Index

A

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), 95, 251

development and availability needs, 307

Acid rain, 222

and meteorite catastrophe, 128

Adaptive radiation, 124

Advanced Photon Source (APS), 252

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) , 182

Advection, 140

Aerial photography, 253

Africa, 72

Agency for International Development, 260, 263

Agriculture, 146-148, 219-220

Air pollution, 222, 225

coal combustion, 173-175

Alaska, 163, 208, 209

Alaska earthquake of 1964, 59, 195, 208, 209, 210

Alberta Basin, 167

Aleutian Islands, 211

Aleutian Trench, 101

Alkenones, 111

Alps, 79

Amazon Basin, 121

Amosite, 218

Amphibole, 71

Andes, 102, 211

Andesite, 70

Anoxic conditions, 163, 165

Anticlines, 167-168

Aquifers, 146-149

Archaeopteryx, 126

ARISTOTELES, 182

Asbestos, 217-218, 300

Asteroids, 52-53

Asthenosphere, 54

Aswan Dam, 148

Atlantic Ocean, 75, 98, 100

Atmosphere, early development, 117

Atmospheric processes

carbon cycle origin, 108-109

models, 129

research needs, 130

B

Bacteria, 290

Bahamas, 101

Basalt, 49, 56, 63, 75

Basin and Range province, 74-75, 119

Bengal fan, 79

Beryllium, 82

Biological evolution, 25-26, 115, 120-127

adaptive breakthroughs, 131

research needs, 134, 284, 312

see also Adaptive radiation;

Speciation

Biometallurgists, 156

Biosphere, 187

Biotic interactions, 124

Black smokers, 66, 67, 141, 158

Borah Peak, Idaho, 204

Bureau of Mines, 259, 310

C

Calcareous nannoplankton, 109

California, 148, 205, 209, 210

Cape Hatteras, 100, 197

Carbon and carbon cycle, 108-109, 112-113, 117

research needs, 132-133

Carbon dioxide, 108-109

Carbon-14, 95

Carcinogens, 217-218

Caribbean land bridge, 121

Carrying capacity, 139, 229

Cascade Range, 120, 211, 212

Catastrophes, 127-128

research needs, 231

CD-ROM, 265

Chelation, 144

Chemical geodynamics, 88

Chesapeake Bay, 94, 197

Chicxulub crater, 52, 128, 213

Chile, 208

Chlorite, 71

Chromium, 150

Chrysotile, 217-218

Cigar Lake, Saskatchewan, 157

Circum-Atlantic Project, 260

Circum-Pacific Map Project, 260

Circumantarctic Current, 111

Cladistic analysis, 127

Clean Air Act, 223

Climate

Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) project , 110

research needs, 133

Climatic fluctuations, 25-26

earth orbit variations, effect, 20

El Niño, 195

glaciation effects, 49-50

global warming, 131

global warming and mineral deposition, 154-155

indicators of past changes, 113

mountain building, effects on, 119-120

and orbital cycles, 105

research needs, 133, 301

Tibetan plateau influence, 80

and volcanism, 65, 210

volcano effects, research needs, 231

Coal, 113, 172-175, 222, 225

accessible resources, assessment needs, 181

mining and environment, research needs, 230



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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society Index A Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), 95, 251 development and availability needs, 307 Acid rain, 222 and meteorite catastrophe, 128 Adaptive radiation, 124 Advanced Photon Source (APS), 252 Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) , 182 Advection, 140 Aerial photography, 253 Africa, 72 Agency for International Development, 260, 263 Agriculture, 146-148, 219-220 Air pollution, 222, 225 coal combustion, 173-175 Alaska, 163, 208, 209 Alaska earthquake of 1964, 59, 195, 208, 209, 210 Alberta Basin, 167 Aleutian Islands, 211 Aleutian Trench, 101 Alkenones, 111 Alps, 79 Amazon Basin, 121 Amosite, 218 Amphibole, 71 Andes, 102, 211 Andesite, 70 Anoxic conditions, 163, 165 Anticlines, 167-168 Aquifers, 146-149 Archaeopteryx, 126 ARISTOTELES, 182 Asbestos, 217-218, 300 Asteroids, 52-53 Asthenosphere, 54 Aswan Dam, 148 Atlantic Ocean, 75, 98, 100 Atmosphere, early development, 117 Atmospheric processes carbon cycle origin, 108-109 models, 129 research needs, 130 B Bacteria, 290 Bahamas, 101 Basalt, 49, 56, 63, 75 Basin and Range province, 74-75, 119 Bengal fan, 79 Beryllium, 82 Biological evolution, 25-26, 115, 120-127 adaptive breakthroughs, 131 research needs, 134, 284, 312 see also Adaptive radiation; Speciation Biometallurgists, 156 Biosphere, 187 Biotic interactions, 124 Black smokers, 66, 67, 141, 158 Borah Peak, Idaho, 204 Bureau of Mines, 259, 310 C Calcareous nannoplankton, 109 California, 148, 205, 209, 210 Cape Hatteras, 100, 197 Carbon and carbon cycle, 108-109, 112-113, 117 research needs, 132-133 Carbon dioxide, 108-109 Carbon-14, 95 Carcinogens, 217-218 Caribbean land bridge, 121 Carrying capacity, 139, 229 Cascade Range, 120, 211, 212 Catastrophes, 127-128 research needs, 231 CD-ROM, 265 Chelation, 144 Chemical geodynamics, 88 Chesapeake Bay, 94, 197 Chicxulub crater, 52, 128, 213 Chile, 208 Chlorite, 71 Chromium, 150 Chrysotile, 217-218 Cigar Lake, Saskatchewan, 157 Circum-Atlantic Project, 260 Circum-Pacific Map Project, 260 Circumantarctic Current, 111 Cladistic analysis, 127 Clean Air Act, 223 Climate Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) project , 110 research needs, 133 Climatic fluctuations, 25-26 earth orbit variations, effect, 20 El Niño, 195 glaciation effects, 49-50 global warming, 131 global warming and mineral deposition, 154-155 indicators of past changes, 113 mountain building, effects on, 119-120 and orbital cycles, 105 research needs, 133, 301 Tibetan plateau influence, 80 and volcanism, 65, 210 volcano effects, research needs, 231 Coal, 113, 172-175, 222, 225 accessible resources, assessment needs, 181 mining and environment, research needs, 230

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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society pollution control technologies, research needs, 174-175 Coastal areas and processes, 196-197 Cold slabs, 55-56, 81 Colleges and universities, solid-earth scientists employed, 239 Columbia River Plateau, 63 Comets, 52-53 Community Climate Model, NCAR, 120 Computer simulations, see Models and modeling Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP), 71, 203, 292 Computers advanced supercomputing capability needs, 182, 290, 294 international cooperative data programs, 266 computational and modeling capabilities, 290, 309 three-dimensional seismology, 171, 172 Comstock lode, Nevada, 159 Construction materials, 216 Construction sites, 214 Consulting firms solid-earth scientists employed, 239 Continental collision, 78-80 Continental evolution and structure, 29-32, 70, 71-84, 107-108 research needs, 290-293 terranes, 120 Continental margins, 78, 100-103 Continental rifts, 74-75, 85, 86 Continental Scientific Drilling Program, 257 Continental shields, 76-77 Convection, 49, 52, 53-71, 72, 81-83 fluid dynamics, 140 magma-groundwater interaction, 140-141 mantle convection, research needs, 313 Convergent plate boundaries, 69-71, 86, 87, 155 sediment deposition, 101-102 volcanism, 211-212 earthquakes, 199-200 Cool-temperature anomalies, 49 Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP), 114 research needs, 133 Copper, 157 Core-mantle dynamics, 32, 34 boundary processes, 58, 88 research needs, 286-288, 296 water in mantle and core, 82-83 Craters, 52-53 Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, 51-53 Crocidolite, 218 Crustal dynamics, 29-32, 48 active crustal deformation, research needs, 290-293 continental evolution, 71-84 crustal fluids, research needs, 180, 286-288 extensional deformation, 74-75 mountain building, 73-74 petroleum sedimentary basins formation, 165 recycling of crust, 81-83 research needs, 135, 313 D Data bases, see Data collection and management Data catalogs, 255 Data collection and management, 5, 8, 42-43 accessibility of industry and DOD data, 254-255 common data exchange format, 265 data base access and standards, 135, 253-255 data base development and access, 307-309 digital data, 253-255 geological map data base, 183 geochemical/geophysical data base, 231 geophysical data bases, 183 global seismic networks, 249, 259 international cooperative earth science programs, 266-267 national interactive earth science data system, 264, 315 on-line national data directory, 265 paleoenvironmental data bases, development, 285-286 paleontological data base, 308-309 petroleum industry data availability, 253 space-based data, 253 topographic data base, 183 tsunamis field data, 209 water quality data, collection problems, 145 Data format standards, 253-255 Data preservation, 254, 255 Dating techniques, 87, 92-93, 95, 106, 119 isotopic dating, research needs, 179 laser probe, 73-74 new techniques, 136 tectonic processes, research needs, 228, 292 Deccan Traps, India, 63, 127 Decompression melting, 66-67 Dedicated drilling, 293 Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), 258, 288 Deforestation, 195, 219-220 Deltas, 78, 100 Department of Defense (DOD), 237-238, 293 Department of Energy (DOE), 222, 242, 250, 293, 310 Deserts, 98 Detachment systems, 75 Developing countries solid-earth science education, international support, 261, 263 Diagenesis, 167-168, 178 Diamonds, 62, 83 Dinosaurs, 52-53, 125-126, 213 Discontinuities, 53 DNA hybridization, 127 Drainage basins, research needs, 135 Drought, 148 Dynamic topography, 56-57 E Earth core, 262 formation, 49, 52-54, 57-58 magnetic field, 88 research needs, 294 Earth crust, 84 research needs, 87 age, 76 Earth Observing System (EOS), 182, 311 Earth orbital cycles, 20, 105 climatic effects, research needs, 301 Earth origin, 50-51 early history, 116 Earth system, 16-18 integrated model, 292 Earthquakes, 37, 58-61, 87, 197-208 hazard assessment and prediction, research needs, 226-227, 293, 299 -300, 313 intraplate earthquakes, 200 reservoir safety, research needs, 228 silent earthquakes, 61 East African rift, 74 East Texas oilfield, 169 Eclogite, 56 El Niño, 65, 195, 210 Electric generating plants, 222, 225 coal combustion emission control technologies, 174-175 Elementary and secondary education, earth science courses and teachers , 244 Energy resources, 34-36, 162-177 research needs, 297 Engineered structures, 215-216 Engineering geology, 263 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 145, 217-219 Erosion, 48, 98, 190 Estuaries, 100, 197 Evaporites, 113 Exclusive Economic Zone, 238, 252 Extinctions, 51-53, 93, 120-127 and catastrophes, 127-128 mass extinctions, 125-126 research needs, 133, 283-286

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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society Extraterrestrial impacts giant impacts, consequences, 213-214 and mass extinctions, 50-52, 213 moon formation, 50-51 research needs, 300 F Faults, 58-59 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 224, 271 Federal Emergency Management Agency, 293 Federal funding, 44, 270, 309 Feedback mechanisms, 108 Fellowships, 310 Fertilizers, 219 Floods, 97, 196 Fluid dynamics, 28-29, 48-49, 83-84, 86 crustal fluids, research needs, 180, 286-288 earth core, 57-58 magmas, 62-63 mineral transport, 157-158 and mountain building, 73-74 petroleum migration within basins, 166-68 research needs, 135, 288-290, 312-313 rock-fluid interactions, 140-141 Fluid inclusions, 155 Fluxes, 70, 71, 85-86, 94, 116, 128 hydrologic cycle transfer fluxes, 142 Foreign policy, 263 Foreland basins, 101-102 Fossil fuels, 162 Fossil pollen, 98 Fossils, 92-93, 111, 117-127, 253 anomalous distributions, 120 eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, 115 Funding of research, 8, 39-40, 309-311 basic research training, funding need, 263 federal funding, 309 industry support of university research, 309-310 G Gas chromatography, 250 Geobarometry, 73 Geochemical cycles, 26-28, 81-83, 107-109 research needs, 286-288, 312 Geochemistry atmospheric and oceanic changes, research needs, 130-131 engineered bacterial species for leaching metals, 156 genetic ore deposition studies, 155-156 instrument development and availability, 307 instruments and facilities, 250-252 interface geochemistry, 84, 86, 299 mineral-water interface geochemistry, research needs, 135 modeling, 86 research needs, 178, 230, 299 Geochronology, 92, 128 Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT), 238 Geodetic studies, 292 Geographic information systems (GIS), 19-20, 195 development needs, 229, 290, 307-309 Geological archives, 308 Geological hazards, 36-37, 187-213 hazard assessment and prediction, research needs, 226-230, 299-300 interactive natural hazards, research needs, 229 Geological site analyses, 215-216 Geological Society of America, 245, 252, 260, 309 Geological Survey of Canada, 257 Geomagnetism, 18, 57-58, 119, 262 ocean floor magnetism mapping, 237-238 research needs, 296 Geomorphology, 94-95 Geophysics, 203 crustal deformation research techniques, research needs, 292-293 engineering geophysics, 217 mineral detection techniques, 160-161 subsurface exploration, research needs, 229 GEOSCOPE project, 259 Geothermal energy, 176-177 concealed fields location, research needs, 182 Geothermometry, 73 Geysers, 159 Giant clams, 67, 156 Glaciation, 98, 103, 113, 196 and orbital cycles, 105 research needs, 133, 284 Sahara region, 111 sea level, effects on, 94 uplifts as cause of, 120 Global Change Research Program, 262, 271, 276 Global environmental change, 25-26, 223 research needs, 227, 230-231, 283-286, 312 Global geological cycles, 26-28, 103-115, 312 research needs, 133, 283-286 Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) Project, 257 Global Positioning System (GPS), 19, 61, 87, 212, 248-249 Global Seismographic Network (GSN), 257, 259 Global seismic networks, 249, 257, 259, 296, 309 Glomar Challenger, 258 Gold, 150-151, 153, 157, 159-160 Gondwana, 49, 79-80, 108, 111, 154, 163-164 Government agencies, solid-earth scientists employed, 239 Gravity, 294 Great Lakes, 196 Great Rift Valley, 98 Green River Formation, Utah, 165 Greenhouse effect, 104-105, 117, 131, 195 Greenland, 293 Groot Island, Australia, 155 Groundwater, 178, 195 magma-groundwater interaction, 140 research needs, 230 water quality national network, 297-298 Groundwater contamination, 38, 84, 144-145, 180, 219, 221, 223 research needs, 300-301, 314 Gulf of Mexico, 94, 163, 171, 192 encroachment upon Mississippi delta, 94 H Habitats, 93 Hawaii, 62-63, 192, 208-209, 212 Hazardous waste, 230 Health regulations asbestos, 217-218 radioactive waste disposal, 221-222 radon, 218-219 zinc, 219 Health risks, 217-219 research needs, 230 Heavy metals, 144-145 Heterogeneities, 55, 83 High Plains, 148 High-pressure apparatus, 55, 88, 251-252, 296, 307 High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, 182 High-spatial-resolution instruments, 251, 292 High-temperature apparatus, 55, 88, 251-252, 290, 296 Himalayas, 79, 101, 120 Historical record, earthquake documentation, 200-201 Hot-spots, see Mantle plumes Hot springs, 159 Human activities, 20, 93-94, 195, 214-215, 223-225 Hurricane Andrew, 198 Hydraulic fractures, 140 Hydrologic cycle, 142-145, 148-149, 222-223

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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society Hydrology, 142-149, 223, 284 Hydrothermal circulation of ocean water, 67 I Ice cores, 308 Imaging techniques, 19-20, 53-58, 93 multispectral satellite imagery, 193 sonar images of seafloor, 61 Income, solid-earth scientists, 241 Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 259, 293 Indus River, 101 Insolation, 105 Instruments and facilities, 5, 19-20, 31, 41-42, 75 accelerator mass spectrometry, 95 current applications, 248-252 development needs, 136, 248-252, 307, 315 earliest earthquake detection instrument, 203 earthquake detection instruments, 203, 205 micromagnetic measuring instruments, need for, 89 mineral exploration, research needs, 182 ocean bottom instruments, need for, 89, 209 overseas facilities of multinational corporations, 261 paleontology, new equipment, 136 soil formation measurement, 95 submarine features measurement, 101 tectonic strain measurement, 61 see also Dating techniques; Imaging techniques; Seismic data and imaging; Satellites; Space-borne instruments International assistance solid-earth science education, international support, 261 International cooperation, 8, 44-45, 79, 93, 210, 224, 255-263, 266 -267, 316 International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), 224, 256 International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), 65, 212, 226, 257 International Geodynamics Project (IGP), 256 International Geological Congress (IGC), 252, 256 International Geological Correlation Program (IGCP), 257 International Geophysical Year (IGY), 254, 256 International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), 65, 224, 257, 276 International Lithosphere Program (ILP), 256, 262 International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), 256, 262 International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), 256, 260 Interplanetary probes, 19 Ion microprobes, 89, 251 Iridium, 52, 93, 125, 127-128 Iron, 52, 117, 153-154 Irrigation, 146-148 Isotopic analysis, 28, 95, 107-109, 111, 117, 118, 155-156, 250-251, 296, 307 J Japan, 159, 208 Joint ventures, see International cooperation K Kerogens, 165 Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, 64, 211-212 Kimberlite, 62 Kodiak Island, Alaska, 210 Komatites, 153 Krakatoa, 63 L Lahars, 212 Lake Baikal, 98 Lakes, 98-99 Land use, 214 Landfills, 230 Landforms, 94-95 research needs, 135, 293 Landsat, 79, 99 research needs, 182, 231 Landslides, 191-195 prediction and prevention, research needs, 228, 300 Lascar volcano, 65 Laterites, 25, 113 Laurasia, 79-80 Laurentia, 154 Leachates, 221 Lead, 150-152 Lesser Antilles Trench, 101 Life, origin, 116 Limestone, 101, 119 Liquefaction, 202, 206, 207 Lithosphere, see Continental evolution and structure; Crustal dynamics; Earth crust Lunar rocks, 308 M Magellan probe, 52 Magma, 61-66, 86 arc magmas, 70-71 fluid dynamics, research needs, 288-290 groundwater-magma interaction, 140-141 ocean, 51 Magnetic field, 52, 57-58, 88 research needs, 301 Magnetic surveys, 160-161 Mammals species impoverishment, 120-121 Manganese, 154 Mantle dynamics, 32, 34, 53-71, 81-83, 84-85, 87, 251-252, 262 convection, research needs, 313 discontinuities, 54 mantle mixing, 81-83 mantle melting, 68, 69, 72-73 material transport by convection, 53-57, 88 research needs, 293-296 see also Core-mantle dynamics; Mantle plumes Mantle plumes, 18, 48-49, 53, 55, 56, 62, 67-69 Maps and mapping, 19, 69, 88, 92, 237-238 geological maps, development and availability needs, 307-308 digital topographic data sets, need, 308 volcanoes, 213 climatic map of world 18,000 years ago, 110 geological site analyses, map needs, 215 mineral deposit formation, research needs, 180 volcano mapping, research needs, 228 Marianas Trench, 101 Marine reefs, 113 Mars, 98 Mathematics, inversion techniques, 203, 205 Mercury, 150 Mercury poisoning, 144-145 Metals, 158 in situ mining, research needs, 180 Metamorphic petrology, 73 Metamorphism, 73-74, 87 Meteorites, 116, 128, 213, 308 Microorganisms genetically-engineered microbes for waste treatment, 180 Microtectites, 127-128 Middle East, 79, 163-166 Mineral dusts, 218 Mineral resources, 34-36, 149-178 distribution and concentrations, 149-152 epigenetic and syngenetic ore deposits, 152-153 exploration, 150-152, 158-162 research needs, 297 see also Energy resources; Metals; Mining and mining industry; Sand and gravel; Quarried rock

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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society Minerals concealed ores detection, research needs, 181 deposit occurrence prediction, research needs, 180 deposit formation, research needs, 180-181 and mountain building, 73-74 Minerals Management Service, 265 Mining and mining industry, 218, 219, 265 in situ and traditional techniques, 161-162 funding of research, 310 solid-earth science education support, 261 solid-earth scientists employed, 239 Mining law, 265 Minorities, 244 Mission to Planet Earth, 262 Mississippi delta, 94, 100 Mississippi River, 97, 100, 191 Models and modeling, 15, 31, 50, 53, 92-93 advanced computational and modeling facilities, 182, 309 climatic models. 114-115 continental-scale modeling, research needs, 87 earth system modeling problems, 128-129, 292 earthquake rupture mechanisms, 60 earthquakes, 205-206 energy-balance model, 114-115 evolutionary change models, 122-123 extraterrestrial giant object impact, consequences, 213 extraterrestrial impacts, 52 general circulation models (GCMs), 57, 105 glaciation periods, 129 global geological change, research needs, 133-136 landform changes, research needs, 135 mantle convection, 57 mantle plumes, 68 meteorite catastrophe, 128 mineral deposits, 153, 156-158 mineral occurrence and deposit formation, research needs, 180 mountain building, 73-74 ocean spreading centers, 67, 291 organic material maturation and diagenesis, 168, 178 sedimentary basin fluid flow, 168 tsunamis, 209 volcanic eruptions, 211 water flow, research needs, 180 Molybdenum, 151 Mono Lake, California, 148 Moon, 50-51, 116, 213 Mount Pinatubo, 193, 223, 299-300 Mount St. Helens, 63, 191, 211, 212, 299-300 Mountain building climatic effects, 119-120 research needs 290-292 Mountain ranges, 73-74, 87 Mudflows, 212-213 Multinational corporations, 261 Museum curation and storage, 308 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 224, 262 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 120 National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP), 293, 300 National Geological Mapping Act, 308 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 300 National laboratories, solid-earth scienti employed, 239 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 252 National Science Foundation (NSF), 209, 238, 258-259, 271, 300 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 244 National Synchotron Light Source, 252 Natural gas, 79, 163, 224-225 Natural selection, 122-123 Networks development and availability, 309 earthquake and volcanic eruption warning systems, 37, 208 earthquake parameters assessment networks, 208 global seismic networks, 249, 259 INTERNET, 249 national earth science data system, 264 Neutron activation analysis, 250 Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, 192, 213 New Madrid, Missouri, 200 New Zealand, 159 Nicaragua, 208 Niger delta, 100 Nimbus 7 spacecraft, 65 North America, 80, 122, 196 North American Continent-Ocean Transects Program, 257 Northern Hemisphere, 149 glaciation effects, 94 Nuclear power, 175-176, 225 waste disposal, research needs, 230 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 293 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, 222 O Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 218 Ocean basin processes, 29-30, 66-71, 74-76, 81 cycles of opening and closing, 107 sediment deposition, 100-103 research needs, 284-285, 290-293 Ocean crust formation, 69 recycling through mantle, 56 Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 75, 118, 182, 258, 259, 275-276, 284 , 288, 290, 293 cores collection, 93 expanded role, 307 Ocean floor cores collection, 93 research needs, 290-293 sediment deposition in deep ocean, 102-103 Ocean plateaus and ridges, 66, 68-69, 83, 86, 158 volcanic activity, 62 Ocean spreading centers, 66, 76 Oceanic anoxic events, 112 Oceanic Research (SCOR), ICSU, 258 Oceans atmospheric and oceanic changes, 130-131 currents, 110-113 research needs, 133, 284-285 temperature and current changes, 110-113 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 271 Office of Technology Assessment, 270 Ogallala aquifer, 148 Oil and gas drilling trends in relation to number of geology majors, 242 Oil shale, 169-170 Oil spills, 139 Olivine, 56, 70 Ontong Java plateau, 69 Orinoco Delta, 100 Orogenies continental-scale modeling, research needs, 87 Ostracodes, 111 Outgassing, 50, 52, 141 Oxidation, 117 P Pacific Northwest, 59, 207-208 Pacific Ocean, 98, 155, 208 Paleobiology, 120-127 Paleoceanography, 109-113 research needs, 133 Paleoclimatology, 113 research needs, 133 Paleogeography, 119

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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society research needs, 133 Paleomagnetic data, 117 Paleontology, 120-127 Paleoseismology, 60, 201-202 research needs, 228 Pangea, 79-80, 118, 154 Perovskite, 21 Petroleum and petroleum industry, 79, 112-113, 163-172 advanced production and enhanced recovery, research needs, 181 anoxic conditions and petroleum formation, 165 delta resources, 100 exploration, 170-172 exploration, research needs, 181 formation of deposits, 163-166 funding of research, 309-311 lake beds as source, 98 migration through sedimentary basins, 166-168 origin of oil, research needs, 178 resource development and recovery, research needs, 297 solid-earth science education support, 261 solid-earth scientists employed, 239 traps, 168-169 Petroleum geology, 106-107 Phytoplankton, 112 Plagioclase, 51 Plants, 113-114 Plate tectonics, 18-20, 53-71 continental evolution, 71-81 convergent plate boundaries, 101-102 and earthquakes, 58-61 Late Quaternary history, research needs, 228 and mineral deposits, 153 and mountain building, 73-74 ocean basin processes, 66-71 plate motion rates and directions, 69, 87 recycling of plates, 82 research needs, 291, 294, 313 and Southern Hemisphere cooling, 111 volcanic activity, 61-66 Polar regions, 111 Policy recommendations, see Research goals, priorities, and recommendations Population concentration problems, 192, 214-223 Precambrian period, 115-117 Pressure-temperature (P-T) paths, 73-74 Professional societies, 246-247, 252-253 Project Mohole, 258 Protangulum, 125 Public awareness, 247 Public lands, 264 Q Quarried rock, 216 Quaternary period, 133, 228 Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine transect, 257 R Radar, 161 Radioactive decay, 115 Radioactive nuclides, 162 Radioactive waste disposal, 162, 176, 215, 221-222 research needs, 301 Radon, 218-219, 300 Rain forests, 121 Rare earths, 157 Rare metals, 67, 70-71 Real-time geology, research needs, 228 Recycling, of crust, 81-83, 286-287 Red Dog deposit, Alaska, 152 Red Sea, 158 Remote sensing, 92, 106, 130 erosion patterns, 190 geothermal resources identification, 177 mineral detection methods, 161 research needs, 231 volcano observation, research needs, 228 Research goals, priorities, and recommendations, 2-4, 6-7, 9-12, 20-39, 269-316 Research institutions solid-earth scientists employed, 239 Reservoirs, 228 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 215 Ridge InterDisciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE), 275, 290, 293 Rio Grande rift, 74 Rivers and streams, sediment transport, 96-98 Rock cycle, 104-115 Rocky Mountains, 79, 120 Rubidium, 107-108 S Sahara, 98, 99 Sahel, 98 Salt domes, 157 Salt Lake City, 199, 201 San Andreas Fault, 58-59, 76-77, 202, 206-208, 299 San Francisco, California, 206 San Joaquin Valley, California, 195 Sand and gravel, 216 Sand dunes, 113 Satellite laser ranging (SLR), 61 Satellites, 19, 61, 65, 93, 106, 295 multispectral imagery, 193 volcano observation, research needs, 228 Sea Satellite (SEASAT), 238 Sea level fluctuations, 94-95, 106-107, 129, 170, 197 Seawater, 109-113 Sediment ocean deposition, 100-103 oldest, 116 transport and deposition, 33, 87, 96-103, 191 Sedimentary basins fluid flow models, 168, 290 oil and gas traps, 168-169 petroleum migration, 166-168 petroleum origin, 164-166 research needs, 135, 178-179, 290, 297 Sedimentology, 118-119 Seiches, 209 Seismic data and imaging, 19, 31, 53-58, 60, 106-107, 169, 197-208, 294 cross-well seismology, 172 development of seismological equipment, 256 earthquake detection, 203, 209-210 global seismic networks, 70, 249, 292, 296, 300, 305-306 national and regional seismic networks, need, 300 neotectonic features identification, research needs, 229 petroleum exploration techniques, 170-172 sedimentary basins, 78 seismic reflection profiling, 71, 166, 171, 292 strong ground-motion seismology, 60, 206 teleseismic data, 206 three-dimensional seismology, 170-172 tsunami-detection, 209-210 Seismology, see Seismic data and imaging Seismometers, see Seismic data and imaging Selenium, 145 Serengeti Plain, 122 Serpentine, 71, 218 Sewers, 217 Seychelles plateau, 69 Shatsky plateau, 69 Sierra Nevada, 119-120 Silica, 63 Silver, 152, 159 Sinkholes, 195, 230 Slumping, 192 Soil, 94, 113 earthquakes and soil condition, 206 processes, research needs, 133, 228 volume-changing soils, research needs see also Soil degradation; Soil formation Soil degradation, 220 see also Erosion Soil formation, 95-100, 220

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Solid-Earth Sciences and Society Solar system, 50 Solid waste disposal, 215 Solid-earth science education, 4-5, 43 curricula change needs, 263, 311-312 engineering-earth science curricula bridging, 312 enrollment and graduates, 243-244 graduate and postdorate studies, 263-264 introductory college courses, 245-246 research experience for students, 246 universal availability of earth-science education, 316 Solid-earth scientists employment by sector and education, 43-44, 239 peer review, 272 supply, demand, and characteristics, 4-5, 225, 237-242, 247-248 South Africa, 150 Southeast Asia, 151 Southern California Earthquake Center, 293 Soviet Academy of Sciences, 260 Soviet Union, 155, 259 Space Research (COSPAR), ICSU, 258 Space-borne instruments, research needs, 315 Space-time scales, 17-18 Speciation, 122-123 Spectrometric techniques, 250-251 see also Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) State geological surveys, 252 State water quality agencies, 145 Stratigraphy, 50, 93, 97, 101, 102 magnetic stratigraphy, 118 seismic stratigraphy, 169 sequence stratigraphy, 106-107 Strontium, 107-108 Subduction, 48-49, 53-71, 81-83 continental evolution, 71-81 and convergent plate boundaries, 101-110 and earthquakes, 58-61 ocean basin processes, 66-71 Submarine canyons, 101 Submarine fans, 101 Submarine navigation, 237-238 Submersibles, 101 Subsidence, 78, 195-196 research needs, 229-230 Sulfur, 174 Sulfur dioxide, 222-223 Superfund, 242 Synchotron facilities, 89, 252 development and availability, 252, 307 T Tangshan, China, 79, 198 Tar sands, 170 Telecommunications, 254 global seismic networks, 249, 259 international cooperative earth science programs, need, 266-267 national earth science data system, need, 264 Temperature changes, 109-113 Terranes, 76-77, 120 Texas Gulf Coast, 157, 197 Thetford, Quebec, 218 Thistle, Utah, 191 Thrust belts, 169 Tibetan Plateau, 79, 98, 120 Tin, 151 Topography, 183, 186 Total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), 65 Toxic wastes, 215 research needs, 301 water supply contamination, 143-145 see also Radioactive waste disposal Trenches, 56, 101-102 Triaxial stresses, 252 Tsunamis, 208-210 Tungsten, 157 Tunnels, 216-217 U U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 145, 183, 252, 257, 259, 260, 300, 308 Unconformities, 164, 170-171 Underground space, 229 United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 257 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 257 University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System, 182 Uplift, 196-197 see also Crustal fluid dynamics; Mountain building Upper Mantle Project (UMP), 256 Uranium, 153, 157, 162, 175-176 Urban geology, 214 Urbanization problems, see Population concentration problems V Varves, 98 Venus, 52 Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI), 61 Vitrinite, 165-166 Volatiles, 63 Volcano Observatory, USGS, 63 Volcanoes, 48, 59, 61-66, 155, 210-213 aborted eruptions, 211 climatic effects, research needs, 231 eruption causes and prediction, research needs, 228, 299-300 intraplate volcanism, 62, 67-69 island arc volcanism, 62, 69-71, 82 W Warning systems, 37, 208, 210 Wasatch Fault, 199, 201 Waste management, 220, 310 geological assessment needs, 214 research needs, 301 Water quality and pollution, 143-145, 222 estuaries, 197 water quality national network, 297-298, 313 water quality, research needs, 180 see also Groundwater contamination Water supply and use, 34, 141-149 depletion in western U.S., 147-148 distribution of surface water, 143 drainage basin analysis, research needs, 178-179 water quality national network, 297-298, 313 Water-rock interaction, 178 research needs, 299 Weathering, 48, 95-100 Well logging, 171 Western States, 98, 178-179 water supply problems, 146-148 earthquake hazard research needs, 299 Wind, 98 World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 258 World Data Centres, ICSU, 266 World Stress Map, 257 Worldwide Seismic Networks, 254 Worldwide Standardized Seismic Network (WWSSN), 259 X Xenoliths, 72 Y Yellowstone National Park, 159 Yellowstone volcanic area, 65 Yucca Mountain, Nevada Yugoslavia, 259 Z Zagros Mountains, 79 Zinc, 152, 219