Wendy Schacht, Commercialization of Technology and Issues in the Competitiveness of Selected U.S. Industries: Semiconductors, Biotechnology, and Superconductors (Paper prepared for the Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., 1988), 33.


Cassius J. Van Slyke, "New Horizons in Medical Research," Science 104 (December 13, 1946):561.


Roger E. Bilstein, Orders of Magnitude: A History of the NACA and NASA, 1915-1990 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1989), 3.


David C. Mowery, "Federal Funding of R&D in Transportation: The Case of Aviation" (Paper presented at the COSEPUP Workshop on the Federal Role in Research and Development, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1985), 315.


Alex Roland, Model Research, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, vol. 2 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1985), 489.


Mowery, Collaborative Research, 71.


John V. Becker, The High-Speed Frontier, Case Histories of Four NACA Programs, 1920-1950 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1980), 117-118.


Energy Security Act of 1980.


Roger G. Noll and Linda R. Cohen, Economics, Politics, and Government Research and Development (Paper commissioned for a Workshop on The Federal Role in Research and Development, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., November 21-22, 1985), 11.


John Deutch, Commercializing Technology: What Should DoD Learn from DoE? (Center for International Security and Arms Control, Stanford University, 1990), 6.


U.S. Congress, Congressional Research Service, "Synthetic Fuels Corporation," Congressional Research Service Review (September 1984), 23.


Hans H. Landsberg, "The Death of Synfuels," Resources 82 (Winter 1986): 7.


Deutch, Commercializing Technology, 5, 8.


This policy contrasted with the production and purchasing subsidies granted synthetic fuels and solar heating, despite the fact that these industries were also at an early stage of technology maturation.


"Systems vs. Technology: DARPA at a Crossroads?" Armed Forces Journal International 127 (November 1989): 71.


Burton I. Edelson and Robert L. Stern, The Operations of DARPA and Its Utility as a Model for a Civilian ARPA (The Paul H. Nitze School for Advanced International Studies, Washington, D.C., 1989), F1-2.


For an overview of DARPA and its role in dual-use technology development, see Mowery and Rosenberg, Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth, 137-156. It should be noted that DARPA has had a limited role in microelectronics R&D. Government procurement policies provided primary incentives for the formation of the computer industry in the 1950s and early 1960s, with advanced R&D work playing a much less important part. In the late 1960s and since, DARPA's R&D work has had a major role in new technology, and government procurement has shrunk as a fraction of the industry.


John A. Alic and Dorothy Robyn, "Designing a Civilian DARPA," Optics and Photonics News 1 (May 1990): 19.


DARPA. Figures are direct appropriations for FY 1991.


Edelson and Stern, The Operations of DARPA and Its Utility as a Model for a Civilian ARPA, 6-7, 18.


"A New Government Role in Key Industries," The Washington Post , April 26, 1990.


Carnegie Commission, New Thinking and American Defense Technology (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Commission, 1990), 24-25.


Ibid., 26.

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