NATURAL DISASTER STUDIES

Volume Six

HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA

SEPTEMBER 17-22, 1989

Prepared by:

Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands:

Joseph H. Golden (Team Leader), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Spring, Maryland

Benigno E. Aguirre, Texas A&M University, College Station

David M. Bush, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

Richard D. Marshall, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland

John L. Vogel, National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland

South Carolina:

Earl J. Baker (Team Leader), Florida State University, Tallahassee

Norbert S. Baer, New York University, New York

Ronald A. Cook, University of Florida, Gainesville

Stephen P. Leatherman, University of Maryland, College Park

Billy R. Manning, Southern Building Code Congress, Birmingham, Alabama

Crane Miller, Attorney, Washington, D.C.

Mark D. Powell, Environmental Research Laboratories/Hurricane Research Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, Florida

Jane Slate Siena, The Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, California

Hsiang Wang, University of Florida, Gainesville

For:

Committee on Natural Disasters

Board on Natural Disasters

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Washington, D.C. 1994



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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA NATURAL DISASTER STUDIES Volume Six HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA SEPTEMBER 17-22, 1989 Prepared by: Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Joseph H. Golden (Team Leader), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Spring, Maryland Benigno E. Aguirre, Texas A&M University, College Station David M. Bush, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Richard D. Marshall, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland John L. Vogel, National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland South Carolina: Earl J. Baker (Team Leader), Florida State University, Tallahassee Norbert S. Baer, New York University, New York Ronald A. Cook, University of Florida, Gainesville Stephen P. Leatherman, University of Maryland, College Park Billy R. Manning, Southern Building Code Congress, Birmingham, Alabama Crane Miller, Attorney, Washington, D.C. Mark D. Powell, Environmental Research Laboratories/Hurricane Research Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, Florida Jane Slate Siena, The Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, California Hsiang Wang, University of Florida, Gainesville For: Committee on Natural Disasters Board on Natural Disasters Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1994

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is acting president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog No. 93-87044 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04475-8 A limited number of copies of this monograph are available from: Board on Natural Disasters National Research Council, HA 468 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 202/334-1964 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 202/334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) 1-800-624-6242 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America B-266

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA NATURAL DISASTER STUDIES An Investigative Series of the Committee on Natural Disasters The Committee on Natural Disasters and its predecessors, dating back to the committee that studied the 1964 Alaska Earthquake, have conducted on-site studies and prepared reports reflecting their findings and recommendations on the mitigation of natural disaster effects. Objectives of the committee are to: record time-sensitive information immediately following disasters; provide guidance on how engineering and the social sciences can best be applied to the improvement of public safety; recommend research needed to advance the state of the art in the area of natural disaster reduction; and conduct special studies to address long-term issues in natural disasters, particularly issues of a multiple-hazard nature. EDITOR Riley M. Chung (1991) National Research Council EDITORIAL BOARD Dennis S. Mileti, Chair Colorado State University Fort Collins Norbert S. Baer New York University New York Earl J. Baker Florida State University Tallahassee Arthur N.L. Chiu University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu Hanna J. Cortner University of Arizona Tucson Peter Gergely Cornell University Ithaca, New York Joseph H. Golden National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Silver Spring, Maryland Wilfred D. Iwan California Institute of Technology Pasadena Ahsan Kareem University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana Dale C. Perry Texas A&M University College Station William J. Petak University of Southern California Los Angeles Robert L. Schuster U.S. Geological Survey Denver, Colorado SPONSORING AGENCIES Federal Emergency Management Agency National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Science Foundation

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA INVITATION FOR DISCUSSION Materials presented in Natural Disaster Studies often include observations and statements that inspire debate. Readers interested in contributing to the discussion surrounding any topic contained in the journal may do so in the form of letters to the editor.

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA COMMITTEE ON NATURAL DISASTERS (1989-1991) NORBERT S. BAER, New York University, New York EARL J. BAKER, Florida State University, Tallahassee ARTHUR N. L. CHIU, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu HANNA J. CORTNER, University of Arizona, Tucson DANNY L. FREAD, National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland PETER GERGELY, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JOSEPH H. GOLDEN, Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland WILFRED D. IWAN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena AHSAN KAREEM, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana DENNIS S. MILETI, Colorado State University, Fort Collins DALE C. PERRY, Texas A&M University, College Station WILLIAM J. PETAK, University of Southern California, Los Angeles ROBERT L. SCHUSTER, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado Staff RILEY M. CHUNG, Committee Director, 1985-1991 GLENN P. HECTON, Technical Writer EDWARD LIPP, Editor KAREN M. MANSKI, Research Aide SUSAN R. McCUTCHEN, Administrative Assistant GREGORY A. MOCK, Editor SHIRLEY J. WHITLEY, Project Assistant Liaison Representatives WILLIAM A. ANDERSON, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. FRED COLE, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. TERRY FELDMAN, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. ROBERT D. GALE, U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service, Washington, D.C. EDWARD M. GROSS, National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland PAUL KRUMPE, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. ELEONORA SABADELL, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. RANDALL G. UPDIKE, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia ARTHUR J. ZEIZEL, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA THE BOARD ON NATURAL DISASTERS* WALTER R. LYNN (Chair), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MARY B. ANDERSON, President, Collaborative for Development Action, Cambridge, Massachusetts ALAN G. DAVENPORT, Director, Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada RICHARD FISKE, Department of Volcanology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. ROBERT D. HANSON, Chairman, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor WILFRED D. IWAN, Department of Earthquake Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena LUCILE M. JONES, U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, California LESTER B. LAVE, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SHIRLEY MATTINGLY, Director of Emergency Management, City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California ROBERT M. MARSHALL, Vice President, Distribution, Florida Power & Light Company, Miami, Florida E.L. QUARANTELLI, Research Professor, Disaster Research Center, Newark, Delaware LACY E. SUITER, State Director, Tennessee Emergency Management Association, Nashville, Tennessee Staff: CAROLINE CLARKE GUARNIZO, Director ROBIN L. ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant * As of May 1992, the National Research Council created the Board on Natural Disasters to provide a focal point for planning, coordination, and representation of the NRC's disaster reduction efforts, and in so doing, enhance its abilities to serve and advice the federal government and others in this critical area. The BOND encompasses and replaces the activities that were formerly those of the Committee on Natural Disasters and the Committee on Earthquake Engineering.

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA Acknowledgements The team members would like to extend their special thanks to the following individuals for their contributions to this report. PUERTO RICO AND THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS Peter Black, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Bob Case, National Hurricane Center/National Weather Service/NOAA Dane Clark, NESDIS/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Lisbeth Crespo, Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources Dana C. Fagan, University of the Virgin Islands, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas John Fought, GE Government Services, Frederiksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Miles Lawrence, National Hurricane Center/National Weather Service/NOAA Israel Matos, National Weather Service Forecast Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico Frank Marks, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Scott Ordich, FLECOMPRON Eight, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico Jack Parrish, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Mark Powell, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Donna Robertson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Rafael Rodríquez, U.S. Geological Survey, Marine Geology Project Office, San Juan Frank Sola, General Offshore Corporation, Frederiksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Amber Taylor, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Juan Trias, U.S. Geological Survey, Marine Geology Project Office, San Juan Aileen Velasco, Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources Richard Webb, U.S. Geological Survey, Marine Geology Project Office, San Juan Hugh Willoughby, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration SOUTH CAROLINA Sim Aberson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Edward Badolato, The Strom Thurmond Institute, Clemson, South Carolina Stephen Baig, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Bill Barry, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Wallace Benson, City Councilman, Follys Beach, South Carolina

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA Mike Black, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Peter Black, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Kathy J. Caldwell, Jones, Edmunds and Associates, Inc., Gainesville, Florida Joe Cunningham, Electric Cooperatives of Columbia, South Carolina Robert Dean, University of Florida Mark DeMaria, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Peter Dodge, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Mill Dowd, University of Florida Brian Duncan, South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, Charleston Carlos R. Fredes, Horry County, South Carolina Ted Fujita, University of Chicago Patzy Gatch, Charleston County, South Carolina Grant Goodge, NESDIS/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climate Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina Ken Hancuff, Isle of Palms, South Carolina Commissioner Kin Hill, Public Works, Charleston Sam Hoerter, Charleston County Aviation Authority Sam Houston, University of Florida Brian Jarvinen, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Bill Johnson, Southern Bell Telephone Company, Charleston Algis N. Kalvaitis, Oceanic and Atmospheric Research/NOAA Miles Lawrence, National Hurricane Center Joe Maher, Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina Frank Marks, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Israel Matos, National Weather Service Forecast Office, San Juan, Puerto Rico David McNeil, Carolina Power and Light, Raleigh, North Carolina Commissioner Graham Rich, Public Works, Charleston Jill Robbins, South Carolina Public Service Authority (Santee Cooper), Myrtle Beach Richard Shenot, National Weather Service, Charleston, South Carolina Karl Simmons, Charleston County, South Carolina John Townsend and staff, National Weather Service, Charleston, South Carolina Bob Wright, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA HURRICANE HUGO METEOROLOGY CHRONOLOGY September 9-22, 1991 DATE STORM STATUS 09 Strong tropical disturbance off the African coast; intense thunderstorms visible on satellite imagery. 10 Tropical depression forms southeast of Cape Verde Islands; National Hurricane Center begins track of Hugo. 10 Hugo begins westward movement across the eastern Atlantic. 11 Hugo intensifies to tropical storm stage (category 2). 12 Continues westward movement and intensification. 13 Hugo upgraded to full hurricane status (category 3). Located 1,100 nautical miles east of the Leeward Islands. 14 Hugo slows its forward speed, turns west-northwest, and intensifies. 15 NHC upgrades Hugo to category 5 status around midday. 16-19 Hugo passes through the Lesser Antilles and Virgin Islands; eye diameter fluctuates from 30 to 70 km. 16 Hugo approaches the Lesser Antilles; eye well developed. Late evening, Hugo passes over Guadeloupe. 17 Hugo passes over Montserrat and heads west-northwest into the Caribbean Sea as a category 4 hurricane. Forward movement slows and takes a more northwesterly track. 17-18 Hugo batters St. Croix.

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA 18 Hugo slows and makes a trochoidal loop near Frederiksted, St. Croix. Hugo enters Vieques Sound between the islands of Culebra and Vieques in the early morning. Hugo's eye moves over northeastern Puerto Rico between 0800 and 0900 AST. By 1200, Hugo's eye is north of San Juan, over open water. 19 Hugo weakens to category 2 status. 20 Hugo gradually gains strength. 21 At 1200, Hugo is upgraded to a category 3 hurricane. Hugo accelerates and intensifies. Upgraded to category 4 at 1800. Just before midnight, Hugo makes landfall in the Bulls Bay, South Carolina, area as a category 4 hurricane. 22 Hugo crosses South Carolina, following a northwestward track; it passes Columbia, South Carolina, around 0300 EDT. Around sunrise, after passing west of Charlotte, North Carolina, Hugo is downgraded to a tropical storm.

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA HURRICANE HUGO WEATHER ANNOUNCEMENT TIMELINE September 15-21, 1991 Atlantic Standard Time (AST): U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Eastern Daylight Time (EDT): Florida, North Carolina, and South Carolina DATE TIME DESCRIPTION 15 1800 Hurricane Watch: Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico 16 1500 Hurricane Warning: Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico 17 0600 Hurricane Warning, Coastal Flood Watch, Flash Flood Watch: Puerto Rico   1500 Hurricane Warning, Coastal Flood Watch, Heavy Surf Advisory, Flash Flood Watch: Puerto Rico   1800 Hurricane Warning, Coastal Flood Warning, Heavy Surf Advisory, Flash Flood Watch: Puerto Rico 18 0130 Hurricane Warning, Coastal Flood Warning, Flash Flood Watch: Puerto Rico   0300 Hurricane Warning, Coastal Flood Warning, Flash Flood Warning: Puerto Rico 19   Hugo leaves Puerto Rico and stalls over the Atlantic 20 1800 Hurricane Watch: St. Augustine, Florida to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina 21 0600 Hurricane Warning: Fernandina Beach, Florida to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, Hurricane Watch: south to St. Augustine, Florida and north to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina   1500 Hurricane Warning: extended to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina Hurricane Watch: extended to Cape Henlopen, Delaware Special advisory reports Hugo's winds and forward motion have unexpectedly increased

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1      Introduction,   1      The U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico: September 17-18, 1989,   2      South Carolina: September 19-22, 1989,   7     PUERTO RICO AND THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS: September 17–18, 1989       1  METEOROLOGY (Joseph H. Golden)   16      Introduction,   16      Aircraft Reconnaissance,   18      Mesoscale Variations in Storm and Structure,   22      Impacts on the Islands,   25      Unique Data,   36      Surface-Wind-Speed Observations,   36      Forecast Performance,   38      References,   45     2  HYDROLOGY (John L. Vogel)   48      Introduction,   48      Precipitation,   49      Flooding,   57      Landslides,   59      Summary and Recommendations,   60      References,   62     3  EMERGENCY PLANNING AND RESPONSE IN PUERTO RICO (Benigno E. Aguirre)   63      Introduction,   63      Operations of the Weather Service Forecast Office in San Juan,   63      U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Decision-Arc Methodology,   69      Evacuations,   70      Fatalities and Homelessness,   71      Damage and Economic Effects,   72      Comparison of WSFO and SLOSH Methodologies,   72      Disaster-Related Programs,   74      Water and Power Supplies After Hugo Landfall,   78      Recommendations,   79      References,   81

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA     4  SURFACE WIND SPEEDS AND PROPERTY DAMAGE (Richard D. Marshall)   82      Introduction,   82      Sources of Data,   83      Assessment of Surface Wind Speeds,   83      Design Wind Speeds,   87      Summary of Maximum Wind Speeds,   90      Property Damage,   92      Summary,   111      References,   113     5  LIFELINES (David M. Bush and Richard D. Marshall)   115      Introduction,   115      Electrical Distribution Systems,   115      Communications,   117      Water Supplies,   118      Airports,   122      Other Transportation Systems,   125      Other Lifeline Systems,   126      Summary,   128      References,   129     6  COASTAL PROCESSES (David M. Bush)   130      Introduction,   130      Storm Surge and Shore Processes,   130      Shoreline Descriptions,   131      Comparison with the South Carolina Shoreline,   132      General Overview of Hugo's Impact,   132      Storm Surge, Predicted and Observed,   134      Sand Overwash,   138      Coastal Flooding,   140      Wave Attack,   140      Degradation of Recreational Beach Resources,   144      “Setting Up” the Shoreline for Winter Storm Damage,   146      Some Unique Undersea Water Data Near St. Croix,   147      Summary,   148      Recommendations,   152      References,   154     7  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   155      Aerial Reconnaissance,   155      Prediction Models,   156      Surface-Wind-Speed Database,   156      Communication with the News Media,   157

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA      Wind Models Relating Aircraft-Measured Winds to Surface Winds,   158      ALERT Automatic Raingauge Network and Backup Power Supply for Water Regulatory Structures,   159      EBS Network, Shelter Readiness, and Intergovernmental Response,   160      Technology Transfer to Improve Building Codes and Construction Practices,   162      Coastal Zone Management Plan,   162     SOUTH CAROLINA: September 21-22, 1989       8  INTRODUCTION (Earl J. Baker)   166      Immediate Post-storm Environment,   166      Insurance Claims,   167      Federal Assistance for Individuals, Families, and Businesses,   167      Volunteer Organizations,   169      Federal Assistance to State and Local Government,   170      References,   171     9  METEOROLOGY (Mark D. Powell)   172      Overview,   172      Storm Track,   173      Motion and Track Forecast Performance,   175      Intensity Prediction,   177      Wind Measurements by Reconnaissance Aircraft,   179      Estimation of Surface Winds Used in Prelandfall Advisories,   181      Landfall of Hurricane Hugo,   182      Surface Windfield at Landfall,   184      Postlandfall Windfields,   191      Gust Envelope and Fujita's Damage-Direction Analysis,   195      Findings and Recommendations,   196      References,   199     10  WARNING AND RESPONSE (Earl J. Baker)   202      Introduction,   202      Forecasts,   202      Public Response,   204      Use and Evaluation of Evacuation,   205      Decision Making,   207      References,   210     11  COASTAL PROCESSES (Stephen P. Leatherman)   211      Introduction,   211      Storm Surge,   212

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA      Coastal Erosion,   215      Discussion,   219      Conclusions,   220      References,   222     12  WATER EROSION AND DAMAGE TO COASTAL STRUCTURES (Hsiang Wang)   223      Introduction,   223      Damage Descriptions,   223      Performance Assessment,   232      Conclusions,   243      Recommendations,   245      References,   246     13  WIND DAMAGE TO BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES (Billy R. Manning)   247      Introduction,   247      Nonengineered Buildings and Structures,   248      Marginally Engineered Buildings and Structures,   250      Fully Engineered Structures,   250      Codes,   253      Conclusions,   255      Recommendations,   256     14  LIFELINES (Ronald A. Cook)   258      Introduction,   258      Power Supply Systems,   259      Transportation Systems,   263      Communications Systems,   265      Water and Wastewater Systems,   266      Conclusions,   268      Recommendations,   268     15  DAMAGE TO CULTURAL PROPERTY (Norbert S. Baer and Jane S. Siena)   270      Introduction,   270      Charleston, South Carolina,   270      Recommendations,   274      Epilogue,   274      References,   276

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AAA Autoridad de Acueducto y Alcantarillado (Water/Sewer) AC Autoridad de Comunicaciones AEE Autoridad de Energia Electrica AFB Air Force Base ALERT automated local evaluation in real time AMA Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses ASOS Automatic Surface Observing System ASDL aircraft-satellite data link AST Atlantic Standard Time CMAN Coastal Marine Automatic Network CND Committee on Natural Disasters CUBC Caribbean Uniform Building Code DAC Disaster Assistance Center DACO Puerto Rican Consumer Protection Agency DOD Department of Defense EBS Emergency Broadcast System EDT Eastern Daylight Time FAA Federal Aviation Administration FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FIRM flood-insurance rate map FSMR fast-scanning microwave radiometer GMT Greenwich Mean Time GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite HRD Hurricane Research Division IFG Individual and Family Grant INS inertial navigation system IWRS Improved Weather-Reconnaissance System LLWAS Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System MAR modernization and associated restructuring MEOW maximum envelope of high water MIC meteorologist in charge MRI mean recurrence interval MSL mean sea level MSLP minimum sea-level central pressure NDBO National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Data-Buoy Office NEXRAD Next-Generation Weather Radar NFIP National Flood-Insurance Program NHC National Hurricane Center NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NSSL National Severe Storms Laboratory

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA NWS National Weather Service PPI plan position indicator PRDNR Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources SBA Small Business Administration SFMR stepped-frequency microwave radiometer SHPO state historic preservation officer SLOSH Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes SST sea-surface temperature USAF U.S. Air Force USGS United States Geological Survey UTC coordinated universal time WAPA Water and Power Authority (Virgin Islands) WMO World Meteorological Organization WSFO Weather Service Forecast Office

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HURRICANE HUGO: PUERTO RICO, THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND SOUTH CAROLINA Hurricane Hugo: Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and South Carolina September 17-22, 1989

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