorities to improve, 5, 141-142 rigor and clarity in, 120- 122 role of ACM in, 236 variability in, 118- 120, 136 Universities. See Educational institutions U.S. Global Change Research Program, 70, 72 User interfaces advances in, 205-212 explanation of, 170 gestures in, 208-209 research agenda for, 111 - 113 V Visualization. see Scientific vlsuallzatlon Von Neumann, John, 57, 220 W White, Robert M., 58 WIMP interfaces, 205-206, 208 Women among foreign students, 253 in CS&E, 154-156, 246-249 degrees awarded to, 247, 249 in faculty positions, 247-248 participation barriers in science and engineering for, 248-250, 253