Index

A

Acoustic methods, dolphin mortality reduction, 90-91

Acoustic signals, dolphin mortality reduction, 86

Aggression, dolphin, 51

Alternative gear incentive, regulation, 105

Area, yellowfin tuna, 16

Atlantic Tuna Conventions Act, 22

B

Backdown alternatives, dolphin mortality reduction, 85-86

Backdown channel escape, dolphin mortality reduction, 82-85

Backdown dolphin release

dolphin behavior, 89

dolphin mortality reduction, 88

Backdown process, 36-37

Bait boat conversion, purse seine, 16

Behavior/based dolphin release, dolphin mortality reduction, 86-89

Biology

dolphin, 43-45

yellowfin tuna, 38-41

Bird flock, herd sighting, 48-49

Bond, tuna/dolphin, 45-46

breaking, 89-90

Bottlenose dolphin

behavior overview, 7

tuna association, 43

Breathing, dolphin, 13, 14

Bubble barrier, dolphin mortality reduction, 86

C

Canned light-meat tuna

Europe, 18

Far East, 18

United States, 18

Canning tuna, 31-32

Canopy reduction, dolphin mortality reduction, 76-77

Capture area, dolphin mortality, 61

Carrying capacity, purse-seine fleet, dolphin mortality, 63-64



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OCR for page 169
DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY Index A Acoustic methods, dolphin mortality reduction, 90-91 Acoustic signals, dolphin mortality reduction, 86 Aggression, dolphin, 51 Alternative gear incentive, regulation, 105 Area, yellowfin tuna, 16 Atlantic Tuna Conventions Act, 22 B Backdown alternatives, dolphin mortality reduction, 85-86 Backdown channel escape, dolphin mortality reduction, 82-85 Backdown dolphin release dolphin behavior, 89 dolphin mortality reduction, 88 Backdown process, 36-37 Bait boat conversion, purse seine, 16 Behavior/based dolphin release, dolphin mortality reduction, 86-89 Biology dolphin, 43-45 yellowfin tuna, 38-41 Bird flock, herd sighting, 48-49 Bond, tuna/dolphin, 45-46 breaking, 89-90 Bottlenose dolphin behavior overview, 7 tuna association, 43 Breathing, dolphin, 13, 14 Bubble barrier, dolphin mortality reduction, 86 C Canned light-meat tuna Europe, 18 Far East, 18 United States, 18 Canning tuna, 31-32 Canopy reduction, dolphin mortality reduction, 76-77 Capture area, dolphin mortality, 61 Carrying capacity, purse-seine fleet, dolphin mortality, 63-64

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DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY Certificate dolphin mortality, 104-105 recommendation, 111 Chase, tuna-seining operation, 49 Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, 14 Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, United States House of Representatives, 14 Common dolphin, 4 behavior overview, 7 dolphin abundance, 66, 67 dolphin mortality, 19 herd, 16 tuna association, 43 Current strength, dolphin mortality, 62 D Delphinus delphis, see Common dolphin Distribution, yellowfin tuna, 38 Documentation/data format, flotsam location/characteristic, 157-165 Dolphin aggression, 51 behavior, tuna-seining operation, 47-51 biology, 43-45 breathing, 13, 14 echolocation system, 46 ecology, 43-45 feeding behavior, 47 food detection, 46 male coalition, 51 population maintenance, 70-71 release from net, 20 release-gate test, recommendation, 115 social disruption, seining, 71 species found in association with tuna, 43-44 Dolphin abundance common dolphin, 66, 67 overview, 8 research vessel data, 64-68 spinner dolphin, 66-69 spotted dolphin, 65-67 striped dolphin, 66 tuna vessel data, 64-69 Dolphin-associated method, overview, 2-3 Dolphin behavior eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 48 tuna behavior, 42-51 Dolphin behavior research, recommendation, 115-117 Dolphin maneuvering, seine, recommendation, 115 Dolphin mortality, 52-64, 69-71 background, 15-21 capture area, 61 certificate, 104-105 current strength, 62 data, 18-19 dolphin-saving procedure utilization, 63 estimate, 54-64 factor overview, 7-8 fine-mesh panel alignment, 62 flag of vessel, 61 habituation area, 61 historical overview, 69-71 incidental, 52-54 malfunction, 62 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 19 natural, 71 operational factors, 14-15 problem overview, 2-3 prohibition, 102-104 reduction, overview, 19-21 reduction techniques, see Dolphin mortality reduction techniques reduction techniques overview, 8-9 set duration, 62 species, 60 species commonly affected, 19 stock, 60 time of capture, 61-62 tuna catch size, 58 United States fleet, 19 vessel captain, 58-60 vessel number/total mortality, 63-64

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DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY Dolphin mortality data Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 19 National Marine Fisheries Service, 19 Dolphin mortality reduction techniques acoustic signals, 86 acoustical methods, 90-91 backdown alternatives, 85-86 backdown channel escape, 82-85 backdown dolphin release, 88 bait boats, 98 behavior-based dolphin release, 86-89 bubble barrier, 86 canopy reduction, 76-77 dolphin-associated fishing alternatives, 93-101 dolphin behavior on backdown release, 89 Doppler current profile, 74-75 fine-mesh strip, 75 fish-aggregating devices, 93-98 gillnets, 101 helicopter-deployed extraction, 86 jet boat, 73-74 light-induced detecting/ranging, 92 longline fishing, 98-99 Medina double corkline, 72-73 midwater trawl, 99-101 non-purse-seine techniques, 98-101 pair trawl, 99-100 pear-shaped snap ring, 75 pre-backdown release, 86-88 regulatory alternatives, 102-109 remote sensing satellites, 91-92 roll-up reduction, 77-79 safety crook, 75 seining modification, 72-86 small-mesh Medina panel, 75 species selectivity, 81-82 synthetic aperture radar, 92 tuna/dolphin barrier, 79-81 tuna/dolphin bond reduction, 89-90 yellowfin tuna location method, 90-92 Dolphin Protection Consumer Act, 105 legislation, 32-33 Dolphin-safe tuna, 15, 32-33 Dolphin-saving procedure utilization, dolphin mortality, 63 Dolphin-tuna barrier, dolphin mortality reduction, 79-81 Dolphin-tuna relationship, 45-46 bond breaking, dolphin mortality reduction, 89-90 Doppler current profile, dolphin mortality reduction, 74-75 E Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean harvest, 40-41 recommendation, tuna-dolphin fishery, 110-117 Yellowfin Regulatory Area, 24-25 Echolocation system, 46 Ecology dolphin, 43-45 yellowfin tuna, 38-41 Economic competition, world tuna fishing, 30-32 Economic considerations, 28-33 Ecuador, 17 Embargo Marine Mammal Protection Act, 28 Mexico, 28 ETP, see Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean Europe canned light-meat tuna, 18 world tuna fishery share, 4 Exclusive economic zone, 16 F Far East canned light-meat tuna, 18 world tuna fishery share, 4 Feeding behavior dolphin, 47 tuna, 47 Fine-mesh panel alignment, dolphin mortality, 62 Fish-aggregating devices, dolphin mortality reduction, 93-98

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DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY Fisherman, performance, 20 Fisherman's Protective Act, 22 Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 22, 24, 26, 32-33 Fishing captain performance standards, 106-109 Fishing gear backdown, 19 Medina panel, 36 overview, 6-7 pear-shaped snap ring, 36 purse seine, 34-37 raft, 36 speedboat, 36 swimmer, 36 Fishing method log fishing, 37 longline fishing, 37 school fishing, 37 yellowfin tuna, 16 Fishing technique dolphin release, 20 Medina panel, 19-20 Fishing techniques workshop, 20 Flag of vessel, dolphin mortality, 61 Fleet, yellowfin tuna, 16 Flotsam location/characteristic, documentation/data format, 157- Flotsam tagging notification, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission , 166-167 Food detection, dolphin, 46 France, world tuna catch percentage, 15 Fraser's dolphin, behavior overview, 7 G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 22 Gillnets, dolphin mortality reduction, 101 Global canned tuna production, homogeneity, 31 Growth, yellowfin tuna, 38-39 H Habituation area, dolphin mortality, 61 Harvest eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 40-41 skipjack tuna, 40-41 world tuna fishing, 29-30 yellowfin tuna, 40-41 Harvesting tuna not in association with dolphins, recommendation, 117-118 Helicopter-deployed extraction, dolphin mortality reduction, 86 Herd sighting, tuna-seining operation, 48-49 House of Representatives, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries , 14 I Imports, 32-33 Incentives, recommendation, 111 Indonesia, world tuna catch percentage, 15 Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 16-17, 23-24, 28 dolphin mortality data, 19 flotsam record, 157-165 flotsam tagging notification, 167 observer program, 52 technical advisory offices, 20 Tuna-Dolphin Workshop, 52 International Commission on the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, 22 International policy considerations, 28 J Japan, world tuna fishery share, 3, 15 Jet boat, dolphin mortality reduction, 73-74 K Korean Republic, world tuna catch percentage, 15

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DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY L Lagenodelphis hosei, see Fraser's dolphin Latin America, 17 Legislation Dolphin Protection Consumer Act, 32-33 Fisherman's Protective Act, 22 Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 22, 24, 26, 32-33 South Pacific Tuna Act, 22 Tariff Act of 1930, 22 Tuna Conventions Act, 22, 23-24 tuna fishermen regulations, 129-156 Light-induced detecting/ranging, dolphin mortality reduction, 92 Log fishing, 2, 14, 37 Longevity, yellowfin tuna, 38-39 Longline fishing, 37, 98-99 M Male coalition, dolphin, 51 Malfunction, dolphin mortality, 62 Management, yellowfin tuna, 40 Marine mammal policy, United States, 26-28 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 13-14, 26-27, 28, 69, 105-106 embargo, 28 legislative intent, 1 mortality quota, 19 Medina, Harold, fine-mesh panel, 19 Medina double corkline, dolphin mortality reduction, 72-73 Medina panel, 36 dolphin mortality reduction, 75 Mesh strip, fine, dolphin mortality reduction, 75 Mexico, 17 embargo, 28 United States, relations, 28 world tuna catch percentage, 15 Midwater trawl, 99-101 Misetich, Anton, backdown, 19, 36-37 Monitoring, recommendation, 111 N National Academy of Sciences, 13-14 National Marine Fisheries Service dolphin mortality data, 19 Tuna-Dolphin Workshop, 52 Natural mortality, dolphin, 71 Net closing, tuna-seining operation, 50 Net pursing, tuna-seining operation, 50 O Observer effect, dolphin mortality estimate, 54 Observer program, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 52 P Pair trawl, 99-100 Pear-shaped snap ring, 36 Peru, 17 Philippines, world tuna catch percentage, 15 Physiology, yellowfin tuna, 38-39 Population dynamics, yellowfin tuna, 40 Porpoise Rescue Foundation, 20, 69-70, 75 Price incentive, non-dolphin-associated tuna, 105-106 Puretic power block, 15 Purse seine, 34-37 bait boat conversion, 16 method modification, dolphin mortality reduction, 72-86 problem overview, 14-15 workshop recommendation overview, 20-21 Purse-seine finshing, overview, 2 Purse-seine fleet, carrying capacity, dolphin mortality, 63-64 Purse-seine gear modification, recommendation, 111-115

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DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY R Raft, 36 Recommendation dolphin mortality reduction overview, 10-12 eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, tuna-dolphin fishery, 110-117 harvesting tuna not in association with dolphins, 117-118 Recovery, dolphin population, 70-71 Regulation alternative gear incentive, 105 dolphin mortality certificate, 104-105 dolphin mortality prohibition, 102-104 Dolphin Protection Consumer Act, 105 fishing captain performance standards, 106-109 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 105-106 non-dolphin-associated tuna, 105-106 tuna fishermen, 129-156 see also Dolphin mortality reduction techniques; Legislation Remote sensing satellites, dolphin mortality reduction, 91-92 Republic of China, world tuna catch percentage, 15 Research vessel data, dolphin abundance, 64-68 Roll-up reduction, dolphin mortality reduction, 77-79 Roughtoothed dolphin behavior overview, 7 tuna association, 43 S Safety crook, dolphin mortality reduction, 75 Sampling design, dolphin mortality estimate, 53 School fishing, 2, 14, 37 Seine, see Purse seine Senate, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 14 Set, tuna-seining operation, 49-50 Set duration, dolphin mortality, 62 Sexually immature tuna, 14 Skipjack tuna canned tuna market, 18 dolphin association, 16 harvest, 40-41 Snap ring, pear-shaped, 36 dolphin mortality reduction, 75 Social disruption, dolphin, seining, 71 South Pacific Tuna Act, 22 Spain, world tuna catch percentage, 15 Species, dolphin mortality, 60 Species selectivity, dolphin mortality reduction, 81-82 Speedboat, 36 Spinner dolphin, 4 behavior overview, 7 dolphin abundance, 66-69 dolphin mortality, 19 feeding behavior, 47 tuna association, 43-44 Spotted dolphin, 4 dolphin abundance, 65-67 dolphin mortality, 19 feeding behavior, 47 tuna association, 43-45 tuna bond, 45-46 Spotted tuna, behavior overview, 7 Stenella attenuata, see Spotted dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba, see Striped dolphin Stenella longirostris, see Spinner dolphin Steno bredanensis, see Roughtoothed dolphin Stock, dolphin mortality, 60 Stock structure, yellowfin tuna, 38 Striped dolphin behavior overview, 7 dolphin abundance, 66 tuna association, 43 Synthetic aperture radar, dolphin mortality reduction, 92

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DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY T Tariff Act of 1930, 22 Technical advisory offices, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission , 20 Thunnus albacares, see Yellowfin tuna Time of capture, dolphin mortality, 61-62 Trawling hypothetical technique, 100-101 incidental dolphin catch, 100 midwater, 99 pair trawls, 99-100 Treaty General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 22 U.S.-Canada Pacific Albacore Treaty, 22 Tuna, see individual species Tuna behavior dolphin behavior, 42-51 eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 48 feeding, 47 Tuna behavior research, recommendation, 115-117 Tuna Conventions Act, 22, 23-24 Tuna-dolphin barrier, dolphin mortality reduction, 79-81 Tuna-dolphin relationship, 45-46 bond breaking, dolphin mortality reduction, 89-90 Tuna fishermen, regulations, 129-156 Tuna maneuvering, seine, recommendation, 115 Tuna policy international policy, 27-28 United States, 22-26 Tuna-seining operation chase, 49 dolphin/tuna behavior, 47-51 herd sighting, 48-49 net closing, 50 net pursing, 50 set, 49-50 Tuna vessel data, dolphin abundance, 64-69 Tursiops truncatus, see Bottlenose dolphin U United States canned light-meat tuna, 18 market, 17-18 Mexico, relations, 28 tuna and marine mammal policy, 5-6 world tuna catch percentage, 15 world tuna fishery share, 3-4 United States canned tuna standards, 31 United States fleet decline, 19 dolphin mortality, 19 previous dominance, 17 United States House of Representatives, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 14 United States marine mammal policy, 26-28 United States Secretary of Commerce, 13-14 United States Senate, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation , 14 United States tuna policy, 22-26 U.S.-Canada Pacific Albacore Treaty, 22 V Venezuela, world tuna catch percentage, 15 Vessel captain, dolphin mortality, 58-60 Vessel captain education, recommendation, 111 Vessel number, dolphin mortality, 63-64 W World tuna fishery, nation participation, 3-4 World tuna fishing

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DOLPHINS AND THE TUNA INDUSTRY economic competition, 30-32 harvest, 29-30 Y Yellowfin Regulatory Area, 41 eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 24-25 Yellowfin tuna, 38-41 abundance, 39-40 alternative location methods, dolphin mortality reduction, 90-92 biology, 38-40 canned tuna market, 18 distribution, 38 dolphin association, 15-16 eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, 23 ecology, 40-41 economic importance, 1 fork length, 39 growth, 38-39 harvest, 40-41 longevity, 38-39 management, 40 physiology, 38-39 population dynamics, 40 sex ratio, 39 stock structure, 38 temperature, 39 total catch, 16 yield, 40 Yield, yellowfin tuna, 40