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Agriculture and the Undergraduate Proceedings Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992

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NOTICE: The project that Is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the Natlonal Research Councll, whose members are drawn from the councils of the Natlonal Academy of Sclences, the Natlonal Academy of Englneerlng, and the Instltute of Medlclne. The members of the committee re- sponslble for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the Natlonal Academy of Sclences, the Natlonal Academy of Englneerlng, and the Instltute of Medlclne. The Natlonal Academy of Sclences Is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dlstlngulshed scholars engaged in sclentlflc and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to It by the Congress In 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires It to advise the federal govern- ment on sclentlflc and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press Is president of the Natlonal Academy of Sclences. The Natlonal Academy of Englneerlng was established In 1964, under the charter of the Natlonal Academy of Sclences, as a parallel organization of out- standlng engineers. It Is autonomous In Its admlnlstratlon and In the selection of Its members, sharing with the Natlonal Academy of Sclences the responslblllty for advising the federal govemment. The Natlonal Academy of Englneerlng also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White Is president of the Natlonal Academy of Engineering. The Instltute of Medlclne was established In 1970 by the Natlonal Academy of Sclences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions In the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Instltute acts under the responslblllty given to the Natlonal Academy of Sclences by Its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon Its own lnltlatlve, to Identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth 1. Shine Is president of the Instltute of Medlclne. The Natlonal Research Councll was organized by the Natlonal Academy of Sclences In 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy~s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functlonlng In accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Councll has become the principal operating agency of both the Natlonal Academy of Sclences and the Natlonal Academy of Englneerlng In pro- vldlng services to the government, the public, and the sclentlflc and engineering communltles. The Councll Is administered Jointly by both Academies and the Instltute of Medlclne. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vlce-chalrman, respectively, of the Natlonal Research Councll. This project was supported by the Cooperative State Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agrlculture, under Cooperative Agreement Number s~cooP-l-s8Ol; the U.S. Department of Agrlculture Project Interact; and the Resident Instruction section of the Dlvlslon of Agrlculture, Natlonal Assoclatlon of State Unlverslties and Land-Grant Colleges. Dlssemlnatlon of these proceedings was supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Any oplnlons, flndlngs, conclusions, or recommendations expressed In this publlca- tlon are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agrlculture. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 92-60206First prlntlng, May 1992 ISBN 0-309 04682-3Second prlntlng, October 1992 Copies are available for sale from: Natlonal Academy Press 2 1 o 1 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20418 S523 Printed In the United States of America

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Steering Committee Karl Brandt, Chairman, Purdue University C. Eugene Allen, University of Minnesota Harry O. Kunkel, Texas A&M University Joseph E. Kunsman, University of Wyoming Conrad J. Weiser, Oregon State University Paul H. Williams, University of Wisconsin Staff Carla Carlson, Project Director Barbara J. Rice, Associate Staff Officer Robert Cox, Senior Program Assistant Michael K. Hayes, Project Editor . . .

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Board on Agriculture Theodore L. Hullar, Chairman, University of California, Davis Philip H. Abelson, American Association for the Advancement of Science Dale E. Bauman, Cornell University R. James Cook, Agricultural Research Service at Washington State University Ellis B. Cowling, North Carolina State University Robert M. Goodman, University of Wisconsin Paul W. Johnson, Natural Resources Consultant, Decorah, lowa Neal A. Jorgensen, University of Wisconsin Allen V. Kneese, Resources for the Future, Inc. John W. Mellor, John Mellor Associates, Inc. Donald R. Nielsen, University of California, Davis Robert L. Thompson, Purdue University Anne M. K. Vidaver, University of Nebraska Conrad J. Weiser, Oregon State University John R. Welser, The Upjohn Company Susan E. Offutt, Executive Director James E. Tavares, Associate Executive Director Carla Carlson, Director of Communications Barbara J. Rice, Editor 1U

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Preface On many campuses, colleges of agriculture and related disci- plines are undergoing programmatic changes and, more important, are reexamining the philosophy underlying their missions. They are developing a unique knowledge base that is much broader than is generally perceived a knowledge base that is a composite of disciplines that broadly link basic sciences, natural systems, eco- nomics, business, and human resources to the more traditional production agriculture and food enterprises. The Board on Agriculture of the National Research Council joined the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its office of Higher Education Programs, Cooperative State Research Service, in spon- soring a landmark national conference to chart the comprehensive changes needed to meet the challenges of undergraduate profes- sional education in agriculture. The conference, investing in the Future: Professional Education for the Undergraduate, was held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., on April 15-17, 1991. Leaders from the higher education community, busi- ness, industry, and public agencies attended the conference. After decades of association with research and extension, USDA has recently focused increased attention on the evolving educa- tional missions of colleges of agriculture. In early 1989, under the auspices of USDA Project Interact, sponsored by the office of Higher Education Programs, a committee of 27 people holding a wide range of positions-presidents of universities, administrative heads of agriculture, department heads, faculty, and representatives from industry, USDA, and the U.S. Agency for international Development- culminated a series of studies and explored the questions concern- ing the requirements that will be placed on colleges of agriculture in the future. The committee, chaired by Harry O. Kunkel of Texas A&M University, reaffirmed the importance of these colleges. The committee noted that colleges of agriculture, home economics, and natural resources provide the intellectual foundations and focal points U

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PREFACE for human activities related to food, agriculture, natural resources, and other life-supporting systems. This group issued a rationale and a call for a national conference. The Board on Agriculture has previously focused its studies and activities on education-secondary education, graduate education, and doctoral and postdoctoral training in agriculture. The national symposium Future Opportunities and Challenges Unique to Science (FOCUS), held in April 1988, honored the first class of USDA na- tional needs graduate fellows. The conference Investing in the Future: Professional Education for the Undergraduate was an ex- tension of that pursuit. It also marked the intention of the National Research Council to place greater emphasis on science literacy and science education in the United States. The conference was organized as a series of alternating plenary and smaller discussion sessions. A provocateur was designated to give an initial presentation during each discussion session, and the subsequent discussions and conclusions were summarized for the conference audience by a rapporteur from each session. The chapters in Part 1 of these proceedings comprise the presentations given at the plenary sessions. Each chapter in Part 11 consists of the initial presort tations made at each discussion session followed by the rapporteurst summaries. Appendix A includes short biographies of the conference participants, and Appendix B outlines the poster session that was featured during the conference. In the agricultural, food, and environmental system, as with other seg- ments of U.S. industry, the problems of the twenty-first century inten- sify more quickly than ever before, and opportunities must be seized immediately, before their peak of potential benefit has passed. The ability of the United States to resolve the spectrum of issues and related problems in agriculture- nutrition, economics and international trade, production efficiency, natural resources conservation, control of pollutants, and others depends on depth of knowledge, the avail- able tools and technologies, and the skill and insight to apply them. The United States needs to invest in the future in human capital and the scientific knowledge base to revitalize and reinvigorate one of its leading industries, the agricultural, food, and environmen- tal system, in its broadest sense. That objective can be met by educating all students about agriculture as well as educating others specifically for careers in agriculture. These proceedings are a source for ideas that can contribute to the improved education of not only students of agriculture but also students throughout the higher education system. We hope that these proceedings will thus serve to stimulate fur- ther enhancement of undergraduate professional education and con- tinue the momentum generated by the national conference. Karl G. Brandt, Chair Conference Steering Committee . V]

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Acknowledgments The contributions of several individuals to the conference and these proceedings warrant special mention. We acknowledge the ideas, enthusiasm, and personal time invested by numerous indi- viduals represented by the Resident Instruction Committee on Policy. We are also grateful for the generous sharing of ideas among the 27 individuals who constituted the committee convened by the U.S. Department of Agriculturets (USDA) ProJect Interact to examine the requirements that will be placed on colleges of agriculture in the future. In particular, we wish to thank Kenneth W. Reisch, associate dean emeritus, College of Agriculture at Ohio State University, for coordinating the poster presentations during the two and one-half day conference. We also acknowledge the special assistance pro- vided by the staff members of USDA's office of Higher Education Programs, Cooperative State Research Service: Kyle Jane Coulter, deputy administrator; and Gwendolyn L. Lewis, Gail House, M. Louise Ebaugh, Stephanie K. Olson, Maxine Browne, and Anne Schumaker. Neither the conference nor the proceedings could have attained the goads of the USDA or the Board on Agriculture of the National Research Council without the creative contributions of the speak- ers, the provocateurs, and the rapporteurs, who laid the foundation for discussion among conference attendees representatives of the variety of communities related to higher education, secondary edu- cation, and the agricultural, food, and environmental system. And it will be these communities and the efforts of individuals within these communities that carry the momentum that can lead to im- proved education for all students. . . V]]

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Contents OVERVIEW ....... Harry O. Kunkel 1 introduction . Frank Press Charles E. Hess Karl G. Brandt - . PART I: CONFERENCE PAPERS 2 Rethinking Undergraduate Professional Education for the Twenty-First Century: The University Vantage Point........ Nils Hasselmo 3 Rethinking Undergraduate Professional Education for the Twenty-First Century The Public Policy Vantage Point Ray Thornton The Challenges for Professional Education in Agriculture: A Corporate Vantage Point Robert M. Goodman 5 The Environmental Curriculum: An Undergraduate Land-Grant Future? John C. Gordon 6 Environment and Ecology: Greening the Curriculum, A Public Policy Perspective. James R. Moseley 7 The Inherent Value of the College Core Curriculum ........................ Lynne V. Cheney ix . . 1 ... 19 .. 29 . 35 ................ 41 .51 .... 55 ............ 60

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CONTENTS General Education and the New Curriculum 68 Gary E. Miller 9 Agriculture: A System, a Science, or a Commodity? 75 Norman R. Scott and Brian F. Chabot 10 Educating a Culturally Diverse Professional Work Force for the Agricultural, Food, and Natural Resource System 86 William P. Hytche 11 Scientific Literacy: The Enemy IS Us 95 Robert M. Hazen 12 The Priority: Undergraduate Professional Education 104 Joseph E. Kunsman, Jr. 13 Positioning Undergraduate Professional Education as the Priority 109 C. Eugene Allen 14 Science, Technology, and the Public 1 13 Peter Spotts 15 A Challenge, a Charge, and a Commitment 121 Karl G. Hrandt PART 1I: CONFERENCE DlSCUSSlONS 16 Teaching and Research: Balance as an Imperative 125 Anne M. K. Vidaver and Arthur Kelman Francille M. Firebaugh, Rapporteur's Summary Mort H. Neufoille, Rapporteur's Summary 17 Rewarding Excellence in Teaching: An Administrative Challenge 141 William H. Mobley Samuel H. Smith, Rapporteur's Summary 18 lategrating Agriculture into Precollege Education: Opportunities from Kindergarten to Grade 12 Harry 0. Kunkel Janis W. Lariviere, Rapporteur's Summary 19 Toward Integrative Thinking: A Teaching Challenge Richard A. Herrett Roy G. Arnold, Rapporteur's Summary X 148 158

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CONTENTS 20 Striving Toward Cultural Diversity. Edward M. Wilson Peggy S. Meszaros, Rapporteur's Summary 21 Designing an Environmentally Responsible Undergraduate Curriculum.............. Robert J. Matthews Richard H. Merritt, Rapporteur's Summary . . - 22 Breaking Traditions in Curriculum Design . . . C. Eugene Allen Diana G. Oblinger, Rapporteur's Summary 23 Changing the image of Agriculture Through Curriculum Innovation............................... Jo Handelsman Jerry A. Cherry, Rapporteur's Summary 24 Teaching Science as Inquiry ............ Pout H. Williams Aluin L. Young, Rapporteur's Summary 25 Emphasizing the Social Sciences and Humanities Paul B. Thompson William P. Browne, Rapporteur's Summary 26 Teaching Agricultural Science as a System . . . Donald M. Vietor and Laurence D. Moore C. Jerry Nelsor:l, Rapporteur's Summary 27 The Social and Ethical Context of Agriculture: Is It There and Can We Teach It? Otto C. Doering 11! James G. Leising, Rapporteur's Summary . 28 The Economic Context of Agriculture ......... James L. Rained Larry J. Connor, Rapporteur's Summary 29 The Global Context of Agriculture ............ Edna L. McBreen Susan G. Schram, Rapporteur's Summary APPENDIXES A Program Participants B Poster Exhibits... . xi . 165 . 173 . 188 199 . 204 . 208 . 222 . 237 ......... 245 .251 . - . 259 . 279

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