12.  

The Homestead Act of 1862 granted 160 acres of soil to persons settling on and cultivating land for five years. The Morrill Land-Grant Act of the same year gave every state and territory 30,000 acres of public land for each congressional representative. The allotments of land, for use by agricultural and mechanical colleges, spurred the development of a system of land grant colleges that provided the framework for a U.S. research system in agriculture. In addition, a “Commission” (later Department) of Agriculture was established during the Civil War to guide federal investments in agriculture. Outbreaks of Texas fever and pleuropneumonia and European restrictions on the import of U.S. meat suspected of carrying disease prompted Congress to establish a Bureau of Animal Industry within the new Department of Agriculture in the early 1900s. Research conducted by the bureau was instrumental in finding technical solutions for reform of the meat packing industry.

13.  

See, for example, Robert E. Evenson and Wallace E. Huffman, “Supply and Demand Functions for Multiproduct U.S. Cash Grain Farms: Biases Caused by Research and Other Policies,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 71 (August 1989):761–773.

14.  

The Hatch Act remains the principal mechanism for federal funding of agricultural research.

15.  

Act of 1906 for the Further Endowment of Agricultural Experiment Stations (Adams Act).

16.  

Norwood Allen Kerr, The Legacy, A Centennial History of the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1887–1987 (Columbia: University of Missouri, 1987).

17.  

John S. Wilson, Productivity and Competitiveness: Industrial Extension Services and Technology Transfer Programs in the U.S. (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank), 8.

18.  

Richard R. Nelson, ed., Government and Technical Progress (New York: Pergamon Press, 1982), 269.

19.  

Kenneth Flamm and Thomas L. McNaugher, “Rationalizing Technology Investments,” in Restructuring American Foreign Policy, ed. John D. Steinbruner (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1989), 126.

20.  

Information provided by the IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York.

21.  

Prior to the 1950s, federal support of the industry—typically involving collaboration of government, industry, or universities—was essential in medical discoveries. Pharmaceutical companies, the Department of Agriculture, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) pooled resources during World War II to make penicillin, first discovered in 1928, widely available for the armed services. OSRD produced the antimalarial drug quinacrine through an analysis of substances developed by university and pharmaceutical company researchers. During this period, the OSRD Committee on Medical Research awarded $25 million in contracts to universities, hospitals, and companies.

22.  

P.L. 78–410.

23.  

Stephen P. Strickland, The Story of the NIH Grants Program (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1989), 44.

24.  

NIH Budget Office. Figures are for dollars actually spent.

25.  

Michael R. Pollard, “Selected Examples of Government and Industry Collaboration in Pharmaceutical Research and Development,” in Government and Independent Collaboration in Biomedical Research and Education: Report of a Workshop (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989), 4.

26.  

Figures are for fiscal year 1991. NIH’s share of the genome project is $87 million; DOE’s share is $47 million. See “DoE’s Genome Project Comes of Age,” Science (April 26, 1991):498.

27.  

David C. Mowery, Collaborative Research: An Assessment of Its Potential Role in the Development of High Temperature Superconductivity (Paper prepared for the Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C., 1988), 47.

28.  

Industrial Biotechnology Association.



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