vide seed money to foster industry-led, public-private partnerships for the development and application of civilian technology.10 Legislation with similar intent includes the Technology Corporation of America Act of 1990, to establish a nonprofit corporation for commercial R&D,11 and the Economic Growth Act of 1990, to create an advanced technology fund administered by a national technology council.12

Organization and Structure

A civilian technology agency could be established within the current bureaucratic framework. The organization might be created as an administrative unit of an existing federal department, such as the Department of Commerce, whose current missions and mandate are tied to developing commercial technologies and to U.S. industry. There are other methods of establishing such an agency. For example, it might be created through reorganization of existing executive branch agencies into a Department of Industry and Trade, as provided by several recent legislative proposals in the 101st Congress.13 Another option would be to establish the CTA as a separate agency, with the administrator reporting directly to the President. This approach would likely involve new or expanded staff functions in the White House, similar to the Space Council's link to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As is the case with other federal agencies, a Civilian Technology Agency would be funded on an annual basis by Congress. Moreover, the agency would have to conform to civil service personnel rules and federal government procurement guidelines.

As specified in the guidelines and operating principles outlined in the previous section, cost sharing of projects would be essential to ensure serious industry participation and guide projects into commercial market-oriented technology areas. For example, costs might be shared in consortia on a 50-50 basis, with industrial sponsors given an exclusive license to R&D results. As further evidence of serious intent, industry could also be required to make a multiyear commitment to projects. A small percentage of the agency's funds might be invested in R&D that is too high risk to attract private firms on a 50 percent contribution basis.

Most models for civilian technology agencies outlined in other reports view the structure of DARPA as a framework for such an organization.14 The cost-sharing provisions endorsed in the panel's guidelines for an expanded government role in civilian technology, however, differentiate the CTA from a civilian counterpart to DARPA. The CTA would make grants available to companies and joint cooperative projects, as well as involve the private sector in project selection through advisory committee panels of experts in technology and business administration. Federal advisory regulations might present some problems in carrying out these provisions. Moreover, unlike



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