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Coastal Meteorology: A Review of the State of the Science 9 Educational and Human Resources Compared to other subdisciplines in meteorology, many areas of coastal meteorology lack focus and activity. This is reflected in the general dearth of basic research related to coastal meteorology. An illustration of this point can be made. The American Meteorological Society's (AMS) Scientific and Technological Activities Commission maintains a Committee on Meteorology and Oceanography of the Coastal Zone. In May 1991, the AMS and this committee sponsored the Fifth Conference on Meteorology and Oceanography of the Coastal Zone, in Miami, Florida. Forty papers were presented at the conference from a total of 74 contributing authors and coauthors. The emphasis of the papers was on applied and operational meteorology (e.g., storm surges), rather than substantive theoretical problems of the field. The small showing for this conference and the narrow range of interest represented by the contributions reflect the general lack of basic research in the area of coastal meteorology. Other than a general lack of activity in coastal meteorology, the manpower issues that face coastal meteorology are the same as those facing the larger disciplines of meteorology and oceanography, and these will not be detailed in this report. Here the focus will be on two issues related to education: (1) the breadth of education required to address many of the problems of coastal meteorology and (2) the need for improved education in instrumentation and observational systems. To address many of the outstanding problems in coastal meteorology as outlined in this report, a broadly based curriculum in meteorology and the supporting sciences is needed. Interdisciplinary problems, such as air-sea
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Coastal Meteorology: A Review of the State of the Science interaction and air pollution in the coastal zone, require education in oceanography, chemistry, and biology, in addition to graduate-level courses in both atmospheric physics and dynamics. Because of the substantial need for improvements in the application of sophisticated observational tools to the problems of coastal meteorology (see section above), the recent report by the committee for a Study on Observational Systems (SOS), which was formed jointly by the AMS and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, is especially relevant. The SOS committee was organized to address the concern that development of instrumentation measurement techniques is outpacing the training and education of those who will use them. The committee concluded (SOS, 1991) that ''there is a widening gap between the sophistication and complexity of the state of the art in measurement technology and [the] abilities of universities to offer relevant and adequate curricula.'' Universities are finding it increasingly difficult to maintain even a basic instructional program in observational systems and attendant laboratory facilities. The following recommendations made by the SOS committee and adopted here are of particular relevance to coastal meteorology: Atmospheric science departments should provide more comprehensive curricula on observational systems and experimental methods and integrate these with curricula that focus on the theory of atmospheric and oceanic processes. Universities should acquire modern observational equipment to provide hands-on experience to students. The federal funding agencies should assist in the provision of these facilities. National centers and laboratories should devise programs that encourage scientists from universities and other agencies to participate in collaborative activities that broaden exposure to and share expertise in modern observational systems. Other panel recommendations for generating greater interest in advancing understanding and application of coastal meteorology are as follows: There should be further delineation of the field through such means as this report; AMS, American Geophysical Union, and Oceanographic Society committees; and relevant agencies, such as the National Science Foundation's Committee on the Coastal Ocean. Conferences and symposia should be organized on the subject of basic scientific issues in coastal meteorology and oceanography to encourage collaboration between meteorologists, oceanographers, and other specialists in such fields as atmospheric and marine chemistry and remote sensing. Short courses or workshops should be conducted on coastal meteorology, patterned after either the AMS short courses or the National Center for
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Coastal Meteorology: A Review of the State of the Science Atmospheric Research workshops. Such activities should result in publication of monographs, textbooks, or laboratory workbooks for wider classroom applications. Specific courses related to the meteorology of the coastal zone should be offered in college curricula.
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