5. If yes, ask, What foods do you avoid? Women who avoid major sources of nutrients may benefit from diet counseling or from vitamin/mineral supplementation or both. See supplement chart, page 17.

Food Resources

6-10. A "Yes" answer to Questions 7 or 10, or a "No" answer to Question 8 indicates the probable need to facilitate linkage with food assistance programs, income support programs, or both, especially if the woman is not receiving appropriate benefits. (See responses to Question 9 and check the medical record for information about public assistance, Medicaid, and unemployment insurance.) See Tab 10, pages 114-115, for information about food and nutrition programs.

Food and Drink

11. Soft drinks, coffee, tea, fruit drink, Kool-Aid®, and alcoholic beverages provide few essential nutrients and often crowd out better sources of nutrients. Milk is the only dependable food source of vitamin D. Orange juice is an important source of vitamin C and folate. Drinking of alcoholic beverages is not recommended for pregnant women or for women trying to conceive. Drinking of two to three servings of caffeinated beverages is unlikely to have adverse effects.

12. Foods that contain milk, cheese, or yogurt are all good sources of calcium, as well as many other minerals, protein, and vitamins. Many are also good sources of vitamin A. A calcium supplement is recommended for women who do not drink milk or do not eat one of these foods daily.

The vegetables listed are mainly those most commonly eaten across the United States. Carrots, spinach and other greens, sweet potatoes, and winter squash are very high in vitamin A. Asparagus, broccoli, avocados, okra, brussels sprouts, greens, and corn provide more folate per usual serving than do other vegetables. If no

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement