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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Indonesia Junus Kartasubrata Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago, consisting of some 13,700 islands. It is physiologically, biologically, and culturally one of the most diverse countries in the world. Some 70 percent of Indonesia is sea, while its land area is greater than 195 million ha. Massive mountain ranges containing a large number of volcanic formations run through the islands of Sumatra, Java, and the Lesser Sunda and also extend throughout the islands of Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. The highlands consist of broad alluvial plains. DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY AND ITS TROPICAL FORESTS Indonesia is part of the Malesian botanical region, which is characterized by a large number of endemic species, a rich flora, and a complex vegetation structure. The Malesian rain forests are the richest in the world in terms of number of species (Whitmore, 1984). One of their most important features is the abundance of trees in the family Dipterocarpaceae. Junus Kartasubrata is the general editor for Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Bogor, Indonesia.
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Population Indonesia is a country of villages, with 67,949 villages spread over 3,542 subdistricts within 246 regencies in 27 provinces. Indonesia is the fifth most populous country in the world, with over 184 million people (World Resources Institute, 1992). The population is unevenly distributed. Approximately 100 million people, 61 percent of the population, are concentrated on the island of Java, which accounts for only 6.7 percent of the total land area of Indonesia. The island of Java, which has rich volcanic soils and high agricultural productivity, is one of the most populous regions in the world (population density, 768 people/km2). The islands of Kalimantan and Irian Jaya, on the other hand, which together account for 50 percent of the country's land area, have population densities of 14 and 3 people/km2, respectively. Urban populations are also higher in Java and Bali. Thirty percent of the population of Java is concentrated in cities, compared with 20 percent in the Outer Islands. Indonesia's population increased at an average annual rate of 2.3 percent from 1965 to 1986. The growth rate decreased to about 2.15 percent in the 1980s. The annual growth rate varies markedly among the provinces, for example, 3.1 percent for Sumatra and 1.8 percent for Java in 1985, with the other regions having growth rates between those for Sumatra and Java (Asian Development Bank, 1989). Urban populations have also been increasing considerably faster than rural populations, reflecting the country's industrialization. In 1971, for example, of the total population, the urban population was 17 percent in 1983 it had increased to 26 percent, and in 1993 it is expected to reach 32 percent, that is, 61 million of 193 million people (Asian Development Bank, 1989). Demographic policies have focused on controlling population growth through family planning and regional population distribution. The government's target of annual population growth for REPELITA V (Rencana Pembangunan Lima Tahun), Indonesia's Fifth Five Year Development Plan (1989–1990 to 1993–1994), is 1.9 percent (Government of Indonesia/National Development Planning Agency, 1989). Even so, Indonesia's population is expected to increase substantially, to about 193 million people by 1993 (Government of Indonesia/National Development Planning Agency, 1989) and to 307 million people by 2030 (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). The uneven population distribution between the islands of Java and Bali and the Outer Islands is perceived as a major problem. Therefore, transmigration programs that resettle people from one region to an-
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS other have been a priority of the Indonesian government. Migrants from Java and Bali are resettled in the provinces of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Irian Jaya. According to government records, during the first 4 years of the REPELITA IV plan (1984–1985 to 1988 –1989), 504,941 families were relocated; the target for the REPELITA V plan is 750,000 families (Government of Indonesia/Department of Information, 1989). Indonesia's work force amounts to 74.5 million people, or 42 percent of the total population, with 61 percent in Java and 39 percent in the Outer Islands (Government of Indonesia/Department of Information, 1989). In 1985, the proportion of the work force employed in various sectors was as follows: 54.7 percent in the agricultural sector (compared with 64.2 percent in 1971); 15.0 percent in the commercial sector; 13.3 percent in public services; 9.3 percent in industry; 3.3 percent in construction; 3.1 percent in transportation and communication; 0.7 percent in mining; 0.4 percent in finance and insurance; 0.1 percent in electricity, gas, and water; and 0.1 percent in other sectors. In 1985 the work force increased at an annual rate of 4 percent. During the REPELITA V plan, the work force is expected to increase at an average annual rate of 3.0 percent, with 2.2 percent in Java and 4.2 percent in the Outer Islands (Government of Indonesia/Department of Information, 1989). Agriculture Indonesian statistics on food crop production distinguish between production of wet paddy rice, dryland rice, and secondary crops, such as maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, peanuts, and soybeans. The agricultural survey of 1985 provided annual statistics for food crop production (Table 1). Milled rice is a staple food in Indonesia. Milled rice production more than tripled in 40 years (1950 to 1987); consequently, rice imports have decreased, whereas the per capita supply of rice has almost doubled. Production and imports of milled rice from 1950 to 1987 are given in Table 2. A detailed account of milled rice production and imports from 1981 to 1987 has been compiled by Sadikin (1990) and is presented in Table 3. In 1985, Indonesia became self-sufficient in rice production. This balanced situation has mostly been maintained. Agricultural (including forestry) product exports include rubber, tea, coffee, oil palm, tobacco, white and black pepper, and timber mainly as plywood. Exports totaled about 4 million metric tons in 1988 (Biro Pusat Statistik [Central Bureau of Statistics], 1988).
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS TABLE 1 Production of Food Crops in Indonesia, 1985 Food Crop Area Harvested (ha) Total Production (metric tons) Wet paddy rice 8,755.721 37,027.443a Dryland rice 1,146.572 2,005.502a Maize 2,439.966 4,329.503 Cassava 1,291.845 14,057.027 Sweet potatoes 256.086 2,161.493 Peanuts 510.037 527.852 Soybeans 896.220 869.718 a Unmilled rice. SOURCE: Summarized from Biro Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statics).1989. Input-Output Table 1985. Jakarta: Biro Pusat Statistik. TABLE 2 Average Production and Imports of Milled Rice, 1950–1987 Metric Tons (in millions) Period Production Imports Per Capita Supply (kg) 1950–1960 7.26 0.56 86.09 1961–1970 9.79 0.59 91.20 1971–1980 15.93 1.31 120.80 1981–1987 25.12 0.37 148.57 SOURCE: Biro Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics). 1988. Statistik Indonesia. Statistical Year Book of Indonesia 1988. Jakarta:Biro Pusat Statistik. TABLE 3 Production and Import of Milled Rice, 1981–1987 (in Thousands of Metric Tons) Year Production Import 1981 22,236 530 1982 23,007 300 1983 24,006 1,160 1984 25,932 380 1985 26,542 0 1986 27,014 0 1987 27,253 0.05 SOURCE: Sadikin, S. W. 1990. The diffusion of agricultural researchknowledge and advances in rice production in Indonesia. Pp. 106–123 in Sharing Innovation. Global Perspectives on Food, Agriculture,and Rural Development. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books.
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Forest Resources The forests of Indonesia can be classified into the following 10 aggregations on the basis of the characteristics of their vegetation (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990): Coastal forests on beaches and dunes; Tidal forests, including mangrove, nipa, and other coastal palms; Heath forests associated with sandy, infertile soils; Peat forests associated with organic soils with peat layers at least 50 cm deep; Swamp forests seasonally inundated by fresh water; Evergreen forests, including moist primary lowland, riparian, and dry deciduous forests; Forests on rocks that contain basic (pH more than 7) minerals (for example, hornblend, augite, biotite, and plagiolass); Mountain forests (at elevations above 2,000 m); Bamboo forests; and Savannah forests. DESIGNATED FORESTLANDS Records from the Tata Guna Hutan Kesepakatan (TGHK; Forest Land Use by Consensus) inventory indicate that areas designated as forestlands cover 144.0 million ha, about 74 percent of the total land area of Indonesia. They are subdivided into the following four forest classes: conservation forests (18.8 million ha), protection forests (30.3 million ha), production forests (64.4 million ha), and conversion forests, including some unclassified forestlands (30.5 million ha) (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). These functional classes are not demarcated on the ground, and forestlands have been used for other purposes, for example, human settlements as a result of transmigration, mining, and agricultural perennial crops. Forestland on Java (about 3 million ha) is legally declared as such and is referred to as “gazetted” (set-aside) forestland and is demarcated in the field. Most of the TGHK forestland outside Java is in the process of becoming legal forestland (pregazetted—that is, presetaside —forestland). Of the 144.0 million ha comprising the four forest classes, only 109 million ha has forest cover at present. This constitutes 9 to 10 percent of the world's total area of closed tropical forests (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). The distributions
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS TABLE 4 Distribution of Forest Classes among Various Indonesian Islands (in Thousands of Hectares) Island Permanent Forest Production Forest Total for Permanent and Production Forest Conversion Forest a Total Sumatra 10,777 14,399 25,176 5,032 30,208 Java and Madura 999 2,014 3,013 0 3,013 Kalimantan 11,025 25,650 36,675 8,293 44,968 Sulawesi 5,274 6,018 11,292 1,587 12,879 Bali/Lesser Sunda 2,016 1,349 3,365 3,008 6,373 Maluku Island 1,991 3,106 5,097 436 5,533 Irian Jaya 16,960 11,856 28,816 11,775 40,591 Total 49,042 64,392 113,434 30,131 143,565 Percent a 34.2 44.9 79.0 21.0 100.0 NOTE: Percent totals may not add to 100 because of rounding. a Conversion forests are forests on government lands that can be converted to other uses, such as agriculture, industry, and settlements, after the removal of timber or with the approval of the government. SOURCE: From Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia, 1982/1983 Departmentof Forestry, Jakarta, 1984. In Government of Indonesia/InternationalInstitute of Environment and Development. 1985. A Review of PoliciesAffecting the Sustainable Development of Forest Lands in Indonesia.Jakarta: Government of Indonesia. of TGHK forests among various islands of Indonesia are given in Table 4. PRODUCTION FORESTS Major timber products from forests used for tree production (production forests) outside Java are mainly members of the family Dipterocarpaceae and include the genera Shorea, Hopea, Dipterocarpus, Dryobalanops, Anisoptera, Parashorea, and Vatica. Satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and terrestrial inventories indicate that of the area designated as production forests, only 39,200 million ha (60.90 percent) is productive. The remaining 25,200 million ha (39.10 percent) is no longer productive (Prastowo, 1991). The TGHK area of permanent-production forests is 33.9 million ha, of which 21.0 million ha (52.0 percent) is productive. The TGHK area of limited-production forests is 30.5 million ha, of which 18.2 million ha (48.0 percent) is productive (Prastowo, 1991).
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS According to various surveys, potential production in limited-and permanent-production forests is as follows. In Java and Madura, the production forest extends to 1.9 million ha, consisting of tree plantations of, for example, the genera Pinus, Agathis, Swietenia, Dalbergia, and Altingia, with an average production potential of 908.773 m3/ year from a harvested area of 50,549 ha/year. Of the 66.6 million-ha concession area (forestlands leased to private companies for 20 years for logging and replanting) in the Outer Islands, 56.3 million ha is productive forest and is located in production and conversion forests (a conversion forest is forest on land that can be used for other purposes, for example, agriculture, settlements, or industry). The average production potential of a stand of a commercial species with diameters of ≥50 cm is more than 90 m3/ha for species consisting mostly of the dipterocarp family but including members of the genera Agathis and Gonystylus, among others. The largest standing volumes are in the provinces of Kalimantan Timur (1,751 million m3), Kalimantan Tengah (764 million m3), Irian Jaya (661 million m3), Kalimantan Barat (476 million m3), and Riau (365 million m3). Ecologic Characteristics and Issues Indonesia is outstandingly rich in plants and animals. Only 1.3 percent of the earth's land surface is occupied by Indonesia; yet 10 percent of the world's plant species, 12 percent of the world's mammal species, 16 percent of the world's reptile and amphibian species, and 17 percent of the world's bird species can be found in Indonesia (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). Therefore, Indonesia has a great responsibility to maintain the biodiversity found in that country. For that purpose Indonesia has promulgated laws and regulations pertaining to the protection of nature (these are discussed in greater detail later in this profile) and has earmarked 341 locations (a total of 13 million ha) as conservation forests or protected areas. Nevertheless, many species in Indonesia are already threatened with extinction: 126 birds, 63 mammals, and 21 reptiles. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL DIVERSITY Indonesia also has a famed diversity of ecosystems—from the ice fields of Irian Jaya to a wide variety of humid lowland forests, from deep lakes to shallow swamps, from coral reefs to mangrove forests. Indonesia also has valuable genetic resources. Indonesia is not a uniform country, as demonstrated by the 416
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS land systems identified in the Regional Physical Program for Transmigration report (1990). This biogeographical diversity is reflected in its biologic resources. For example, the Sulawesi-Maluku-Lesser Sunda area, known as the “wallacea area” (named for the nineteenth century British biologist Alfred Wallace), is biologically complex. It is characterized by animals that are neither particularly Asian nor particularly Australian but, rather, commonly unique to a single island. There is much concern about the degraded ecologic conditions resulting from shifting (slash-and-burn) cultivation and forest clearing in mountainous areas for use as agricultural land—conditions such as the formation of large areas of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) fields in the Outer Islands and accelerated soil erosion in the upland areas of Java. These concerns are described in detail below. The Alang-Alang Problem Alang-alang is a notorious weed found in the humid tropics. It is known as lalang in Malaysia and as blady grass in Australia. Alang-alang is a climax plant community that spreads rapidly after burning of the land, maintaining its dominance in the ecosystem. About 15 million ha (8 percent of Indonesia's land area) is classified as alang-alang fields. Although Irian Jaya contains more alang-alang than the other provinces do, the Sulawesi, Sumatra Utara, Kalimantan Selatan, and Timor Timur regions are most critically affected by alang-alang vegetation. Soil Erosion The problem of soil erosion has attracted public attention since the middle of the nineteenth century, when there was heavy flooding of some rivers in Java and the emergence of critically degraded lands (Utomo, 1989). It was assumed that the floods were caused by excessive clearing of forested areas for the establishment of large agricultural estates in upland areas, thus critically degrading the land. Sukartiko (1988) reported on the alarming erosion rates of soils in the watershed areas of some rivers in Java and Sumatra. They varied from 1.28 mm/year in the Asahan watershed in Sumatra to 8.0 mm/year in the Cisanggarung watershed in Java. Erosion has also caused sedimentation in reservoirs and irrigation systems and a subsequent loss of their water-holding capacities. Economic Activity The following data were derived from a joint report of the Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (1990) relating to the situation and outlook for forestry in Indonesia. Indonesia's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1987 amounted to
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS 114.5 trillion rupiah (Rp) (US$69.4 billion). From 1965 to 1980, Indonesia's GDP grew at an average annual rate of 7.9 percent (in U.S. dollars). From 1980 to 1986, annual GDP growth averaged 3.4 percent (World Bank, 1989). Indonesia's economy was actually in recession in 1982, with the GDP declining 2.2 percent (Government of Indonesia/Department of Information, 1989). Further declines because of declines in oil prices were observed in 1985 and 1986. Indonesia is still an agricultural country, despite the sharp decline in the contribution of the agricultural sector to the country's GDP. In 1961, the agricultural sector contributed 47 percent of the GDP, but its contribution declined to 26 percent in 1986. As an oil-exporting country, oil has been one of Indonesia's main sources of foreign exchange. The mining and the oil and gas sectors increased their contributions to GDP from 12.3 percent in 1973 to 19 percent in 1983; this declined to 13.5 percent in 1986. The various regions of Indonesia have developed at different rates. The fastest-growing area has been the island of Bali, with a GDP annual growth rate of 13.3 percent from 1980 to 1986, while the Riau archipelago has a recessionary economy, with a negative annual growth rate of −7.4 percent. Further industrialization is a national goal for the REPELITA V plan. The annual growth target for the manufacturing sector is 8.5 percent, while that for the agricultural sector is 3.6 percent. Another goal is to further diversify the manufacturing sector away from oil. Although the target for the oil and gas sectors is an annual increase of 4.2 percent, the target for the non-oil and gas sectors is 10 percent annually. Indonesia's average per capita income in 1988 was US$440. Indonesia ranked close to last in the lower-middle income country groupings, behind the Philippines and Papua New Guinea (World Bank, 1989). Among 120 reporting countries, however, Indonesia had the eighth fastest rate of growth in income per capita from 1965 to 1986. The target for per capita GDP growth for the REPELITA V plan is approximately 3.1 percent per annum. Total domestic investment amounted to 20 trillion rupiah in 1986, which was 20.7 percent of GDP. Private investment contributed 48 percent of total investment in 1985–1986 and 57 percent in 1988–1989. Annual fixed investment grew considerably (11.7 percent) from 1971 through 1981, but registered negative growth (−0.5 percent) from 1981 to 1988 because of the contraction of public investment. Investment growth recovered considerably in 1988 (Government of Indonesia/ Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Economic Importance of Forestry During the last 25 to 30 years there has been rapid change in the forestry sector in Indonesia. During the early 1960s timber production was confined mostly to teakwood in Java and a limited number of valuable wood species in the more accessible natural forests in the Outer Islands. Since then, most forestry activities have moved from Java to the Outer Islands. TIMBER PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY WOOD-BASED INDUSTRIES During the past 30 years annual log production increased from about 2 million to 36 million m3, originating mostly (96 percent) from the natural forests. This has resulted in an increase in the number of processing units, mostly sawmills and plywood mills, and in the volume of manufactured wood-based products (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). Prastowo (1991) reported on the development of log and lumber production from 1969–1970 to 1988–1989 (Table 5). The development of wood processing industries, in particular sawmills and plywood mills, is described in Table 6. In 1973 there were 14 sawmill units with a rated capacity of 200,000 m3/year. This total grew to 364 units in 1988 with a capacity of 11,400,000 m3, a growth of 26 times in the total number of units and 57 times in capacity. Plywood mills increased from 2 units in 1973 to 114 units in 1988 (57-fold growth), and the capacity went from 28 m3 in 1973 to 9,013,000 m3 in 1988 (321-fold growth). DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY WOOD-BASED INDUSTRIES The development of primary industries (sawmills and plywood mills) was considered satisfactory up to the end of the REPELITA IV plan. Secondary wood-based industries, such as pulp and paper, furniture, and other woodworking industries, are now on the agenda for development. The objective is to obtain more added value and to expand employment opportunities. The production level for furniture and other woodworking industries in 1986–1987 was 1,494,178 m3. This increased to 1,904,231 m3 in 1988–1989 (Prastowo, 1991). Faster development of secondary wood-based industries is anticipated in the years to come, as was experienced with the plywood industry.
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS TABLE 5 Development of Log and Lumber Production (in Thousands of Cubic Meters) Yeara Logs Lumber 1969–1970 6,206 177 1970–1971 10,899 1,164 1971–1972 13,706 998 1972–1973 17,717 1,037 1973–1974 26,297 1,350 1974–1975 21,752 1,819 1975–1976 16,296 2,400 1976–1977 21,428 3,000 1977–1978 22,939 3,500 1978–1979 26,256 1,512 1979–1980 24,557 1,637 1980–1981 23,995 1,793 1981–1982 14,024 2,659 1982–1983 13,377 3,686 1983–1984 15,209 2,711 1984–1985 15,958 2,119 1985–1986 14,551 2,643 1986–1987 19,758 7,442 1988–1989 27,566 9,750 a Data for 1987–1988 were not included in the original source. SOURCE: Prastowo, H. 1991. The system of production forest managementin the future. In Homecoming Day Alumni VIII/1991. Faculty of Forestry,Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia. The growth of the pulp and paper industry is also promising. In 1979 –1980 the production level was 220,000 metric tons, which increased to 600,000 metric tons in 1986–1987. At the beginning of 1990 there were 43 pulp and paper mills, with an annual capacity of 1 million metric tons of pulp and 1.7 million metric tons of paper (Prastowo, 1991). Indonesia is ambitiously trying to become one of the world 's largest pulp and paper producers. To achieve this goal, the government has embarked on the large-scale development of forest industrial plantations, which are expected to become the main source of raw materials for the pulp and paper industry. Contribution of Forestry to the National Economy Forestry, together with downstream forest-based industries, has become an important sector in the Indonesian economy, even without considering the various nonmarket benefits arising from forests and
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Intensification of Wet Paddy Rice Agriculture This section is derived in large part from a report by Sadikin (1990). During the 2 decades after Indonesia's independence in 1945, significant efforts were made to increase food and agricultural production. But the absence of ingredients for development rendered many projects ineffective. Ingredients for development include infrastructural improvements and development program support, for example, political support; use of high-yielding plant varieties, fertilizers, and insecticides (if necessary); well-maintained irrigation systems; improved communications among groups of farmers; improved transport facilities; provision of credit; and reasonable market prices. In the late 1950s, the campaign to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production through the use of improved Indonesian varieties and the intensification of production met with only limited success because the security of the public and national security as a result of public unrest in the main rice-producing centers, such as West Java, South Sulawesi, and East Java, were poor, and irrigation systems and transportation infrastructures were dilapidated. Plans for the expansion of agricultural land and rice production areas into the tidal swamps of Kalimantan and into the upland rainfed environments in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi depended on the use of heavy equipment. The poor infrastructure caused the transport, maintenance, and repair of the equipment to be difficult and costly. Rice imports, which, on average, were less than 300,000 metric tons/year from 1950 to 1955, rose to an average of 810,000 metric tons/year from 1956 to 1960 and exceeded 1 million metric tons/year in the 1960s. In the late 1970s and 1980, Indonesia imported the most rice of any country in the world, with imports being as high as 2 million metric tons/year (Table 12). An encouraging sign in rice production emerged in 1963–1964, when students at the Bogor Agricultural University, using a demonstration area of 50 ha, showed that rice production could be nearly tripled if the recommended packages of technologies for use with improved Indonesian varieties were properly used. An important lesson emerged: improved production depends on a secure supply of agricultural inputs and on face-to-face communications with farmers. The experiment led to the creation in 1965–1966 of a mass guidance program Bimbingan Masal (BIMAS; Mass Guidance program) to increase rice production by encouraging and enabling farmers to take full advantage of technological innovations. In 1966 and 1967, rice
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS TABLE 12 Imports of Milled Rice, 1971–1987 Year Metric Tons (in thousands) 1971 490 1972 730 1973 1,660 1974 1,070 1975 670 1976 1,280 1977 1,960 1978 1,850 1979 1,950 1980 2,030 1981 530 1982 300 1983 1,160 1984 380 1985 0 1986 0 1987 0.05 SOURCE: Sadikin, S. W. 1990. The diffusion of agricultural researchknowledge and advances in rice production in Indonesia. Pp. 106–123 in Sharing Innovation. Global Perspectives on Food, Agriculture,and Rural Development. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian InstitutionPress. yields at adaptive trials and on farmer's plots that were planted with the modern varieties of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI; Los Baños, Philippines) were found to be impressive in comparison with the yields of the popular improved Indonesian varieties. After this first success, the government mobilized considerable resources to secure a sufficient supply of fertilizers and pesticides to support a national campaign of introducing the modern varieties and set an ambitious target of planting 150,000 ha of rice in 1968. Within 5 years, the areas planted with modern varieties increased to over 3 million ha. After 1972 farmers also planted modern Indonesian varieties, which have cooking and taste qualities favored by Indonesians and produce fewer green, chalky grains when they are planted in the rainy season. In 1989 the area planted with the Indonesian and the IRRI modern varieties was 7.78 million ha, or 85 percent of the total area of harvested rice in Indonesia. Because the program expanded too rapidly, shortcomings could not be avoided, such as in the application of the recommended packages of technology as well as in the management of the supply of farm inputs and the recovery of production credits. Nevertheless, aggregate rice production increased faster than the population. As a result of general increases in incomes, however, per capita rice consumption also increased substantially, with the effect that rice imports continued to increase. Another serious problem emerged in the form of an insect infestation involving the brown planthopper. An outbreak in 1974–1975
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS destroyed lands planted in the popular high-yielding Indonesian rice varieties PELITA I and II, affecting an area of 240,000 ha. Indonesians learned to live in peaceful coexistence with the brown planthopper, and the high-yielding PELITA I and II varieties yielded another stream of benefits. Rice production jumped in 1978 from 15.8 million to 17.5 million metric tons of milled rice. Although a modest drought intervened in 1979, production again increased in 1980 and 1981 to unprecedented levels of 20.1 million and 22.2 million metric tons, respectively. As other environmental obstacles were removed, the diffusion of technological innovations to farmers gradually and substantially accelerated. The number of extension personnel and specialists with competence to help the 18 million farm households in Indonesia grew rapidly. Improved irrigation and drainage facilities provided a more secure base for ensuring yield and production stability. There was a growing awareness and understanding among policy makers, legislators, and development professionals at the national, provincial, and district levels about the way to solve problems in the agricultural sector. As a result, rice production rose sharply, reaching a production level of 25.9 million metric tons of milled rice in 1984 (see also Table 3). This progress in production capabilities, along with the presence of government-held reserves of 2 million metric tons at the end of 1984, allowed the government to halt rice imports and was an historic turning point in Indonesia's quest for self-sufficiency in its staple food commodity. Significant efforts are now being made to maintain this level of food security and to diversify food production and consumption. DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS The estimated annual rate of deforestation in Indonesia has increased from 300,000 to more than 1,000,000 ha in the past 20 years. The average rate of deforestation between the 1950s and the early 1980s was 0.7 percent. This increased to about 1.2 percent annually between 1982 and 1990 (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). Forest Potential and Causes of Deforestation The main causes of deforestation have been identified as population pressure and demand for agricultural land, logging in natural forests, shifting cultivation, transmigration programs, smallholder tree
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS crop development, and fires. Population pressure, shifting cultivation, and fires are social-economic (and natural) causes of deforestation, whereas the other causes—logging, transmigration, and smallholder tree crop development—constitute pressures resulting from development activities. In 1980, 64 percent of Indonesia's population was concentrated in the islands of Java and Bali. This skewed population distribution has both a positive and a negative effect on Indonesia's development. It has centralized development and service activities in Java and Bali at the expense of these activities in the Outer Islands. On the other hand, because the population was concentrated in Java and Bali, this allowed conservation of the immense natural resources in the Outer Islands. And although many countries have nearly exhausted their forest resources, Indonesia has significant areas of natural forest remaining. Indonesia has 144 million ha of set-aside and pre-set-aside forestlands, providing a very high forestland-to-total land ratio (74 percent). Considering the land use changes and deforestation during the past several years, the area of forested land in 1990 was estimated to be about 109 million ha (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). More than about 60 million ha is leased out to private and state-owned logging concessions, which form the core of the forest industry sector of Indonesia. These industries are major contributors to Indonesia's economic growth. The substantial achievements in the forest industry sector, however, have aroused concern about the sustainability of forest management. Because it is aware of the dangers of overexploitation of forestlands, Indonesia has embarked on an intensive plan of developing forest plantations and rehabilitating critical lands in watersheds through reforestation and greening programs and through the improvement of logging operations in natural forests. The government has also encouraged rural households to raise fuelwood and light construction wood in their home gardens and farms to supply household energy and timber needs, so that the natural forests will not be overburdened. Because of the great population pressure, Indonesia has embarked on a family planning (birth control) program since the 1950s, with the set target that the growth rate of the population in Indonesia will decline. However, even with the targeted reduction in growth rates, from an annual rate of 2.34 percent in 1980 to 1.0 percent by 2011 and beyond, Indonesia's present population (184 million in 1991 [World Resources Institute, 1992]) will almost double by 2050. Although the family planning and transmigration programs to
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS relax population pressures in densely populated areas are considered to be relatively successful, they are not expected to be able to alleviate the increased demand for food and, hence, the demand for agricultural land if the soil productivity of the agricultural sector is not adequately increased in the near future and if other sectors such as industry and trade are not effectively developed to offer alternative employment opportunities. One of the constraints in the transmigration program is that some of the new settlers eventually revert to shifting cultivation. This is usually caused by the inability to sustain food production on the 1 to 2 ha of land provided by the program. Low productivity rates are also a direct result of low soil fertility and insufficient water supplies. Options for promoting more sustainable agriculture within shifting cultivation communities include the various agroforestry systems and practices. From the conservation point of view, these alternative systems are far superior to traditional shifting cultivation. The growing of perennial crops to cover fallow areas will also discourage alang-alang formation. In the Outer Islands, agricultural and other development programs organized by different government agencies, such as transmigration smallholder tree crop development programs, have been identified as affecting deforestation. The same programs, however, have been aimed at controlling shifting cultivation to offer more sustainable agricultural systems. Avoiding the use of the designated forestlands and training shifting cultivators to become sedentary agriculturalists are pivotal parts of the program. The challenge is to better integrate the activities to achieve better results. Intensive agriculture has been practiced for more than a century in Java and Bali. Because of the intensified productivity of wetland rice paddies, population growth has been accompanied by a steady increase in rice production. These achievements in agricultural productivity have helped to reduce rates of deforestation. The problem now is how to maintain this situation, considering the high rate of population growth, and at same time gearing to diversify the types of food crops, which may bring about a diversification of food production systems. ASSESSMENT OF FOREST LOSS IN THE NEAR FUTURE The government of Indonesia's Ministry of Forestry, in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1990), has developed a model for investigating the causes underlying deforestation and projecting forest cover. An increase of 100
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS kg per hectare per crop of wet paddy rice (treated as a proxy for average agricultural productivity) increases forest cover by 4.6 percent. An increase in income per capita of 1,000 rupiah increases forest cover by 0.015 percent. An increase in population density of one person per square kilometer decreases forest cover by 0.8 percent. In addition, unexplained factors (for example, the cumulative amount of logging and other roads opened) contribute to an average decline in forest cover of 3.7 percent per year. To project deforestation rates, assumptions regarding, for example, population growth rates, economic development and investment policies, foreign assistance policies, and agricultural and forest industry policies are necessary. These three scenarios reflect the following assumptions: Baseline scenario, which assumes government programs use the same strategies from the 1980s and at about the same rate as they did in the 1980s. Worst-case scenario, which assumes a least-favorable yet still plausible combination of factors that could cause the rate of deforestation to increase more than baseline scenario estimates. Best-case scenario, which assumes a most-favorable yet still plausible combination of factors that could cause the rate of deforestation to increase less than baseline scenario estimates. The estimated annual deforestation rates of the World Bank (1989) and Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1990) presented in Table 8 are used to estimate future deforestation rates under the three scenarios. For the baseline scenario, the best estimate of the rate of deforestation is taken; for the worst-case scenario, the minimum estimate is taken; and for the best-case scenario, the maximum estimate is taken. Table 13 provides forest losses for different time periods under the three scenarios. Findings Annual deforestation rates in Indonesia were 0.7 percent in the 30 years between the 1950s and early 1980s, increasing to 1.2 percent within the past decade. It could increase to an estimated 1.5 percent by 2030 if efficient measures are not taken to control the causes of deforestation effectively. Removal of forest cover for development purposes cannot be avoided. Forested lands in lower areas (0 to 250 m above sea level) that are fit for agriculture and other related activities could be ear-
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS TABLE 13 Analysis of Forest Loss Estimates in Indonesia, 1990–2029 (in Millions of Hectares) Scenario and Time Period 1990 Forest Cover Average Loss per Year Total Loss for Decade Total Forest Remaining at End of Decade Percent Loss for Decade Baseline 1990–1999 108.6 0.9 9 99.6 8.3 2000–2009 99.6 0.9 9 90.6 9.0 2010–2029 90.6 0.9 9 81.6 9.9 Worst case 1990–1999 108.6 1.2 12 96.6 11.0 2000–2009 96.6 1.2 12 84.6 12.4 2010–2029 84.6 1.2 12 72.6 14.6 Best case 1990–1999 108.6 0.7 7 101.6 6.4 2000–2009 101.6 0.7 7 94.6 6.9 2010–2029 94.6 0.7 7 87.6 7.4 marked for development purposes. The Ministry of Forestry has classified some forested lands (about 30 million ha) as conversion forests that are to be used for purposes other than forestry after the timber stands have been removed. Coordination between government and private development agencies is necessary so that forestland classified as permanent forest (or candidate permanent forest) will not be used for other development purposes. After implementation of the Constitution of 1945, the primary authority for forestry administration was Law No. 5 (1967), Basic Provisions on Forestry. In the execution of the law, however, in particular, forestland use, there are provisions that are thought to be in conflict with those in the Basic Law on Agrarian Matters of 1960, for example, land tenure aspects of forested lands. Legislation on forestland and general land use should be adjusted to allow for better land use—including forestland use—and land tenure arrangements. The first steps to designate permanent forestlands outside Java have been done through the forestland use by consensus (TGHK) approach. Because this method is limited to desk exercises, field operations are necessary—that is, surveys should be followed by demarcation of the designated forestlands with easily recognizable boundary markers. In this way, misunderstandings between the Indonesian government and local communities and governments or private development agencies could be reduced to a minimum. Special attention should be paid to the existing tenure rights of local communi-
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS ties. The many conflicts concerning the existing TGHK boundaries urgently need solutions. The stewardship certificate system could be studied in this respect. The stewardship certificate system of the Philippines, for example, states that occupants of forestlands can use the forest and the land for 25 years (usufruct rights) but they must use agroforestry practices prescribed by the Ministry of Forestry and must maintain the existing forests. The designation and demarcation of forest ecosystems to conserve biodiversity and genetic resources should be given special attention. Between 1979 and 1984 over 10 million ha of reserves was added to the existing conservation forests, but the rate of setting aside forestlands has fallen since then. As a target, about 18 million ha of conservation forests is envisaged by TGHK. Another disturbing aspect is the incompleteness of the conservation forest system across the seven major biogeographic zones in Indonesia. Provisions regarding the implementation of logging and other forest operations in the concession areas, in particular, regarding forest regeneration as prescribed in the Indonesian selective cutting system (TPI) and, later, in the Indonesia selective cutting and planting system (TPTI), are not adequately observed in general, so that the reality of forest operations is far from an ideal sustainable forest management system. To overcome this problem, stricter controls in the implementation of forest operations by concession holders should be exercised, and stiff penalties should be imposed on those operations that deviate from the regulations, in particular, those that deviate from the annual allowable cut and the allowable harvesting area. On the other hand, a possible extension of the 20-year concession period (which does not stimulate sustainable forest operations), for example, to 35 years (the same as the silvicultural rotation period) or on a variable basis with periodic performance reviews of logging and other forest operations, could be considered as alternatives. Shifting (slash-and-burn) cultivation is considered a severe land use problem, causing deforestation and the formation of extensive areas of alang-alang grasslands and other unproductive lands, in particular, as a result of shortened fallow periods and influxes of migrants. Rationalization of shifting cultivation should take into account, for example, land use, cultural, land tenure, and other socioeconomic factors related to the issue. Decisions should be made in consultation with the affected communities. For rationalized shifting cultivation, better sites should be allocated. Proper extension and provision of credits can act as positive incentives and can up-grade land use practices to a more sustainable level. An integrated approach to rationalizing shifting cultivation, which has a greater
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS chance of success, should include education, health services, and the provision of other community services. Also important are common policies and strategies among the agencies whose programs partly or entirely involve shifting cultivation—that is, rationalization of shifting cultivation should be implemented as a concentrated effort of a general local community development program. To alleviate the impacts of deforestation in terms of declining forested lands or a worsening of ecologic conditions, reforestation (on forestland) and regreening (on private land) programs have been initiated. Although the concepts of the programs are commendable, because of inadequate planning and execution the present rates of success of reforestation and regreening are low. A well-designed plan for reforestation and regreening must address seed availability, seedling production, proper site selection and preparation, and above all, continued care and management after the establishment of plantations. A national plan for reforestation and regreening should also involve the public, private, and community sectors. The program should be supported by well-coordinated research. The role of industrial plantations is, in principle, to supplement natural forest resources and to improve ecologic conditions, in particular, in those areas where degraded forestlands have been selected. Industrial forest plantations, including agroforestry systems, can also provide valuable services to local communities by providing employment and, in some cases, better housing, education, and health care as well as agricultural extension services and loan credits. Forest development programs were, in principle, designed to generate awareness of conservation issues by the public and private sectors as well as communities. The roles of nongovernment organization (NGOs) can be substantial in this respect. There are hundreds of NGOs that have shown interest in conservation issues; however, the lack of coordination and resources prevent them from being well-functioning organizations. NGOs and other community groups should be involved in training and education on a community level. NGOs with major extension plans should be given funding and personnel training priority. To maintain self-sufficiency in food production diversification in agriculture, production and consumption of agricultural crops must be encouraged. In addition to their economic importance, the forests of Indonesia are also considered a gigantic carbon sink. The perpetuation of Indonesia 's forest cover is therefore necessary for long-term global survival (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agri-
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS culture Organization of the United Nations, 1990). The commitment of Indonesia to sustainable development of its tropical forests is amplified in a statement by President Suharto (Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990): Our tropical forests are the lungs of the world. Their degradation brings disaster not only to our nation, but also to other nations and inhabitants of the earth. We must manage our forests under sustainable development for our next generations in particular, and for all mankind in general. REFERENCES Asian Development Bank. 1989. Operational Strategy 1989. Study for Indonesia. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. Basjarudan, H. 1978. Forest policy and legislation. Lecture notes. Forestry Faculty, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia. Biro Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics). 1988. Statistik Indonesia. Statistical Year Book of Indonesia 1988. Jakarta: Biro Pusat Statistik. Biro Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics). 1989. Input-Output Table 1985. Jakarta: Biro Pusat Statistik. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1952. Principles of Forest Policy. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Government of Indonesia/Department of Information. 1989. Indonesia 1989. An Official Handbook. Jakarta: Government of Indonesia. Government of Indonesia/International Institute of Environment and Development. 1985. A Review of Policies Affecting the Sustainable Development of Forest Lands in Indonesia. Jakarta: Government of Indonesia. Government of Indonesia/Ministry of Forestry and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1990. Situation and Outlook of the Forestry Sector in Indonesia. Jakarta: Government of Indonesia. Government of Indonesia/National Development Planning Agency. 1989. REPELITA V: Indonesia's Fifth Five Year Development Plan. Basic Data and Main Targets. Jakarta: Government of Indonesia. Kaul, A. 1990. Indonesian Farming Systems: Types and Issues. Unpublished manuscript. Kusumah, B., D. S. Irawanto, G. Aji, and I. Qodar. 1991. Indonesian forest: How are you? Tempo Mag. XXI(35):23–24. Prastowo, H. 1991. The System of Production Forest Management in the Future. Homecoming Day Alumni VIII/1991 Faculty of Forestry. Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia. Regional Physical Program for Transmigration. 1990. The Land Resources of Indonesia: A National Review. Direktorat Bina Program, Direktorat Jendral Penyiapan Pemukiman, Departemen Transmigrasi, Jakarta. Sadikin, S. W. 1990. The diffusion of agricultural research knowledge and
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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS advances in rice production in Indonesia. Pp. 106–123 in Sharing Innovation. Global Perspectives on Food, Agriculture, and Rural Development. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Sukartiko, B. 1988. Soil conservation program and watershed management in Indonesia. Paper presented at the Regional Workshop on Ecodevelopment Process for Degraded Land Resources in Southeast Asia, Bogor, Indonesia, August 23–25, 1988 (Man and Biosphere, Indonesia–United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, South-East Asia). Utomo, W. H. 1989. Konservasi Tanah di Indonesia (Soil Conservation in Indonesia). Jakarta: C. V. Rajawali. Webster, B. 1984. Devastated forest offers a rare view of rebirth. New York Times, April 24, 1984. Whitmore, T. C. 1984. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Oxford: Oxford University Press. World Bank. 1989. Indonesia Strategy for Growth and Structural Change. Report No. 7758-IND. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. World Resources Institute. 1992. The 1992 Information Please Environmental Almanac. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Representative terms from entire chapter: