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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of mu ~~;~olar~ `;ngageu In sclenunc and eng~neenug research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. 1 ~+ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1~ ~ e e ~ eye 1 - The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the Drillcina1 federating ~ ~ ~ _ ~~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ e , _~ ~ agency Ol coin me Nanona~ Acacemy ot Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering In provi~ng services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chawman. respectively, of the National Research Council. ~ ~ ~ - t t - __' Any opinions, Endings, and conclusions or recommendations egresses in this report are those of the committee and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies. International Standard Book Number 0-309-04449-9 A limited number of copies are available without charge from: Board on Natural Disasters 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202~33~3313 1-800-62~6242 S-319 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Pane' on the Assessment of Wind Engineering Issues in the United States LESLIE E. ROBERTSON, Chairman, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York ARTHUR N. L`. CHIU, Vice-Chairman, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu EARL I. BAKER, Florida State University, Tallahassee ALAN G. DAVENPORT, University of Western Ontario, Canada JOSEPH H. GOLDEN, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration' Silver Spring, Maryland AHSAN KAREEM, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana EUGENE L. LECOMTE, National Committee on Property Insurance, Boston, Massachusetts KISHOR C. MEHTA, Wind Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock CHARLES R. O'MElL`TA The Village of North Palm Beach, Florida DALE C. PERRY, Texas A&M University, College Station JON PETERKA, Colorado State University, Fort Collins JOHN T. SNOW, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana DENNIS WENGER, Texas A&M University, College Station Liaison Reoresentatives WILLIAM A. ANDERSON, Division of Biological and Critical Systems, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. FRED COLE, Agency for International Development, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington, D.C. HYDER JINNAH, Manufacturing Housing Compliance Branch, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C. PAUL KRUMPE, Agency for International Development, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington, D.C. RICK MENDLEN, Office of Manufactured Housing and Construction Standards, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C. J. E. SABADELL, Division of Biological and Critical Systems, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. EUGENE ZEIZEL, Office of Natural and Technological Hazards Programs, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. Participants HUGH D. ANGLETON, National Association of Home Builders, Upper Marlboro, Maryland . . . 111

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CHRIS BARRY, Architectural Technical Services, Libby-Owens, Ford Co., Toledo, Ohio R. MICHAEL CALDWELL, National Forest Products Association, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL P. GAUS, State University of New York, Buffalo STEPHEN W. JONES, American Building Co., Atlantic, Iowa RICHARD D. MARSHALL, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland JOSEPH J. MESSERSMITH, Portland Cement Association, Rockville, Virginia JACK ROEHM, National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers, Virginia Beach, Virginia Staff RILEY M. CHUNG, Panel Director SUSAN R. MCCUTCHEN, Administrative Assistant GREGORY A. MOCK, Editor SHIRLEY J. WHITLEY, Project Assistant 1V

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Committee on Natural Disasters * DENNIS S. MILETI, Chairman', Colorado State University, Fort Collins NORBERT S. BAER, Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, New York EARL J. BAKER, Florida State University, Tallahassee ARTHUR N. L. CHIU, University of Hawaii at Manna, Honolulu MANNA J. CORTNER, University of Arizona, Tucson PETER GERGELY, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JOSEPH H. GOLDEN, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland WILFRED D. TWAN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena AHSAN KAREEM, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana DALE C. PERRY, Texas A&M University, College Station WILLIAM J. PETAK, University of Southern California, Los Angeles ROBERT L. SCHUSTER, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado Liaison Representatives WILLIAM A. ANDERSON, Division of Biological and Critical Systems, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. BRUCE A. BAUGHMAN, Public Assistance Division, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. FRED COLE, Agency for International Development, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington, D.C. EDWARD M. GROSS, Constituent Affairs and Inclustria] Meteorology Staff, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Maryland PAUL KRUMPE, Agency for International Development, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington, D.C. J. E. SABADELL, Division of Biological and Critical Systems, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. ~ As of May I, 1992, the National Research Council created the Board on Natural Disasters to provide a focal point for planning, coordination, and representation of the NRC's disaster reduction efforts, and in so doing, enhance its abilities to serge and advise the federal government and others in this critical area. The BOND encompasses and replaces the activities that were formerly those of the Committee on Natural Disasters, the Committee on Earthquake Engineering, and the U.S. National Committee for the Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. A roster for the BOND follows the committee's staff listing. v

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GERALD F. WlECZOREK, Office of Earthquakes, Engineenng, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia ARTHUR J. ZEIZEL, Office of Natural and Technological Hazards Programs, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. Staff RILEY M. CHUNG, Committee Director SUSAN R. MCCUTCHEN, Administrative Assistant SHIRLEY J. WHITLEY, Project Assistant Board on Natural Disasters (BOND) Volcanoes, and WALTER LYNN, Chairman, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MARY B. ANDERSON, Collaborative for Develoument Action. Cambridge Massachussetts , - c,, ALAN G. DAVENPORT, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada RICHARD FISKE, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560 ROBERT D. HANSON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor WILFRED D. IWAN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena LUCILE M. JONES, U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, California LESTER B. LAVE, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SHIRLEY MA'! IINGLY, City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California ROBERT IS. ODMAN, State Farm Fire and Casualty Company, L. Bloomington, Illinois E.L. QUARANTELLI, University of Delaware, Newark LACY E. SU1TER, Tennessee Emergency Management Nashville vat Association,

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Acknowledgments The Panel on the Assessment of Wind Engineering Issues in the United States wishes to acknowledge the valuable support of the active participants who provided input during the preparation and revision of this report: Hugh Angleton of the National Association of Home Builders; Chris Barry of Libby-Owens-Ford Co.; R. Michael Caldwell of the National Forest Products Association; Michael Gaus of the Department of Civil Engineering at SUNY, Buffalo; Stephen Jones of the American Building Co.; Richard Marshall of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; Joseph Messersmith of the Portland Cement Association; and Jack Roehm of the National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers Association. In particular, the pane! wishes to thank J. Eleonora Sabadell, Program Director of the Natural and Man-Made Hazards Program in the National Science Foundation, which sponsored this report, for her continued interest and encouragement. The panel extends special commendation to Gregory Mock, editor of the report, and to the National Research Cour~ciT staff members who were instrumental in completing this study: Riley Chung, Director of the Division of Natural Hazard Mitigation and its Committee on Natural Disasters, under whose auspices the panel was formed, and Susan McCutchen and Shirley Whitley, the division's administrative assistant and project assistant, respectively. . . V11

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POEM DISPLAYED FOR KINDERGARTNERS AT BELLS MILL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, POTOMAC, MARYLAND* Wind is air that is moving fast Wind may be helpful. It can turn windmills. It can dry clothes on a line. It can push a sailboat. l:t can fly kites and balloons. It can help seeds grow. It can help frisbees fly. Wind may be harmful. It can blow off your hat. It can blow your hair. It can blow a house or car. It can also blow trees. Words and ideas for this class "experience story" were contributed by the kindergartners. Recorded by Mrs. S. Reiss, kindergarten teacher. .. vail

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Preface Winds swirl about our planet driven primarily by solar radiation and the rotational effects of the earth. Perhaps more than any other aspect of nature, wind is both friend and foe. It grants us quiet joys as well as many practical benefitsfrom crop pollination to energy production. Yet these life-giv~ng aspects are counterbalanced by fierce assaults on our lives and property in the form of extreme wind events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, and downsiope winds. Wind-caused disasters affect every sector of society and every inhabited region of the earth. This report examines the need for fundamental research in wind engineering, meteorologic, emergency planning, and disaster response in light of these catastrophic wind events. It treats also the need for better education and training in winch engineering and related disciplines, and considers the opportunities that exist for cooperative research with other nations facing similar wind threats. Responding to a request by the National Science Foundation for direction in addressing the nation's vulnerability to windstorms, the National Research Council's Committee on Natural Disasters assembled a pane] consisting of some of the foremost experts associated with wind engineering in both industry and academia-a group drawn from a wide geographic base and possessing broad experience. Their task was to provide a framework of background information, analysis, and recommendations so that the many hard decisions now facing policy makers regarding the wind hazard can be made with confidence and understanding. The panel set out to make this a readable document, accessible to readers from a wide variety of backgrounds. While the report will likely find its way most frequently onto the desks of administrators of disaster relief and mitigation programs and into the libraries of researchers in the field, it will be useful also to those in the media and to practicing engineers, meteorologists, and scientists from related fields. Political decision makers, too, will find a wealth of knowledge here as well as solid recommendations of importance to their constituencies. Certainly, the most critical and far-reaching of the recommendations contained in this report is that Congress should act quickly to establish a National Wind Science and Engineering Program, backed by a sustained budgetary commitment, to coordinate and revitalize wind-hazard research. Chapter ~ sets forth the rationale and general outlines of this proposed program. Here the pane! details the magnitude of potential wind-related losses, outlines the inadequacies of the current national response to this substantial risk, and proposes a measured program of mitigation research and local outreach. This program should allow advances in wind science and engineering to translate quickly into improved designs for wind-resistant structures and should encourage better disaster planning and response to the wind hazard. In subsequent chapters, the panel has evaluated the various facets of the wind hazard, from the difficulties of measuring and predicting extreme winds 1X

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x Fund a,zd the Built Enviro'~?'e~:t to the challenge of updating local building codes and standards. These focused discussions are meant to provide the grist from which a National Wind Science and Engineering Program can be refined. Each of these chapters concludes with a discussion of specific research needs and recommendations aimed at meeting these needs. In Chapter 7, the pane! recapitulates for easy reference the most critical of these conclusions and recommendations. Year by year, the nation's wind vulnerability rises as the built environment expands. Yet, as this report demonstrates, wind research in the United States has dwindled over time to a level wholly inadequate to meet this challenge. A direct consequence of this neglect is an increased risk to personal safety as well as to the inventory of structures that provide us with both shelter and livelihood. To reduce this risk, we must breathe new life into the nation's wind research program. This can only be done by constructing a coherent plan that enlists both industry and academia in an interdisciplinary effort to understand and mitigate the ill effects of the wind. This report outlines the essential first steps in formulating that plan. . Leslie E. Robertson, Chairman Arthur N. L. Chin, Vice Chairman Pane] on the Assessment of Wind Engineering Issues in the United States

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Contents ACRONYM LIST EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. WIND HAZARDS AND RELATED ISSUES The Power of Wind, 6 Wind Engineering, 7 The Critical Role of Structures, ~ Wind-Induced Losses: Victims and Costs, 9 What Does the Future Hold?, 12 The Critical Role of Design Standards, Codes, Code Enforcement, and Planning Regulations, 14 Strategies and Incentives, 16 2. THE NATURE OF WIND A Wind Primer, 19 Improving the Wind Climatology of the United States, 48 Expanding the Wind-Engineering Data Base, 49 Recommendations, 51 3. WIND-ENGINEERING RESEARCH NEEDS Introduction, 55 Research Methodology, 56 Severe Wind Forces, 64 Codes and Standards, 71 Retrofit Reroofing, 72 Additional Research Topics, 73 Recommendations, 76 ~ x~ 1 6 19 55 4. MITIGATION, PREPAREDNESS, RESPONSE, AND RECOVERY 79 Mitigation Measures, 79 Emergency Planning and Response for Disasters, 83 Planning for Recovery and Future Mitigation, 89 Recommendations, 90 5. EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Education and Training, 95 Technology Transfer, 96 Potential Impacts of Computers, 98 Recommendations, 101 6. COOPERATIVE EFFORTS Introduction, 102 Industry-Academia Cooperation, 102 Dissemination of Research Findings, 103 X1 95 102

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Hi Band a,zd He Buill Environment International Cooperative Efforts, 104 Recommendations, 106 7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Wind Hazards and Related Issues, 108 Nature of Wind, 109 Wind Engineering, Il0 Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and RecoveIy, 111 Education and Technology Transfer, Il2 Cooperative Efforts, 113 REFERENCES APPENDIX U.S. Conferences/Symposia/Workshops, 129 Joint Seminars/Symposia/Workshops, 129 International Conferences on Wind Engineering, 130 105 ~4 129

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Acronym List ABL atmospheric boundary layer ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASOS Automated Surface Observing System CLASS Cross-Chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System EMS Emergency Medical Services FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency ICS Incident Command System IDNDR International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction KBES knowledge-based expert system NAWSEP National Wind Science and Engineering Program NEXRAD Next-Generation Radar NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration SLOSH Sea, Lake and Overland Surge Heights WERD Wind Engineenng Research Digest . . . X111

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