pollution control technologies, research needs, 174-175

Coastal areas and processes, 196-197

Cold slabs, 55-56, 81

Colleges and universities, solid-earth scientists employed, 239

Columbia River Plateau, 63

Comets, 52-53

Community Climate Model, NCAR, 120

Computer simulations, see Models and modeling

Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP), 71, 203, 292

Computers

advanced supercomputing capability needs, 182, 290, 294

international cooperative data programs, 266

computational and modeling capabilities, 290, 309

three-dimensional seismology, 171, 172

Comstock lode, Nevada, 159

Construction materials, 216

Construction sites, 214

Consulting firms

solid-earth scientists employed, 239

Continental collision, 78-80

Continental evolution and structure, 29-32, 70, 71-84, 107-108

research needs, 290-293

terranes, 120

Continental margins, 78, 100-103

Continental rifts, 74-75, 85, 86

Continental Scientific Drilling Program, 257

Continental shields, 76-77

Convection, 49, 52, 53-71, 72, 81-83

fluid dynamics, 140

magma-groundwater interaction, 140-141

mantle convection, research needs, 313

Convergent plate boundaries, 69-71, 86, 87, 155

sediment deposition, 101-102

volcanism, 211-212

earthquakes, 199-200

Cool-temperature anomalies, 49

Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP), 114

research needs, 133

Copper, 157

Core-mantle dynamics, 32, 34

boundary processes, 58, 88

research needs, 286-288, 296

water in mantle and core, 82-83

Craters, 52-53

Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, 51-53

Crocidolite, 218

Crustal dynamics, 29-32, 48

active crustal deformation, research needs, 290-293

continental evolution, 71-84

crustal fluids, research needs, 180, 286-288

extensional deformation, 74-75

mountain building, 73-74

petroleum sedimentary basins formation, 165

recycling of crust, 81-83

research needs, 135, 313

D

Data bases, see Data collection and management

Data catalogs, 255

Data collection and management, 5, 8, 42-43

accessibility of industry and DOD data, 254-255

common data exchange format, 265

data base access and standards, 135, 253-255

data base development and access, 307-309

digital data, 253-255

geological map data base, 183

geochemical/geophysical data base, 231

geophysical data bases, 183

global seismic networks, 249, 259

international cooperative earth science programs, 266-267

national interactive earth science data system, 264, 315

on-line national data directory, 265

paleoenvironmental data bases, development, 285-286

paleontological data base, 308-309

petroleum industry data availability, 253

space-based data, 253

topographic data base, 183

tsunamis field data, 209

water quality data, collection problems, 145

Data format standards, 253-255

Data preservation, 254, 255

Dating techniques, 87, 92-93, 95, 106, 119

isotopic dating, research needs, 179

laser probe, 73-74

new techniques, 136

tectonic processes, research needs, 228, 292

Deccan Traps, India, 63, 127

Decompression melting, 66-67

Dedicated drilling, 293

Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), 258, 288

Deforestation, 195, 219-220

Deltas, 78, 100

Department of Defense (DOD), 237-238, 293

Department of Energy (DOE), 222, 242, 250, 293, 310

Deserts, 98

Detachment systems, 75

Developing countries

solid-earth science education, international support, 261, 263

Diagenesis, 167-168, 178

Diamonds, 62, 83

Dinosaurs, 52-53, 125-126, 213

Discontinuities, 53

DNA hybridization, 127

Drainage basins, research needs, 135

Drought, 148

Dynamic topography, 56-57

E

Earth core, 262

formation, 49, 52-54, 57-58

magnetic field, 88

research needs, 294

Earth crust, 84

research needs, 87

age, 76

Earth Observing System (EOS), 182, 311

Earth orbital cycles, 20, 105

climatic effects, research needs, 301

Earth origin, 50-51

early history, 116

Earth system, 16-18

integrated model, 292

Earthquakes, 37, 58-61, 87, 197-208

hazard assessment and prediction, research needs, 226-227, 293, 299 -300, 313

intraplate earthquakes, 200

reservoir safety, research needs, 228

silent earthquakes, 61

East African rift, 74

East Texas oilfield, 169

Eclogite, 56

El Niño, 65, 195, 210

Electric generating plants, 222, 225

coal combustion emission control technologies, 174-175

Elementary and secondary education, earth science courses and teachers , 244

Energy resources, 34-36, 162-177

research needs, 297

Engineered structures, 215-216

Engineering geology, 263

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 145, 217-219

Erosion, 48, 98, 190

Estuaries, 100, 197

Evaporites, 113

Exclusive Economic Zone, 238, 252

Extinctions, 51-53, 93, 120-127

and catastrophes, 127-128

mass extinctions, 125-126

research needs, 133, 283-286



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