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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

Support for this study was provided by the W. M. Keck Foundation, the G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation, and the National Academy of Sciences' Arthur L. Day Fund and Maurice Ewing Earth and Planetary Science Fund.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Status and Research Opportunities in the Solid-Earth Sciences.

Solid-Earth Sciences and Society/Committee on the Status and Research Opportunities in the Solid-Earth Sciences, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-04739-0

1. Earth sciences—United States. I. Title.

QE47.A1N38 1993

550'.973—dc20 92-41781

CIP

Cover art by Y. David Chung. Cover design by Rumen Buzatov. Chung and Buzatov are graduates of the Corcoran School of Art, Washington, D.C. In 1988, Chung won the Mayor's Art Award for Outstanding Emerging Artist and has exhibited widely throughout the country, including the Studio Museum in Harlem and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City.

The cover includes many artistic depictions, both ancient and modern, of the solid-earth sciences. At the center is a subduction zone—high mountains, deep-sea trenches, and volcanic activity. The frog dropping a ball into the mouth of a dragon is part of an ancient Chinese seismometer that indicated earthquake direction. The Mariner spacecraft, used to study Mars, represents our new abilities to view the Earth and other planets on different scales. On the spine is an Armillary sphere used in Renaissance Europe as a way of depicting the Earth at the center of the universe. On the back cover are representations of a mid-ocean ridge, an offshore oil derrick, the center section of an early Mayan calendar, and plate movements off the east coast of Africa.

Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America



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