Index

A

Ablation, 104

Abyssal storms

see Benthic storms

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), 11, 108, 111

Acidity

mineral dissolution factors, 38, 40-42

neutralization and mineral dissolution, 40-42

Acoustic reflectors, 111

Adirondack Mountains, 42

Africa

eolian dust transport and deposition, 117, 119

paleohydrological studies, 92-93

fluvial sediment discharge, 81

African lakes, 122

Air pollution

nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions, 42

Algeria, 81

Alkalinity, 40-42

Allochthonous deposition, 101

Alps, 7, 79

fluvial sediment discharge, 83

Aluminosilicates, 151

ocean sediment biogenic aggregation, 136

Aluminum

ocean sediment rain and burial, 128-130, 137-138

Amazon River

continental shelf exposure in ice age, 48-49

dissolved elements and sediment, 66-67

paleohydrological studies, 92

sediment discharge, 76, 79

Anatolian Mountains, 80

Andes, 122

carbon dioxide consumption, 54

sediment source, 76

rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-67

Antarctica

biogenic silica sediment preservation, 154

ice discharge to oceans, 70

ice sheet contribution to dissolved silica, 52

ice sheet temperature dynamics, 51-52

ice stream sediment transport, 104-105

Anthropogenic factors, 4, 11

effects on chemical weathering, 30

Arabian Desert, 117

Arctic

fluvial sediment discharge, 78

Arid regions

rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 71

Artifacts, 145

Asia

continental shelf exposure in ice age, 48-49

eolian dust transport and deposition, 118

loess deposition, 55-56

Atlantic Ocean

benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 149-150

eolian dust transport and deposition, 118-122

marine carbonate sediments burial efficiency, 152-153

ocean sediment rain and burial, 127-141

sediment mass and accumulation rates, 18-20

Atmosphere

carbon dioxide concentration, 38

rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 70-71

Atmospheric aerosols

stream water chemistry, 64

Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, 127



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Index A Ablation, 104 Abyssal storms see Benthic storms Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), 11, 108, 111 Acidity mineral dissolution factors, 38, 40-42 neutralization and mineral dissolution, 40-42 Acoustic reflectors, 111 Adirondack Mountains, 42 Africa eolian dust transport and deposition, 117, 119 paleohydrological studies, 92-93 fluvial sediment discharge, 81 African lakes, 122 Air pollution nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions, 42 Algeria, 81 Alkalinity, 40-42 Allochthonous deposition, 101 Alps, 7, 79 fluvial sediment discharge, 83 Aluminosilicates, 151 ocean sediment biogenic aggregation, 136 Aluminum ocean sediment rain and burial, 128-130, 137-138 Amazon River continental shelf exposure in ice age, 48-49 dissolved elements and sediment, 66-67 paleohydrological studies, 92 sediment discharge, 76, 79 Anatolian Mountains, 80 Andes, 122 carbon dioxide consumption, 54 sediment source, 76 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-67 Antarctica biogenic silica sediment preservation, 154 ice discharge to oceans, 70 ice sheet contribution to dissolved silica, 52 ice sheet temperature dynamics, 51-52 ice stream sediment transport, 104-105 Anthropogenic factors, 4, 11 effects on chemical weathering, 30 Arabian Desert, 117 Arctic fluvial sediment discharge, 78 Arid regions rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 71 Artifacts, 145 Asia continental shelf exposure in ice age, 48-49 eolian dust transport and deposition, 118 loess deposition, 55-56 Atlantic Ocean benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 149-150 eolian dust transport and deposition, 118-122 marine carbonate sediments burial efficiency, 152-153 ocean sediment rain and burial, 127-141 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 18-20 Atmosphere carbon dioxide concentration, 38 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 70-71 Atmospheric aerosols stream water chemistry, 64 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, 127

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Australia fluvial sediment discharge, 82 paleoflood records, 88 paleohydrological studies, 92-93 preserved paleochannels, 87 Australian Desert, 117 B Bacterial activity association with temperature and mineral dissolution, 39 Bactericides, 127 Baffin Island glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 106-111 Baltic Sea sediment accumulation rates, 20 Bathymetry, 103 Bengal Delta, 83 Benthic flux chambers, 144-147 Benthic sediment flux diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 143-160 ocean sediment rain and burial, 125-141 Benthic storms, 10, 139 Bering Sea sediment mass and accumulation rates, 21 Biogenic debris, 131, 139-140 Biogenic materials carbon removal from ocean, 139-140 ocean sediment biogenic aggregation, 136-139 silica flux, 101 Biostratigraphy, 108 Black Sea fluvial sediment discharge, 80 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 21 Black Waters, 63 Brahmaputra River sediment discharge, 76 Brahmaputra River, 83 British Columbia, 87 Burdekin River, 82 Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, 158 C Calcite, 135 Calcium weathering rate, 39-40 Calcium compensation depth, 57 California Current ocean sediment rain and burial, 127-141 Canadian Arctic glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 106-112 Canadian Rockies, 52 Canadian Shield erosion by Laurentide Ice Cap, 24 Cape Lookout Bight, 155 Carbon benthic diagenetic flux, 147-151 organic carbon as acidity source, 42 organic carbon ocean burial efficiency, 156-159 organic carbon ocean rain and burial, 129-141 removal of carbon from ocean, 139 Carbon dioxide atmosphere and water acidity, 38, 40-42 climate, weathering, and carbon dioxide, 54-55 glacial meltwater, 52 low atmospheric concentration and ocean carbon transfer, 132 Carbonate minerals benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 147-160 dissolution and weathering rates, 35-40 glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 110-111 ocean sediment rain and burial, 129-141 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-68 sea level rises and falls, effect on sedimentation, 22-23 sediment accumulation rates, 19 Caribbean benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 149 Catastrophic events, 7 cataclysmic floods, 88, 90-94 effect on chemical weathering, 30 Caucasus Mountains, 80 fluvial sediment discharge, 83 Chao Phya River, 82 Chemical reactions organic carbon degradation at seafloor, 145-160 Chemical weathering, 8 France, 63 glacial time scale, 46-58 Pleistocene-Holocene rates, 15-25 rates of dissolution and weathering, 30-43 China eolian dust transport and deposition, 117, 118 paleoflood records, 88 China Loess Plateau, 120 Chira River, 79 Clastic sediments, 23 Clasts, 53 Clathrates, 9 Clay, 129-130 glaciated coastlines, sediment sources, 108-111 Climatic changes carbon dioxide, weathering, and climate, 54-55 glacial sediment transport, 55-56 ice age and present, 47-48 tectonic activity and climate, 24-25 Cold regions rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 71 Colorado River, 76, 78 Columbia River, 87-88 sediment discharge from Mount St. Helens, 84 Commission on Global Continental Paleohydrology (GLOCOPH), 90 Continental glaciation, 4 chemical weathering, 46-58 effect on forests, 55 glacial cataclysmic floods, 89-94 glacial-interglacial alternations, effect on sedimentation, 24 ice sheet temperature dynamics and water production, 51-53 Neoglaciation and paraglaciation, sediment flux, 105 sediment transport and deposition, 24 Continental margins, 5 active/passive margins and sedimentation, 83-84 benthic diagenic flux and sedimentation, 148-150 high-latitude glaciated, sediment flux, 100-113 Continental rises sediment mass and accumulation rates, 18-19 Continental shelf, 6 sediment accumulation rates, 22 high-latitude glaciated margins, sediment flux, 100-113 ice age exposure, 48-49 Cooper River, 82 Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project (COHMAP) paleohydrological mapping, 93

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Cordilleran Ice Sheet glacial cataclysmic floods, 90 Core sectioning, 144 Cowlitz River, 84 D Dams, 83 Danube River, 80 Deep ocean moorings, 126 Deep sea fiord-to-deep sea sediment flux, 111-112 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 18-20 sediment off-loaded from continental shelves, 23 see also Ocean floor Deforestation, 76 Denitrification, 151 Deserts eolian dust sources, 117 Diagenesis, 10, 140 benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 143-160 Diamict, 102, 111 Diatoms, 122 Dissolved materials benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 143-160 dissolution and weathering, 33-43 organic carbon, 64 stream water chemistry, 62-63 Dredging, 76 Dropstones, 111 Drought, 9, 117 Drumlins, 89 Dust eolian transport and deposition in oceans, 116-122 E Earthquakes fluvial sediment discharge, 84 glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 104-105 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 92 Electrodes, 144 Eolian dust transport, 104 glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 106-111 glaciogenic silt, 55 particulate, 140 pelagic oceans deposition, 116-122 Equatorial region fluvial sediment discharge, 78 Erosion see Chemical weathering see Physical weathering Estuaries, 5 Euphotic zone, 131 Eurasia glacial cataclysmic floods, 89-90 Europe continental glaciation and chemical weathering, 48-58 paleohydrological studies, 91-92 Evaporation, 30, 69 Evaporites, 9, 70 relative dissolution rates, 37 Evapotranspiration, 63, 76 Feldspar, 110 F Fennoscandian Ice Sheet glacial cataclysmic floods, 90 temperature dynamics, 51-52 Fiords sediment transport and deposition, 100-113 Floods, 9 glacial cataclysmic floods, 89-94 paleoflood hydrology, 87-88 Fluvial paleohydrology river water and sediment fluxes, 86-94 Fluvial sediment transport, 4, 55 basin area and basin elevation, 74-84 benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 149 dissolved elements and sediment, 62-71 glacial cataclysmic floods, 90 glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 104-105 transport rates, 68-69 Flux rates, 18, 150-151 Foraminifera, 108, 111, 120 Forests and chemical weathering, 54-55 Fossil fuels nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions, 42 France stream water chemistry, 64 G Gamma Ray Attenuation Porosity Evaluation (GRAPE), 17 Ganges River, 83 Geothermal flux, 51 Glacial outwash plains eolian silt transport, 55 Glacial sediments sediment mass and accumulation rates, 23 sources and grain size, 118-111 Glaciers carbon dioxide and chemical weathering, 52 chemical weathering, 46-58 plucking, abrasion, and fluvial action, 52 shear stresses, 53 temperature dynamics and water production, 50-53 Glaciology fiord basins sediment transport mechanics, 104-105 Global Hydrological Model, 91 Gobi Desert, 117 Granite, 42 Grasslands, 55 Gravity flow deposition, 101 Great Lakes, 31 Great Salt Lake, 5 Greenland glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 106, 111-112 ice sheet temperature dynamics, 51-52 Groundwater, 30, 50 Gulf Coastal Plain preserved paleochannels, 87 Gulf of Mexico continental shelf exposure in ice age, 48-49 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 20-21 H Hatteras Abyssal Plain ocean sediment rain and burial, 127-141 Heterotrophic organisms, 127 High-resolution dating, 11 Himalayas, 7 fluvial sediment discharge, 81 Huang He, 64, 81, 82 paleoflood records, 88 Hydrographers Range, 75 Hydrothermal discharge, 65, 127 I Ice-rafted detritus, 101 Icebergs, 101, 102, 104 India paleoflood records, 88 paleohydrological studies, 93

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Indian Ocean benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 149-150 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 18-20 Indus River, 76 Instrumental neutron activation, 127 Interglacial periods, 4 eolian dust transport and deposition, 121 glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 105 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 20 sediment transport and deposition, 24 International Geological Correlation Programme, 91, 94 International Union of Quaternary Research (INQUA), 90 Intertropical Convergence Zone, 118 Intracratonic basins, 75 Ions, 40-41 Iron ocean sediment rain and burial, 128-130 Isopycnal surfaces, 146 Israel paleoflood records, 88 Isser River, 82 Itirbiling Fiord, 106-111 J Japan dams effect on fluvial sediment discharge, 81 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-67 Juan de Fuca Ridge ocean sediment rain and burial, 127-141 K Kangderlugssuag Fiord, 111 Karst, 50 L Labile elements, 129 Lake Baikal, 31 Lake Bonneville, 5 glacial cataclysmic flood, 89-90 Lake Constance, 80 Lake Lahontan, 5 Lake Missoula glacial cataclysmic flood, 89-90 Lakes, 5 African lakes drying and eolian dust, 122 glacial cataclysmic floods, 89-90 retention of minerals, 65 water residence time, 30-31 Lapland, 90 Laurentide Ice Sheet, 5, 109 depth of erosion, 53 glacial cataclysmic floods, 89-90 temperature dynamics, 51-52 Leaching, 37 Limestones exposure of rock types, 49-50 Limpopo River, 81 Lithology see Rock types Little Ice Age, 102 Loess, 64 deposition, 55-56 eolian deposition, 117 M Mackenzie River, 78 dissolved elements and sediment, 66-67 glaciation reorganization of basins, 24 Magdalena River, 78 Magnesium benthic diagenetic flux, 147 Maps, 11 Marginal seas sediment mass and accumulation rates, 20-21 Marine climates high mountain glaciers, weathering, 52 Marine snow, 126, 136 Mass accumulation rate (MAR) eolian dust deposition, 117 McBeth Fiord, 103, 107-111 Measurement methods and devices benthic diagenetic flux and sediment, 143-147 Mediterranean Sea, 79 fluvial sediment discharge, 83 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 21 Mid-Brunhes Climate Event, 121-122 Mineral dissolution rates, 37-39 Mississippi River, 76, 78 glacial cataclysmic floods, 89 glaciation reorganization of basins, 24 Models benthic diagenetic flux and sediment, 143-147 fiord glacier sedimentation, 102 global circulation models, 93 Global Hydrological Model, 91 hydraulic flow, 87 hydrological change, 93 opal dissolution, 135-136 organic carbon sediment burial efficiency, 156-159 sediment flux computer simulations, 112 Molecular diffusion benthic diagenetic flux and sediment, 143-147 Mongolia,118 Monsoon ice age climate, 47 Morocco, 81 Mount Pinatubo, 8 Mount St. Helens, 84 Mountains small mountainous rivers, sediment discharge, 74-84 Mudslides, 84 Murray River, 82 Nares Abyssal Plain ocean sediment rain and burial, 127-141 Narmada River paleoflood records, 88 N Neoglaciation, 105, 109 Nepal, 76 Niger River, 77, 81 Nile River, 76, 81, 91 Nival, 104 Nonglacial continental sediments sediment mass and accumulation rates, 23 North Africa eolian dust plume, 119 North America continental glaciation and chemical weathering, 48-58 fluvial sediment discharge, 78 paleohydrological studies, 91-92 Northwestern United States glacial cataclysmic floods, 90 O Ocean aerosols source of atmospheric elements, 64 Ocean floor, 4 diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 143-160 see also Deep sea

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Oceania continental shelf exposure in ice age, 48-49 fluvial sediment discharge, 81-82 mountainous river sediment discharge, 77 Oceans calcium compensation depth, 57 carbon dioxide concentration of surface water, 38 eolian dust transport and deposition, 116-122 mixing time and diagenetic cycles, 147 Oder River, 82 Opal ocean sediment accumulation, 154 ocean sediment rain and burial, 129, 135-136, 138 Orange River, 82 Ord River, 82 Orinoco River, 67, 78 paleohydrological studies, 92 Oxidants, 151 Ozone layer, 8 P Pacific Ocean benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 149-150 eolian dust transport and deposition, 118-122 marine carbonate sediments burial efficiency, 152-153 ocean sediment rain and burial, 127-141 sediment mass and accumulation rates, 18-20 Pacific Rim, 9 volcanic arcs, eolian ash deposition, 122 Paleochannels, 87 Paleoclimatology, 86 proxy indicators of eolian dust flux, 120-121 Paleomagnetic boxes, 108 Paleostage indicators hydraulic flow models, 87-88 Papua New Guinea, 75 Paraglaciation, 105 Parana River, 78 Particle size weathered rock and soil, 35-36 Particulate organic matter, 132 Persian Gulf sediment mass and accumulation rates, 20 Petroleum maturation, 84 pH acidity, alkalinity, and pH in natural waters, 40 relation to mineral dissolution rates, 38 Photic zone, 3 Photosynthesis, 147 Physical weathering, 7-8 France, 63 glacier erosion, 53-54 Piston cores, 106-112 Plankton, 147 Plant productivity association with temperature and mineral dissolution, 39 Poland paleohydrological studies, 91 preserved paleochannels, 87 Pore space, 32 Pore water sampling, 144-147 Porosity, 144 chemical weathering, 34 Potassium benthic diagenetic flux, 147 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-68 Precession cycle, 6 Precipitation, 30 glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 103-104 ice age and present, 47-48 mechanical erosion and sediment transport, 63 Pressure melting point, 104 Purari River, 82 Q Quartz, 110 dissolution rates, 38 dust from weathering, 117 R Rare earth elements, 122 Red Sea sediment mass and accumulation rates, 21 Refractory elements, 129 Regime theory, 87 Resuspension of sediment, 101, 127-128, 140 Rhine River, 80 Rifiji River, 81 River basin area fluvial sediment discharge, 75 River water chemistry, 62-63 Rivers, 7 diversions, 94 drainage toward continental interiors, 69 glaciation reorganization of basins, 24 sediment transport rates, 68-69 Rock types dissolved major elements, by stream lithology, 62-63 glacier coverage and climatic change, 49-50 Runoff, 30, 52 sediment discharge, 76-77 Russia, 80 S Sahara Desert, 117, 119 Sahel, 117 San Clemente Basin Sand glaciated coastlines, sediment sources, 108-111 Satellites, 3 Scandinavian Shield, 42 Sea ice, 104 Sea level changes glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 105 sedimentation effects of rises and falls, 22 Sea of Okhotsk sediment accumulation rates, 21 Seafloor see Ocean floor Sediment cores, 117-122 Sediment cycling, 23-24 Sediment deposition accumulation rates, 17-25 basin area and basin elevation, 74-84 delivery ratio, 68 glaciated high-latitude continental margins, 100-113 gravity flow deposition, 101 loess, 55-56 marine sediments burial efficiency, 152-156 ocean sediment, organic carbon, 134-135 ocean sediment rain and burial, 125-141 Quaternary total sediment mass and components, 17-25 river basin area and elevation, 74-84 transport mechanics, 87 Sediment traps, 106

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ocean sediment rain and burial, 126-129 Sediment-water interface, 143-144 Sedimentology of Arctic Fjords Experiment (SAFE), 106 Seismic stratigraphy, 106, 111, 112 Semani River, 79 Senegal River, 81 Severn River, 94 Siberia, 94 Silicate minerals benthic diagenetic flux and sedimentation, 147-160 carbon dioxide consumption during weathering, 58 dissolution and weathering rates, 35-40 exposure of rock types, 49-50 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-68 weathering, carbon dioxide, and climate, 54-55 Silt glaciated coastlines, sediment sources, 108-111 Slackwater deposits hydraulic flow models, 87-88 Sodium benthic diagenetic flux, 147 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-68 Sodium azide, 127 Soil weathering and dissolution, 33 Soil moisture, 54, 56 ice age and present, 47-48 Solid phase elemental ratios, 146 Solo River, 82 Solubility, 37 Sous River, 82 South America continental shelf exposure in ice age, 48-49 fluvial sediment discharge, 78-79 paleohydrological studies, 92 South Asia mountainous river sediment discharge, 77 Southeast Asia carbon dioxide consumption, 54 rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 71 Southeastern United States carbon dioxide consumption, 54 Southern Asia fluvial sediment discharge, 81, 82 paleohydrological studies, 92-93 Southwestern United States ice age climate, 47 paleofloods, 91 Spain paleoflood records, 88 SPECMAP, 120 St. Lawrence River glacial cataclysmic floods, 89 glaciation reorganization of basins, 24 Stoichiometry, 146-147 Storms, 117 Stream power, 90 Subduction, 84 Sulfuric acid, 38 Surface area reactive areas of minerals, 34-35 Sweden, 17 T Taurus Mountains, 80 Tectonic activity continental ice cap formation, 24-25 sediment transport role, 65 Temperate regions rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 71 Temperature glaciated coastlines, sediment flux, 103-104 glacier formation, 51 glaciers, temperature dynamics, 50-52 ice age and present, 47-48 mechanical erosion and sediment transport, 63 mineral dissolution factors, 37 Terrestrial plant wax alkanes, 132 Thailand rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 66-67 Tills, 53 Titanium ocean sediment rain and burial, 128-130 Total suspended sediment rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 62-71 Tropical regions rivers, dissolved elements and sediment, 71 Tsunamis, 9 Tunisia, 81 Turkey, 80 U Ukraine, 80 Uplift rates sediment transport role, 65 V Variability importance in river fluxes, 93-94 Vegetation mechanical erosion and sediment transport,64 Volcanic activity, 8 ash, eolian deposition, 117, 122 fluvial sediment discharge, 84 sediment transport role, 65 W Waiapu River, 77 Water fresh water acidity, alkalinity, and mineral weathering, 40-42 ice sheet temperature dynamics and water production, 51-53 residence times on land, 31-33 Water quality stream waters, dissolved elements and sediment, 65-68 Weathering rates glacial time scale, 46-58 glaciers frozen in a rigid bed, 50-51 Pleistocene-Holocene rates, 15-25 rates of dissolution and weathering, 33-43 Wetlands, 10 Whole-core squeezers, 144 Wisconsin, 42 Y Yangtze River, 83 Yellow River see Huang He Younger Dryas cooling, 17, 88-89 Z Zambesi River, 76, 81 Zooplankton fecal pellets, 126, 136