Zaire

Mudiayi S. Ngandu and Stephen H. Kolison, Jr.

Zaire is located directly on the equator in the central part of the African continent. It is the third largest country in Africa, with an area of 2,344,885 km2, three times the size of the state of Texas. Zaire has three distinct land areas: the tropical rain forests, located in the central and northern parts of the country; the savannahs, located in the northern and southern parts of the country; and the highlands, which consist of the plateaus, rolling meadows, and mountains found along the country 's eastern border, all along the Great Rift valley. The highest point in this area is 5,809 m, on Ruwenzori Peak in Kivu Province.

Zaire's rivers and lakes are probably its most important natural resources. The most prominent is the Zaire River (formerly the Congo River). It is the fifth longest river in the world and is second only to the Amazon in the volume of water it carries. The Zaire River flows for about 4,667 km, but together with its tributaries, navigability of up to about 11,500 km is possible. In some parts of the country, however, the Zaire River is not navigable because of falls and rapids. The country also has several deep lakes, including Lake Tanganyika in the southeast.

Mudiayi S. Ngandu is an associate professor of agricultural economics and Stephen H. Kolison, Jr., is an assistant professor and coordinator of the forestry resources program at the School of Agriculture, The George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama.



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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Zaire Mudiayi S. Ngandu and Stephen H. Kolison, Jr. Zaire is located directly on the equator in the central part of the African continent. It is the third largest country in Africa, with an area of 2,344,885 km2, three times the size of the state of Texas. Zaire has three distinct land areas: the tropical rain forests, located in the central and northern parts of the country; the savannahs, located in the northern and southern parts of the country; and the highlands, which consist of the plateaus, rolling meadows, and mountains found along the country 's eastern border, all along the Great Rift valley. The highest point in this area is 5,809 m, on Ruwenzori Peak in Kivu Province. Zaire's rivers and lakes are probably its most important natural resources. The most prominent is the Zaire River (formerly the Congo River). It is the fifth longest river in the world and is second only to the Amazon in the volume of water it carries. The Zaire River flows for about 4,667 km, but together with its tributaries, navigability of up to about 11,500 km is possible. In some parts of the country, however, the Zaire River is not navigable because of falls and rapids. The country also has several deep lakes, including Lake Tanganyika in the southeast. Mudiayi S. Ngandu is an associate professor of agricultural economics and Stephen H. Kolison, Jr., is an assistant professor and coordinator of the forestry resources program at the School of Agriculture, The George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama.

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS FOREST TYPES Forest types range from dry semideciduous to swamps. Figure 1 shows the geographic distributions of forestland areas by the four distinguishable types: (1) evergreen rain forests and swamp forests in the central basin; (2) dry and moist semideciduous forests to the north and south of the evergreen forests; (3) montane forests in the eastern uplands on the borders with Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi; and (4) woodland and wooded savannahs in the far south. The variety of forest types is due to both soil types and a variety of climatic conditions. FIGURE 1 Geographic distribution of forestland areas in Zaire, by type. Forest types are as follows: 1. (a) Evergreen rain forests and swamp forests and (b) closed forests of the central basin. 2. (a) Dry semideciduous forests, substantially degraded, and (b and c) moist semideciduous forests of Mayumbe in the lower Zaire River region. 3. Montane forests of Kivu Province. 4. (a) Open forests, woodlands, and wooded savannahs, mainly in Shaba, and (b) part of Bandundu. Source: Government of Zaire and Canadian International Development Agency. 1990. Plan d'Action Forestier Tropical. Vol. I, Annex 2, Forestry Map. Kinshasa, Zaire, and Ottawa, Canada: Government of Zaire and Canadian International Development Agency.

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS CLIMATE Climatic conditions vary with almost each region of the country. In the tropical rain forests, average annual rainfall reaches 220 cm, and the average daytime temperature is about 30°C. The equator runs through the center of this region, and the weather is hot and humid throughout the year. In the savannahs, the average annual rainfall is about 120–160 cm, and the average daytime temperature is 24°C. The climate of the highlands is characterized by an average daytime temperature of about 21°C and average annual rainfall of about 160–240 cm. POPULATION In 1988, Zaire had a population of about 35.4 million (Table 1) and an estimated annual population growth rate of 3 percent. The estimated population for 1991 was 39.2 million for an average population density of about 14 people per km2. The population of Zaire is about 30 percent urban and 70 percent rural. Kinshasa, the capital and largest city, has a population of about 5 million. Matadi, in the Zaire delta (formerly the Congo), is the major port for exports. (For more information, see U.S. Department of State [1988].) Society and Culture There are about 700 local languages and dialects spoken in Zaire. Four of these—Lingala, Swahili, Tshiluba, and Kikongo—serve as official languages, in addition to French, which was introduced by the Belgians. All 700 languages belong to the Bantu group of languages. French is used in schools and in conducting official business and is used in particular by those with about 8 years or more of schooling. As regards religion, the U.S. Department of State (1988) noted that the population is about 80 percent Christian (Roman Catholics, Protestants, and indigenous Christians), and 10 percent syncretic and traditional religions. LAND TENURE Zaire has two recognized land tenure systems: the modern and the customary. Under the modern system, all land is owned by the government. The right to use land is therefore assigned or given by the government through the Department of Land Affairs, Environment, Nature Conservation, and Tourism (DLAENCT). In many parts of the country, however, the customary land tenure system is used.

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS TABLE 1 Selected Macroeconomic Indicators and Agricultural Statistics for Zaire Indicator or Statistic Units 1970 1975 1980 1985 1987 1988 1989 Macroeconomic indicators Population Million 20.3 23.2 26.7 31.1 33.2 34.3 35.4 Rate of growth Percent/year 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 Agricultural population Percent 75.9 72.7 70.7 67.8 66.5 65.9 — Pop/km2 of total area No. 87.0 99.0 114.0 133.0 141.0 146.0 151.0 Total labor force Percent 42.8 40.9 39.1 37.9 37.3 37.0 — Agricultural labor force Percent 79.1 75.4 71.5 68.7 67.5 66.9 — GNP total Million current $ 3,653 6,963 11,473 4,976 4,976 5,826 — Rate of growth Percent/year — 13.8 10.5 −15.4 — 17.1 — GNP per capita $/person 80 300 430 160 150 170 — GDP in agriculture Percent 16.3 18.8 28.8 32.9 32.2 31.0 — Consumer price index 1985 = 100 — 1 16 100 279 510 1,041 Energy conservation/coal equity 1,000 megatons 1,438 1,743 1,948 2,043 2,134 2,211 — Energy conservation/person/year kg of coal ? 75 73 66 64 65 — Energy conservation/$1,000 of GNP kg of coal 394 250 170 411 429 380 — Exchange rate Local currency/$ 500 500 2,800 49,873 112,403 187,070 381,445 Total debt Million $ — 2,152 4,462 5,117 6,497 7,055 — Total debt service Million $ — 208 393 365 302 400 — Debt service ratio Percent — 25 24 38 31 36 — Consumption indicators Per capita util-cereals kg/year 34 43 42 41 42 42 40 Calorie intake/person/day Calories 2,141 2,162 2,043 2,049 2,046 2,001 — Protein intake/person/day Grams 33 32 29 30 30 30 — Factors of production Total land 1,000 ha 234,541 234,541 234,541 234,541 234,541 234,541 234,541 Arable and permanent cropland 1,000 ha 7,250 7,450 7,600 7,800 7,850 7,850 — Permanent pastures 1,000 ha 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 — Irrigated area 1,000 ha —   7 9 9 — — Agricultural labor/1,000 ha No. 947 961 981 1,037 1,065 — — Tractors/1,000 ha No. — — — — — — —

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Tractors/1,000 agricultural workers No. — — — — — — — Fertilizer use kg/ha — — — — — — — Production values Total agriculture Million $ 1,920 2,131 2,207 2,567 2,675 2,740 — Total food Million $ 1,739 1,946 2,046 2,363 2,454 2,515 — Total crop Million $ 1,811 2,009 2,079 2,430 2,533 2,597 — Total livestock Million $ 110 122 128 137 141 143 — Crop production/ha International $ 250 270 274 312 323 — — Agricultural production/agricultural worker International $ 280 298 296 317 320 — — Production indices (1979–1981 = 100) Total agriculture Index 87.9 96.5 100.7 115.4 120.5 121.7 122.5 Total agricultural per capita Index 119.1 113.7 100.7 99.1 97.2 95.2 92.7 Total food Index 85.6 94.6 100.2 114.1 118.7 120.4 121.2 Total food per capita Index 115.9 111.4 100.2 98.0 95.8 94.1 91.7 Total crop Index 86.9 96.4 100.8 116.6 121.9 123.1 123.8 Total livestock Index 95.6 97.5 99.7 106.7 110.5 111.9 114.0 Crop production/ha Index 92.1 99.5 101.0 115.0 119.1 — — Agricultural production/agricultural worker Index 95.5 101.6 100.9 108.1 109.1 — — Production, quantities Cereals—total 1,000 Mtons 666 758 862 1,109 1,145 1,155 1,230 Rate of growth Percent/year 9.2 2.6 2.6 5.2 1.6 .9 6.5 Wheat 1,000 Mtons 3 2 4 20 25 35 35 Rice, paddy 1,000 Mtons 180 208 234 297 300 300 315 Corn (maize) 1,000 Mtons 428 496 594 726 730 730 790 Barley 1,000 Mtons 2 — — — — — — Oats 1,000 Mtons 5 — — — — — — Sorghum 1,000 Mtons 25 27 14 32 60 60 60 Millet 1,000 Mtons 23 25 16 29 30 30 30 Soybeans 1,000 Mtons 2 2 10 17 18 18 18 Cottonseed 1,000 Mtons 46 36 19 50 50 50 50 Peanuts, in shell 1,000 Mtons 267 308 337 386 394 410 400

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Palm oil 1,000 Mtons 232 181 168 160 165 178 178 Sugar, ? 1,000 Mtons 46 63 48 63 68 76 70 Roots and tubers 1,000 Mtons 10,861 12,424 13,664 16,232 16,995 17,007 17,051 Pulses 1,000 Mtons 122 145 139 121 129 140 140 Fruits 1,000 Mtons 2,135 2,429 2,421 2,540 2,601 2,669 2,666 Vegetables 1,000 Mtons 385 451 485 515 535 550 555 Coffee 1,000 Mtons 70 83 80 92 102 97 98 Tea 1,000 Mtons 7 7 3 5 6 6 6 Cocoa 1,000 Mtons 6 5 4 4 6 6 6 Meat 1,000 Mtons 170 174 174 186 193 197 200 Beef and veal 1,000 Mtons 18 21 22 24 26 26 26 Mutton and lamb 1,000 Mtons 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 Pork 1,000 Mtons 25 27 27 28 29 29 29 Poultry 1,000 Mtons 11 13 13 14 15 16 16 Eggs 1,000 Mtons 6 7 8 8 8 6 8 Cotton lint 1,000 Mtons 23 18 10 26 26 26 26 Hides and skins 1,000 Mtons 5 5 6 6 — — — Area by selected crops Cereals — total 1,000 ha 916 1,014 1,094 1,292 1,356 1,356 1,357 Rate of growth Percent/ year 6.8 2.0 1.5 3.4 2.4 — — Wheat 1,000 ha 6 4 4 26 27 28 28 Rice 1,000 ha 244 268 293 334 344 345 345 Corn (maize) 1,000 ha 595 675 743 849 874 874 875 Barley 1,000 ha 3 — — — — — — Oats 1,000 ha 8 — — — — — — Sorghum 1,000 ha 29 32 28 41 66 66 66 Millet 1,000 ha 31 35 26 41 43 42 42 Soybean 1,000 ha 2 2 10 15 15 15 15 Peanuts 1,000 ha 384 432 482 553 567 567 570

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Seed cotton 1,000 ha 179 151 100 175 175 175 175 Yields, selected crops Cereals—total kg/ha 727 747 788 859 846 852 907 Wheat kg/ha 530 492 925 769 926 1,250 1,250 Rice, paddy kg/ha 736 776 800 889 873 870 913 Corn (maize) kg/ha 719 734 800 855 835 835 903 Barley kg/ha 790 1,199 600 600 600 600 600 Oats kg/ha 625 — — — — — — Sorghum kg/ha 867 841 516 900 915 913 909 Millet kg/ha 735 725 605 700 700 714 714 Soybean kg/ha 842 739 1,012 1,138 1,207 1,241 1,241 Peanuts kg/ha 695 713 700 698 694 723 702 Seed cotton kg/ha 390 358 292 440 440 440 440 Yields, livestock products Beef and veal kg/animal 144 144 149 150 150 147 146 Pork kg/animal 50 51 50 50 50 50 51 Mutton and lamb kg/animal 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 Milk kg/animal 754 783 838 855 883 883 883 Eggs kg/animal 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Trade Self-sufficiency ratio Cereals Percent 74 68 75 75 72 72 70 Food Percent 102 103 100 100 98 100 — Agriculture Percent — 103 103 99 — — — Value of total exports Million $ 775 826 632 949 983 120 — Value of total imports Million $ 535 900 835 793 764 763 — Trade balance Million $ 240 −74 797 156 219 357 — Value of agricultural exports Million $ 112 192 235 222 212 164 — Value of agricultural imports Million $ 63 153 167 237 221 201 — Agricultural trade balance Million $ 49 39 68 −15 −9 −37   Imports from United States Million $ 62 187 153 102 103 122 — Exports to United States Million $ 41 67 370 415 321 384 — Agricultural imports from United States Million $ 3 18 44 25 35 34 — Agricultural exports to United States Million $ 20 24 31 5 11 5 —

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Agricultural exports Cereals 1,000 $ — 192 — — — — — Wheat and flour 1,000 $ — 187 — — — — — Rice 1,000 $ — 4 — — — — — Corn (maize) 1,000 $ — 1 — — — — — Oil crops and feed products 1,000 $ 3,180 2,827 1,627 1,800 1,400 1,700 1,700 Vegetable oils 1,000 $ 40,964 35,330 15,265 9,235 4,000 7,500 7,500 Fibers 1,000 $ 4,602 615 3,500 — 230 370 370 Cotton lint 1,000 $ 4,095 615 3,500 — 230 370 370 Other 1,000 $ 507 — — — — — — Tobacco and products 1,000 $ 22 412 — — — — — Vegetables, fruits, and nuts 1,000 $ 16 49 — — — — — Sugar 1,000 $ 75 7 — — — — — Beverages 1,000 $ 38,368 114,320 174,889 181,440 178,286 123,500 6,500 Coffee, green and roasted 1,000 $ 33,900 103,910 166,440 169,640 168,186 116,000 — Cocoa beans 1,000 $ 2,576 6,575 6,941 8,200 8,100 6,500 6,500 Tea and mate 1,000 $ 1,892 3,834 1,508 3,600 2,000 1,000 — Wine and beer 1,000 $ — 1 — — — — — Live animals 1,000 $ — 217 — — — — — Meat products 1,000 $ — — — — — — — Dairy products and eggs 1,000 $ — 6 — — — — — Agricultural imports Cereals 1,000 $ 17,644 56,989 84,900 65,200 80,800 80,500 — Wheat and flour 1,000 $ 8,928 23,714 41,400 33,200 39,700 39,500 — Rice 1,000 $ 4,235 3,246 6,500 9,000 18,100 21,000 — Corn (maize) 1,000 $ 4,456 30,000 37,000 23,000 23,000 20,000 20,000 Barley 1,000 $ 22 — — — — — —

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Oil crops and feed products 1,000 $ — 82 — — — — — Vegetable oils 1,000 $ 133 1,095 45 — — — — Fibers 1,000 $ — 314 6,300 7,856 6,500 6,000 6,000 Cotton lint 1,000 $ —   5,400 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 Other 1,000 $ — 314 900 1,856 500 — — Tobacco and products 1,000 $ 5,029 9,049 1,600 6,968 4,800 6,200 6,200 Vegetables, fruits, and nuts 1,000 $ 1,863 1,552 1,330 3,330 3,225 2,580 — Sugar 1,000 $ 1,660 468 8,600 6,296 12,600 6,000 6,000 Beverages 1,000 $ 3,182 1,980 1,800 3,304 3,500 3,400 1,800 Coffee, green and roasted 1,000 $ 41 31 — — — — — Tea and mate 1,000 $ 2 11 — — — — — Wine and beer 1,000 $ 3,139 1,938 1,800 3,304 3,500 3,400 1,800 Live animals 1,000 $ 934 1,589 400 260 310 310 — Meat products 1,000 $ 9,744 21,682 18,030 72,430 53,930 40,630 — Dairy products and eggs 1,000 $ 9,285 19,444 18,300 31,292 21,070 22,000 — Farm inputs 1,000 $ 8,853 14,349 17,730 21,500 24,020 — — Tractors 1,000 $ 3,760 4,606 6,000 9,500 11,000 10,500 — Fertilizers 1,000 $ 1,554 5,652 3,280 2,000 2,200 — — Pesticides 1,000 $ 1,994 2,606 4,500 5,200 5,700 3,600 — NOTE: All dollar values are in U.S. dollars. International dollars, a value unit developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to avoid the use of exchange rates (for example, 1 metric ton of wheat has the same price in whichever country it is produced); GNP, gross national product; GDP, gross domestic product. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.1990. Pp. 541–544 in World Agriculture: Trends and Indicators, 1970–1989. Statistical Bulletin No. 815. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Departmentof Agriculture.

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Under this system, which varies depending on the region and people, land ownership is collective—that is, land is held by groups or clans. The group, through its appointee, assigns land for use to its members. Land used by a family over a long period of time is recognized by the group or clan as belonging to that family, but the family may not sell the land because, in practice, land ownership rights belong, ultimately, to the national government. (This reflects the nature of the existing power relationship between the central government and the local communities.) THE MACROECONOMIC SETTING In the 1980s, management of Zaire's macroeconomy was constrained by the heavy external debt-servicing burden (by 1988, as much as 60 percent of exports of goods and services and 65 percent of the operating budget). This debt arose from the country's borrowings in the late 1960s and the 1970s when Zaire's export earnings were relatively higher and expected to grow and the country benefited from favorable terms of trade. With the deterioration in export earnings in the 1980s, a rising debt burden, and the accumulated effects of past economic mismanagement, Zaire, in cooperation with its major creditors, embarked on a series of economic adjustment programs. Unfortunately, these programs were unsuccessful and have resulted in drastic declines in the standard of living, public-sector employment, wages, and salaries. (See Table 1 for selected macroeconomic performance indicators.) The related tight budgetary measures did not produce results because they were not accompanied by the institutional reforms necessary to strengthen policy formulation and implementation. The forestry sector has been adversely affected by the ongoing economic adjustment programs, and these constraints are likely to continue. Reforms mandated by the economic adjustment programs offer an opportunity to initiate a meaningful dialogue between the Zairian government and the international aid donor community regarding long-term forestry policy issues and deforestation. In this context, debt-for-nature swaps, as proposed for the heavily indebted Latin American countries, should also be applicable to African countries like Zaire (Government of Zaire and the Canadian International Development Agency, 1990; Hines, 1988). It is, however, a tenuous hypothesis to link deforestation with foreign exchange to service external debt. In a study by Capistrano (1990), external foreign exchange earnings and the external debt-servicing burden were identified as significant macroeconomic factors

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS contributing to accelerated deforestation in a number of countries, including Zaire, during 1967–1989. However, 98 percent of total wood production in Zaire is for domestic consumption and only 1 percent is exported. Deforestation is more appropriately linked to in-country uses of wood. In addition, because of extensive underinvoicing at the Matadi Port and inadequate export statistics related to other leakages, the reliability of Zaire's data on export earnings from logs and other wood products may also be questionable. To date, the forestry sector has not contributed significantly to the country 's export strategy or to alleviation of its external debt. These findings encourage strong support for the establishment of a reliable data base as part of any long-term investigation of reforestation in Zaire. FOREST RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION AND THE STATE OF FOREST MANAGEMENT Zaire has 207 million of the 436 million ha of forests in central Africa or 47.56 percent of the total in the region that includes Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Zaire (see Table 2). In addition, 75 percent of Zaire's national territory is covered by forests. In 1975, Persson (as cited in World Resources Institute [1988]) and the Government of Zaire and the Canadian International Development Agency (1990) estimated that Zaire's total forest cover in 1970 amounted to about 234 million ha, including lakes and rivers (Table 3). About 101 million ha of closed forests is situated in the central basin and Mayumbe regions (Table 4), while the montane forests occupy about 300,000 ha (Table 3). The band of montane forests spreads from the Haut Zaire Province in the northeast through the Kivu and northern Shaba provinces. The savannah-type formations are found mainly in the northern- and southernmost parts of the country (see Figure 1). Distributions COMMERCIAL FOREST AREA Commercial forestland is classified as that forestland capable of producing at least 20 ft3 (0.56 m3) of industrial roundwood per acre (0.4 ha) annually (Blyth et al., 1984). This means that 1 ha of forest should be capable of producing at least 1.4 m3 of industrial roundwood annually. According to the World Bank (1986), about 139 million ha of forestland in Zaire is commercially exploitable. About

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS FIGURE 2 Areas of population concentration in Zaire. (1) Percent total population. (2) Percent total land area (square kilometers). (3) Population density per square kilometer. Source: Government of Zaire and the Canadian International Development Agency. 1990. Plan d'Action Forestier Tropical. Vol. I, Annex 2. Forestry Map. Kinshasa, Zaire, and Ottawa, Canada: Government of Zaire. in the northern rim along the border (Figure 1, area 2a) and in the montane forests of Kivu (area 3); and with depleted woodlands and wooded savannahs in the south, Bandundu, and southwestern, Shaba, areas of the country (Figure 1, areas 4a and 4b). These areas are highly urbanized and heavily populated. Figure 2 shows that about 70 percent of Zaire's estimated population of 35 million (1988 estimate) lives on less than 33 percent of the total land area. The population concentration associated with large urban centers is clustered along three major areas: the west-southeast band, which extends from the lower Zaire River region (Bas-Zaire) through Kinshasa

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS to north Shaba; the mid-southeast/northeast band, which extends from north Shaba across the Kivu region to the higher Zaire River region (Haut-Zaire); and the densely populated centers of Gemena in the Equateur region and Kisangani and Isiro in the Haut-Zaire region. This pattern of population concentration is, to some extent, related to the relatively fertile soils (derived from volcanic materials and known to support agriculture), particularly in the Kivu region, and also to the uneven pattern of economic growth, urbanization, and administration established by the colonial government. This pattern has been reinforced in the postindependence era beyond the capacities of current physical and social infrastructures, especially in the major urban centers. The forestland areas in the three major areas with the highest population concentrations are the most impoverished and depleted. The declining income of the rural population, because of the government 's inadequate pricing and market policies and general neglect of agriculture, has caused farmers to stress cultivation practices beyond their technical limits. In addition, to compensate for declining yields and low prices, farmers have had to bring more forestland into cultivation to sustain their families, thus aggravating the permanent removal of natural forests (Government of Zaire and the Canadian International Development Agency, 1990). INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS AND POSSIBLE REFORMS Responsibility for forest resources management in Zaire has shifted frequently in the past 20 years as ministries and agencies have been reshuffled, reorganized, or relabeled. One constant has been that the department responsible for forestry, DLAENCT, been the orphan child of the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Extension or the Ministry of Land Affairs or the Ministry of Tourism. DLAENCT was always several steps removed from the centers of financial, personnel, and political decision making, for example, the president's office and the National Executive Council. As a subordinate entity to a larger ministry, DLAENCT always fell prey to overriding national budget priorities within the agricultural sector. In fact, although DLAENCT has been separated from the Department of Agriculture for some time, its budgetary allocation is still often combined with that of the Department of Agriculture. It amounted to about 0.4 percent of the country's total operating budget in 1985 and rose slightly to 0.5 percent in 1987 (compared with an average of 1.1 percent for agriculture during 1985–1987 [World Bank, 1986:Table A, Annex A]). Moreover, these budgetary allocations fall far short of actual spending because of unusual central financial control practices; that is, the

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS line ministries are not allowed to spend the amounts allocated to them. Despite these meager budgetary allocations, DLAENCT's mandate has broadened over the years to include the goals of revenue generation, forest conservation and wildlife protection, and the development of local community-based forests. These objectives are in addition to the traditional goal of forest service management in spite of the fact that there is some agreement that DLAENCT sufficiently structured or empowered to effectively formulate appropriate policies or to implement relevant strategies for dealing with sustainability and resource management issues in the forestry sector. In Zaire, austerity measures arising from the economic adjustment programs of recent years have lead to chronic problems for DLAENCT: inadequate funding and staffing, delinking of budget allocations from the amount of revenue generated from forestry activities, and a narrow and short-term view of forest resource exploitation. All of these are incompatible with long-term and sustainable resource management. Since civil service salaries today have declined dramatically in real terms to about 20 percent of their level 10 years ago, it is not surprising that the focus of DLAENCT is on the more lucrative and most visible aspects of its management activities: logging concessions and negotiations with large companies. These transactions can yield tangible individual recognition and monetary benefits to participants, often in the form of legal and illegal, but tolerated, payments. The monetary returns on activities such as community-based forestry programs are low, however. DLAENCT lacks an active social, economic, and political constituency with vested interests in DLAENCT's objectives of forest management on a sustainable yield basis. There seems to be a lack of concern about the control and ownership of forestlands by local communities and the need to train a national cadre of technocrats to design suitable corrective policies and institutions to carry out these policies. DLAENCT also has a responsibility to serve small-scale foresters. The government should adequately concentrate on their needs by establishing community-owned and -managed forests and providing agroforestry extension advice. Therefore, an urgent need in DLAENCT is a well-trained cadre of technocrats with the ability to inventory the forest and design corrective policies. There also needs to be appropriate administrative and financial support to implement those policies. It follows that training of skilled (secondary school education level) as well as advanced-level technicians (post-secondary school

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS education level) is also needed, as suggested by the Department of Land Affairs, Environment, Nature Conservation, and Tourism and International Institute for Environment and Development, World Resources Institute (1990). This could be accomplished by providing basic training in Zaire and specialized graduate training overseas. This would provide support for and serve to strengthen the forestry option at the Bengemisa College of Agronomy and the regular 5-year agronomy/forestry program proposed for the University of Kinshasa and the University of Kisangani at Yangambi. Given the autonomy of each campus within the National University of Zaire and the agricultural and forestry development challenges facing each university's surrounding community, it makes sense for each campus to have a B.S.-level agronomy/forestry program. Although traditional training in forestry has focused on providing students with forest management skills (for example, forestry management regulations and measurement techniques), what is needed is a much stronger orientation in environmental and resource management, with a specific emphasis on problem-solving abilities related to research and policy. Given the autonomy of each campus, however, it will be difficult to use all three separate campuses in the most economic manner. One possibility is a central core curriculum at each university, with optional curricula distributed among the three campuses. Ultimately, however, it will be necessary to send graduate students overseas for specialization, for example, to study environmental sciences and sustainable agriculture practices, including those related to forestry. There is a critical need to understand how key forest management institutions such as DLAENCT function and the institutional reforms that are required to make them function better. Given the nature of critical or sectoral linkages among forestry institutions in Zaire, the second-class stature of DLAENCT within the power structure of the government erodes its coordination capacity with other key departments that address forestry and sustainable agriculture, such as energy, transport, rural development, and agriculture. In sectoral matters such as access to and ownership of forestland, fuelwood harvesting, soil erosion, and reduced fertility caused by shifting cultivation practices, the opinions of the DLAENCT are the informed voice in the government, and these opinions must have great weight in decision making. The prerequisite for such intersectoral linkages is that DLAENCT be given a greater role in policy formation and implementation. It must also be given greater prominence in forestry matters vis-à-vis the central decision-making departments (for example, central planning, finance, and the president's office).

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Cooperation and coordination between the institutions and the departments that address the forestry needs of Zaire are absolutely necessary. SUGGESTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT Sustainable management will not be possible until the limited and unreliable data base on Zaire's forest cover, causes and extent of deforestation, and corrective measures is expanded with verifiable information. Research Agenda The following two-phase research agenda is proposed. PHASE I: AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY AGENDA Concurrently with field trials, there should be a detailed forestry survey of the following five regions: Yuki, Kisangani, Mayumbe (the Tshela site), Yamgambi, and Kaniameshi. Yuki is in the Bandundu region in the heart of the central basin rain forest where ebony trees are logged for export and low-value species are used for charcoal for Kinshasa. Kisangani is on the fringes of the central basin rain forest just north of the equator. Logging in this area is entirely for local consumption. Mayumbe, in the Mayumbe forests of lower Zaire, is an area where large logging companies cut timber for export. Yamgambi is the region where the corridor system was tried before the independence of Zaire in 1960. Yamgambi is located about 100 km from Kisangani and is the site of the National Agronomic Research Institute. Kaniameshi is on the fringes of open wooded savannah forests in southern Shaba near the Zambian border. These savannah forests are subject to shifting-cultivator's seasonal brush fires, an important land-clearing practice. There is a need to field test low-input types of farming systems to alleviate the destructive effects of shifting cultivation even in areas with relatively low population density (see Table 9). Ongoing research on various agroforestry systems implemented in other tropical countries should be tested in Zaire at the five selected sites to determine whether these systems are suitable to spe-

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS cific ecosystems within Zaire. (Table 9 supplies available data from some of these five sites.) This research will require staff at all levels and must be a long-term effort that leads to lasting results on the suitability of specific agroforestry systems. It must include those subjects pertaining to forestry that environmental scientists deem necessary, as defined by FAO (1981a). The objective is to assess problems of ecosystems and devise the means to correct these problems (see Table 9). The most promising and suitable farming systems will then be replicated and strictly observed at 12 other sites representative of different forest growth systems. Again, there will be a need for trained staff. Some of the systems that should be tested at these sites are alley cropping, unproved fallow, low-input cropping, livestock pasture, forest/ farming mosaic, continuous cropping, and the corridor system. The corridor system has been practiced in Yamgambi (Jurion and Henry, 1969) and was found to be technically and economically viable, but it was terminated because it restricted the movement of a population traditionally accustomed to the nomadic life of shifting cultivation (Ruthenberg, 1971). Local culture and practices must be considered and incorporated into any research practice implemented. Because commercial logging is done on exclusive private concessions, it will be necessary to collect data from areas proximate to commercial production areas if access to private concessions is not possible. PHASE II: EXTENSION OF DATA AND SERVICES TO POTENTIAL USERS Large- and small-scale operators and, in particular, those who practice shifting cultivation must be made aware of the results of Phase I and all research and resources must be made available to them. Therefore, an efficient extension service with appropriately trained personnel will be required. Human Resources Development The pervasive shortage of well-trained staff in forestry and environmental management at all levels—technical, undergraduate, graduate, and specialized—must be rectified by extension workers, including those already employed, trained to carry out the requirements of the improved and restructured programs. There should be courses for in-house staff, training at Zaire's three universities mentioned above, and specialized training at overseas institutions.

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS TABLE 9 Proposed Agricultural and Forestry Research: Selected Commercial Logging Sites, Deforestation, and Charcoal Production A. Site-Specific Characteristics Logging Company (Year of Establishment) Location Soil Type Altitude (m) Siforzal (1950) Kisangani (northern central basin) Oxisol 485 Onatra (publicly owned) (1896) Yuki (central basin) Oxisol 500 Agrifor Forescom (publicly owned) (1883) Tshela (south) Ultisol 300 B. Soil and Weather Data for Locations Close to the Three Sites in Part A Location Horizon Depth (cm) pH Calcium Potassium Cation Exchange Capacity Clay Silt Sand Yangambia A11 0–22 4.1 0.3 0.07 5.3 14.3 3.2 82.5   A12 22–45 4.4 0.3 0.05 3.7 18.3 4.2 77.5   A/B 45–60 4.3 0.4 0.04 3.8 19.8 3.8 76.4   B21 60–220 4.5 0.5 0.05 3.0 20.9 3.6 73.5   B22 220–250 4.3 0.3 0.03 2.5 19.4 3.2 77.4

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Yuki, Lodjab A1 0–8 4.1 0.85 0.06 4.25 11.8 1.5 86.7   A31 8–23 4.1 0.30 0.04 2.95 11.1 1.4 87.5   A32 23–38 4.2 0.80 0.03 2.1 17.1 2.1 81.8   B21 38–85 4.3 0.50 0.06 1.6 15.5 2.0 82.5   B22 85–200 4.5 0.55 0.06 1.5 17.6 1.7 81.7 Tshelac A1 0–18 5.1 2.0 0.19 6.7 38.4 8.0 53.6   A3 18–38 4.9 1.3 0.04 6.4 43.6 7.8 48.6   B2t1 38–63 4.7 1.0 0.02 5.3 54.6 6.5 38.9   B2t2 63–98 4.7 0.7 0.02 4.5 52.8 6.3 40.9   B31 98–150 4.9 0.7 0.02 5.2 54.8 6.0 39.2   B32 150–200 5.0     4.3 59.1 7.0 33.9 a The elevation of Yamgambi is ±500 m, rainfall is 1,875 mm/year, and the soil is typic haplorthox. b For Yuki, Lodja (a research station site), data for forested Kasai are used. The elevation of Yuki is ±625 m, rainfall is 1,800 mm/year, and the soil is typic eutrorthox. c For Tshela, data for Mayumbe are used. The elevation of Mayumbe is ±300 m, rainfall is 1,000 mm/year, and the soil is oxic paleustult. SOURCES: (Part A) Kande, M. 1991. Draft doctoral dissertation. NorthCarolina State University, Raleigh; Sys, C. 1972. CaracterisationMorphologique et Physico-Chimique de Profils Types de l'Afrique Centrale.Serie Hors, Publications INEAC. Brussels: Institut National d'EtudesAgronomiques du Congo. (Part B) Jurion, J., and J. Henry. 1969. CanPrimitive Farming be Modernised? Serie Hors, Publication INEAC. Brussels:Institut National d'Etudes Agronomiques du Congo; Smith, G. D., C.Sys, and A. Van Wamberke. 1975. Application of Soil Taxonomy to theSoils of Zaire (Central Africa). Bulletin de la Africa. Bulletinde la Societé Belge de Pedologie; N. Spec. 5. Brussells: Societeé Belge de Pedologie; Sys, C. 1972. Caracterisation Morphologiqueet Physico-Chimique de Profils Types de l'Afrique Centrale. SerieHors, Publications INEAC. Brussels: Institut National d'Etudes Agronomiquedu Congo.

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Land Tenure Policies Community-owned and -managed forests with proper reforestation will not be possible in Zaire until the land tenure and land ownership rights of local communities are more secure. Whatever laws do exist, they appear to be applied in such a way as to favor large commercial operators. Therefore, the existing relevant laws must be modified. The new regulations must be structured to strengthen communal or local government and individual ownership rights and to ensure that enforcement of all forestry laws and regulations is uniform. Strengthening the Forestry Department Forestry policy formulation and the implementation of forestry projects involve the ministries of DLAENCT—agriculture, rural development, environmental—and the transportation ministry. These ministries have a significant impact on forestry management policies; therefore, coordination and consultation between these ministries on matters pertaining to forestry should be mandated in any government policy to minimize conflict. Furthermore, the budget should clearly state what funds are disbursed directly for forestry. Funding The government of Zaire has stated to its citizens and to international organizations that it wishes to sustain its environment. This statement should be translated into action. All funds allocated to sustaining forestry should be spent for that purpose, fair and responsible taxation policies should be augmented, and agencies that provide aid that supports sustainable agroforestry systems should commit to a long-term but strictly monitored environmental and resource management system in Zaire. With some modifications and refinements, these suggestions will meet the objectives for formulating appropriate measures and policies to avoid the potentially disastrous effects of the destruction, depletion, and degradation of tropical forest cover in Zaire. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors express their gratitude to the School of Agriculture and Home Economics of Tuskegee University and the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station for the valuable sup-

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS port they provided. Matungulu Kande of North Carolina State University at Raleigh and of the Faculty of Agronomy, University of Kisangani, Kisangani, Zaire, deserves special credit for sharing so generously of his private data base and collections on Zaire during his May 1991 visit to Tuskegee University. Finally, the authors are much indebted to a group of dedicated support staff in the School of Agriculture and Home Economics, Tuskegee University, especially Mary Cade, Judy Kinebrew, Sibyl Caldwell, and Marva Ballard. REFERENCES Blyth, J. E., Jr., J. Tibben, and W. B. Smith. 1984. Primary Forest Product, Industry and Timber Use, Iowa, 1980. USDA Research Bulletin NC-82. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Capistrano, A. D. N. 1990. Macroeconomic Influences on Tropical Forest Depletion: A Cross-Country Analysis. 1967–1989. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville. Department of Land Affairs, Environment, Nature Conservation, and Tourism and International Institute for Environment and Development , World Resources Institute. 1990. Zaire Forest Policy Review. Draft Summary Report. Kinshasa, Zaire: Department of Land Affairs, Environment, Nature Conservation, and Tourism, and Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute. Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Program. 1981a. Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project. Forest Resources of Tropical Africa. Part I. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1981b. Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project. Forest Resources of Tropical Africa. Part II. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Government of Zaire and the Canadian International Development Agency. 1990. Plan d'Action Forestier Tropical. Vols. I and II. Kinshasa, Zaire, and Ottawa, Canada: Government of Zaire. Hines, D. 1988. Zaire Forestry Resources: Economic and Policy Perspectives. Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute. International Society of Tropical Foresters News. 1990. Log and sawnwood sources reported. Int. Soc. Trop. Foresters News 11(4):9. Jurion, F., and J. Henry. 1969. Can Primitive Farming Be Modernised? Hors Serie, Publications INEAC . Brussels: Institut National d'Etudes Agronomiques du Congo. Kande, M. 1991. Draft doctoral dissertation. North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Ruthenberg, H. 1971. Farming Systems in the Tropics. London: Oxford University Press. Smith, G. D., C. Sys, and A. Van Wamberke. 1975. Application of Soil

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Taxonomy to the Soils of Zaire (Central Africa). Bulletin de la Societé Belge de Pedologie, N. Spec. 5. Brussels: Societé Belge de Pedologie. Sys, C. 1972. Characterisation Morphologique et Physico-Chimique de Profils Types de l'Afrique Centrale. Serie Hors, Publications INEAC. Brussels: Institut National d'Etudes Agronomique du Congo. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. 1990. World Agriculture: Trends and Indicators, 1970–1989. Statistical Bulletin No. 815. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Department of State. 1988. Zaire Background Notes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State. World Bank. 1986. Zaire: Toward Sustained Agricultural Development. Agriculture Sector Memorandum. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. World Bank and United Nations Development Program. 1983. Zaire Energy Assessment Report. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. World Resources Institute (WRI). 1988. Zaire Forestry Policy Review and Related Studies. Draft Summary Report. Kinshasa, Zaire, and Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute. WRI. 1990. World Resources 1990–91. New York: Basic Books.