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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Battelle Memorial Institute. 1990. Government-Promoted Collective Research and Development in Japan: Analyses of the Organization Through Case Studies. Washington, D.C.: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Becker, J. V. 1980. The High-Speed Frontier, Case Histories of Four NASA Programs, 1920-1950. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Ben Franklin Partnership Board. 1987. 48-Month Progress Report, March 1, 1983-February 28, 1987. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Technology Assistance Program, Ben Franklin Partnership Challenge Grant Program for Technological Innovation. Benko, R. P. 1987. Protecting Intellectual Property Rights. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute. Benningfield, D. 1988. MCC: A progress report. Austin, Tex.: Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation. Besen, S., and G. Saloner. 1989. The economics of telecommunications standards. In Changing the Rules: Technological Change, International Competition, and Regulation in Communication, R. Crandall and K. Flamm, eds. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Bilstein, R. E. 1989. Orders of Magnitude: A History of the NACA and NASA, 1915-1990. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Bloch, E. 1991. Toward a U.S. Technology Strategy: Enhancing Manufacturing Competitiveness. Washington, D.C.: The Manufacturing Forum, National Academy of Engineering. Boesman, W. C. 1991. Superconducting Super Collider: Current Issues and Legislation. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, U.S. Congress. Boniface, Z. E., and R. Rimel. 1987. U.S. Funding for Biomedical Research. A report prepared for the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, Penn. Boskin, M. J., and L. J. Lau. 1990. Post-War Economic Growth in the Group of Five Countries: A New Analysis. Working papers. Stanford, Calif.: Department of Economics, Stanford University. Bozdogan, K. 1989. The transformation of the U.S. chemical industry. MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity Working Papers, vol. I. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Bozdogan, K. 1990. The Eureka Initiative in Europe, Implications for Technology Policy in the U.S. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Bozeman, B., and A. N. Link. 1984. Tax incentives for R&D: A critical evaluation. Research Policy 13(1):21-31. Bozeman, B., A. N. Link, and A. Zardkooko. 1986. An economic analysis of R&D joint ventures. Managerial and Decision Economics 7:263-266. Brooks, H. 1986. National science policy and technological innovation. In The Positive Sum Strategy, R. Landau and N. Rosenberg, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Brooks, H., and M. E. Kelley. 1988. The State of Computerized Automation in U.S. Manufacturing. Cambridge, Mass.: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Carnegie Commission. 1990. New Thinking and American Defense Technology. A Report of the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, Washington, D.C. Carnegie Commission. 1991. Technology and Economic Performance: Organizing the Executive Branch for a Stronger National Technology. Carnegie Commission on Science Technology, and Government, New York. Center for Social and Economic Issues, Industrial Technology Institute, Solomon Associates, and J. D. Eveland. 1986. The Literature of Collaborative Research and Development: An Analytic Overview. Report submitted to the Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C. Chapman, R. E., M. K. Clark, and E. Dobson. 1990. Technology-Based Economic Development: A Study of State and Federal Technical Extension Services. U.S. Department of Commerce, NIST Special Publication 786. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Chapman, R. L., L. C. Lohman, and M. J. Chapman. 1989. An Exploration of Benefits from NASA "Spinoff". A report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Littleton, Colo.: Chapman Research Group, Inc. Clark, K. B., and T. Fujimoto. 1991. Product Development Performance: Strategy, Organization, and Management in the World Auto Industry. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Publishers. Clark, K. B., W. B. Chew, and T. Fujimoto. 1987. Product development in the world auto industry. In Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 3. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Clark, P. K. 1977. Capital formation and the recent productivity slowdown. Paper presented to the American Economic Association and the American Finance Association, December 30. Clarke, M. K., and E. N. Dobson. 1989. Promoting Technology Excellence: The Role of State and Federal Extension Activities. Washington, D.C.: National Governors Association. Cohen, S., and J. Zysman. 1987. Manufacturing Matters: The Myth of the Post-Industrial Economy. New York: Basic Books. Colton, R. M. 1987. University/industry cooperative research centers are proving themselves. Research Management 30(2):34-37. Commission of the European Communities. 1990. BRITE EURAM Programme: Synopses of Current Projects, 1989-1990. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. Committee to Advise the President on High Temperature Superconductivity. 1988. High-Temperature Superconductivity: Perseverance and Cooperation on the Road to Commercialization. Washington, D.C. Computer Systems Policy Project. 1991. Perspectives on U.S. Technology Policy, Part II: Increasing Industry Involvement. Washington, D.C. Cordes, J. 1984. A survey of research findings on the R&D tax credit. In The R&D Tax Credit: Issues in Tax Policy and Industrial Innovation, K. M. Brown, ed. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute. Cordes, J. 1988. The effect of tax policy on the creation of new technical knowledge: An assessment of the evidence. In Impact of Technological Change on Employment and Growth, R. M. Cyert and D. C. Mowery, eds. New York: Harper. Council of Economic Advisors. 1991. Economic Report of the President. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Cox, W. A. 1991. Productivity, Competitiveness, and U.S. Living Standards. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, U.S. Congress. Crease, R., and N. Samios. 1991. Managing the unmanageable. The Atlantic 267(1):80. Cyert, R. M., and D. C. Mowery. 1987. Technology and Employment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Cyert, R. M., and D. C. Mowery. 1988. The Impact of New Technologies on Employment and Economic Growth. Cambridge: Ballinger. Decker, J. F. 1991. The Office of Energy Research's Approach to Improved Technology Transfer. Presented at the Department of Energy Transfer Orientation Seminar, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Washington, D.C., January 24. Defense Science Board. 1987. Technology Base Management. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense. Delegation of the Commission of the European Communities. 1990. Important Progress for European Community Research. Brussels: European Economic Community. De Long, J. B., and L. H. Summers. 1990. Equipment Investment and Economic Growth. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic Research. Denison, E. F. 1979. Accounting for Slower Economic Growth: The U.S. in the 1970s. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Index A Adams Act (1906), 54 Advanced Civilian Technology Agency, 124-125. See also Civilian Technology Agency (CTA) Advanced Manufacturing Initiative, 151-152 Advanced Technology Program (ATP), 2, 114, 119 cost-sharing provisions in, 117 description of, 66-67, 152, 195 establishment of, 170 panel conclusions regarding, 67 Agricultural extension programs, 49, 50, 53-54, 60, 93, 94 Agriculture Research Service, 70 Airbus consortium, 90 Aircraft industry federal role in civilian, 57-58, 60 technology transfer in, 150 Alvey program, 90-91 American Technology Preeminence Act of 1992, 155 Antitrust restrictions, 159, 193 Appropriability, 19, 20, 51, 110, 114 ARCH Development Corporation, 76 Argonne National Laboratory, 76 Artificial intelligence, 193 Automotive electronics industry, 150-151 B Balance of trade, U.S. in high-technology goods, 3 Basic research, 2, 80, 82, 84, 96, 110, 112, 135, 152, 157 in biotechnology industry, 146, 147 expenditures, 11, 18 in federal laboratories, 74-75 federal support for, viii, 12, 30, 32, 49-53, 92, 153 and the National Institutes of Health, 56 output of, 21 returns from, 49-51 strength of, 41 in universities, 31, 158, 164-166 Bell Communications Research, 80 Ben Franklin Partnership Program, 153 Biomedical industry role of federal support in, 55-56