Edelson and Stern, The Operations of DARPA, 22-23.


Alic and Robyn, "Designing a Civilian DARPA," 21.


Edelson and Stern, The Operations of DARPA, 16.


For specific suggestions on improving technology flow between defense agencies and the private sector, see Carnegie Commission, New Thinking, 24-25.


See U.S. Congress, General Accounting Office (GAO), Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Program Shows Success, but Could Be Strengthened, T-RCED-92-3 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991); and Small Business Administration (SBA), Testimony of Richard Shane, Assistant Administrator, Office of Innovation, Research and Technology, before the House Small Business Committee, U.S. House of Representatives on the Small Business Innovation Research Program, U.S. Congress, October 3, 1991. Both GAO and SBA will be releasing reports on the SBIR program and technology commercialization in early 1992.


Small Business Innovation Development Act.


Along with NIST, other agencies within the Technology Administration whose functions relate to industrial competitiveness include the Clearinghouse on State and Local Initiatives, the Japanese Technical Literature Program, the National Technical Information Service, the Office of Technology Policy, and the Office of Commercial Policy.


U.S. Department of Commerce, Research, Services, Facilities: National Institute of Standards and Technology (Gaithersburg, Md.: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Technology Administration, 1991).


Section 5131 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (P.L. 100-418) authorized ATP.


U.S. Department of Commerce, Advanced Technology Program, Proposal Preparation Guidelines (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1990).


Personal communication from George Uriano, director of Advanced Technology Program, to Ed Moser, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, Washington, D.C., February 22, 1991.


For the purposes of this discussion, the term federal laboratories refers to all scientific and engineering laboratories operated under contract by the federal government (GOCOs) or under the direct management of the government (GOGOs). The term national laboratories is often used to refer to the Department of Energy's large, multidisciplinary R&D facilities, including weapons laboratories, such as Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Sandia, and laboratories that focus on basic energy research, such as Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The federally funded research and development centers, operated under contract for the government, span a diverse spectrum from systems engineering and technical assistance, to "think-tank" research organizations.


National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for R&D: Fiscal Years 1989, 1990, 1991 (Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1991); dollar amount in obligations.


Most development of military systems for the Department of Defense is done by private firms, or COCOs, operating outside the laboratory structure. U.S. Congress, House Committee on Small Business, Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Energy, Technology Transfer Obstacles in Federal Laboratories: Key Agencies Respond to Subcommittee Survey (Hearing, March 1990), 7.


Defense Science Board, Technology Base Management (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense, 1987), 13, 22.


U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Making Things Better: Competing in Manufacturing (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990), 185.


NIH Budget Office. Figures are for 1990.


P.L. 96-517.

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