technology transfer in, 71, 72

Biotechnology industry

establishment of commercial, 71

federal funding for, 51, 55-57

relationships between universities and, 166

technology transfer in, 146-150

Boeing, 58

Brookhaven National Laboratory, 68

Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, 111

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 14

C

Capital

availability of venture, 110, 146, 147

cost of to U.S. firms, 39-40

Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), 58, 60

Civilian aircraft industry, 57-58, 60

Civilian Industrial Technology Program, 115

Civilian technology.

See also Technology

conclusions regarding federal programs in, 97-98

federal policy toward, 5

government's role in, 1

guidelines for federal involvement in, 1-2

Civilian Technology Agency (CTA)

advantages of, 126-127

disadvantages of, 127-128

establishment of, 124-125

organization and structure of, 125-126

Civilian Technology Corporation (CTC)

advantages of, 132, 135-136

creation of, 2-3, 128-129

disadvantages of, 133-134

initial investment areas for, 131

operation, instructions, and performance of, 130-133

organization and structure of, 129-130

panel recommendations regarding, 135

Clean Air Act of 1970, 150

Clean Coals Technologies Program, 151

Collaborative research and development (R&D)

benefits of, 82, 91-92

European, 89-92, 172-173

evaluation of, 121-122, 174-175

federal support for, 80-82

foreign participation in, 119, 175

government-industry. See Government-industry collaborative research and development (R&D)

Japanese, 83-89, 91, 158, 173-174

organization and goals of, 82, 156

overview of, 79-80, 156-159

private sector. See Private sector collaborative research and development (R&D)

technology transfer through, 146

university-industry. See University-industry collaborative research and development (R&D)

Combustion Research Facility, 151

Commercialization. See Technology commercialization

Commission of the European Communities, 83

Competitiveness

challenges for U.S. in, 41-42

methods of strengthening U.S., viii

Computer industry, 54-55

Consortia.

See also Collaborative research and development (R&D)

definition of, 156

managers of, 162

promise and outlook for, 158-159

role of, 162

Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs)

authority to participate in, 79

cost-sharing provisions in, 117

establishment and description of, 71, 194

in selected federal agencies, 73-74

technology transfer through, 146, 147, 149, 155

Cost sharing

in collaborative programs, 92



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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance technology transfer in, 71, 72 Biotechnology industry establishment of commercial, 71 federal funding for, 51, 55-57 relationships between universities and, 166 technology transfer in, 146-150 Boeing, 58 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 68 Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, 111 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 14 C Capital availability of venture, 110, 146, 147 cost of to U.S. firms, 39-40 Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), 58, 60 Civilian aircraft industry, 57-58, 60 Civilian Industrial Technology Program, 115 Civilian technology. See also Technology conclusions regarding federal programs in, 97-98 federal policy toward, 5 government's role in, 1 guidelines for federal involvement in, 1-2 Civilian Technology Agency (CTA) advantages of, 126-127 disadvantages of, 127-128 establishment of, 124-125 organization and structure of, 125-126 Civilian Technology Corporation (CTC) advantages of, 132, 135-136 creation of, 2-3, 128-129 disadvantages of, 133-134 initial investment areas for, 131 operation, instructions, and performance of, 130-133 organization and structure of, 129-130 panel recommendations regarding, 135 Clean Air Act of 1970, 150 Clean Coals Technologies Program, 151 Collaborative research and development (R&D) benefits of, 82, 91-92 European, 89-92, 172-173 evaluation of, 121-122, 174-175 federal support for, 80-82 foreign participation in, 119, 175 government-industry. See Government-industry collaborative research and development (R&D) Japanese, 83-89, 91, 158, 173-174 organization and goals of, 82, 156 overview of, 79-80, 156-159 private sector. See Private sector collaborative research and development (R&D) technology transfer through, 146 university-industry. See University-industry collaborative research and development (R&D) Combustion Research Facility, 151 Commercialization. See Technology commercialization Commission of the European Communities, 83 Competitiveness challenges for U.S. in, 41-42 methods of strengthening U.S., viii Computer industry, 54-55 Consortia. See also Collaborative research and development (R&D) definition of, 156 managers of, 162 promise and outlook for, 158-159 role of, 162 Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) authority to participate in, 79 cost-sharing provisions in, 117 establishment and description of, 71, 194 in selected federal agencies, 73-74 technology transfer through, 146, 147, 149, 155 Cost sharing in collaborative programs, 92

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance between government and industry, 60-61 policy guidelines for, 116-117 Cray Research, Inc., 55 D Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), viii, 48, 61, 125, 126 description of, 62-63 panel recommendations regarding, 63-65, 98, 124 relationship between SEMATECH and, 81, 195 role in dual-use technology development, 2, 62-63, 70, 98 Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991, 155 Department of Agriculture funding of agricultural research by, 53, 54 funding of biotechnology research by, 56 laboratory program spending by, 70 Department of Commerce (DOC) Advanced Technology Program, 2, 66-67, 152, 195 creation of Industrial Extension Service at, 2 role in technology transfer, 145 Department of Defense (DOD), 53 federal laboratory funding by, 70 relationship between DARPA and, 62-63 relationship between SEMATECH and, 81 role in technology transfer, 145 Department of Energy (DOE), 69-70, 117-119, 124 Cooperative Research and Development Agreements program, 194 funding of Superconductivity Pilot Centers by, 82 human genome project administered by, 56 technology transfer programs in, 72, 76, 78, 151, 152 Department of Health and Human Services, 56 Domestic Policy Council, 124 Dual-use technology panel recommendations regarding, 63-65 relationships between, 61 role of DARPA in, 2, 62-63, 70, 98 E Economic Growth Act of 1990, 125 Economic Recovery Act of 1981, 111 Economy, changes in global, vii, 50, 108 Edison Technology Centers, 153 Education, state of primary and secondary, 40, 95 Electric Power Research Institute, 80 Energy Conservation Utilization Technology Program, 151 Energy-related technologies, 94 Engineering compensation for careers in, 39-40 women and minorities in, 18, 21 Engineering Research Associations (ERAs), 83 Engineering Research Centers (ERCs), 82, 145, 158, 170, 192-193 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 150 ESPRIT program, 90 EUREKA project, 89-90 Europe, 89-92, 172-173. See also individual countries European Community (EC), 89, 90, 172 Executive Order 12591, 71 Exports growth in U.S., 22-23, 114 merchandise, 32-33 of technology-intensive products, 22-23 Extension programs. See Agricultural extension programs; Industrial extension programs

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance F Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology , 124, 158 Federal laboratories collaboration with industry, 170-171 contributions to private sector technology goals by, 68-69, 72-76 guidelines for improvements in technology transfer by, 76-79 missions and funding of, 69-70 overview of, 67-69 panel recommendations regarding, 77 technology transfer and commercialization and 2, 68, 70-71, 98, 147 Federal Laboratory Consortium, 154, 155 Federal Science and Technology Survey Committee, 153 Federal technology programs administered by Commerce Department, 65-67 administered by Small Business Administration, 65. See also Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) in agriculture, 53-54 assessment of, 59-61 in biomedicine, 55-56 in biotechnology, 51, 56-57 in civil aviation, 57-58, 60 in computers and microelectronics, 54-55 conclusions regarding, 97-98 conducted by federal laboratories. See Federal laboratories in dual-use technology, 62-65. See also Dual-use technology overview of, 49-51, 61 support for basic research in, 49-53 in synthetic fuels, 58-59 Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986, 71, 73, 79, 146, 154, 194 Fellowships, 51-52 Filiere Electronique, 90 Fourth Generation Computer Systems, 83 Framework Programs, 89 France, 90 Fujitsu, ICL, 90 G Gas Research Institute, 80 General Electric Co., 58 Georgia Institute of Technology's Research Institute, 93 Germany competitive ability in, 15 payments of royalties and fees to, 37-38 programs to enhance work force skills in, 40 subsidies for jet aircraft development in, 90 Global economy, vii, 50, 108 Government-industry collaborative research and development (R&D) description of, 169-170 examples of, 158, 194-196 factors in successful, viii-ix Government-owned, contractor-operated laboratories (GOCO). See also Federal laboratories conversion of government labs to, 78 discussion of, 69, 70 funding for, 70 Government-owned, government-operated laboratories (GOGO). See also Federal laboratories closure of, 79 conversion to GOCOs, 78 discussion of, 69 funding for, 70 Government Patent Policy Act of 1980, 148, 154 Gross national product (GNP) by industry, 24-25 real output by industry as percentage of, 26-27 H Hatch Act (1887), 54

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance High Performance Computing and Communications Program, 158 Human genome project, 56 I IBM, 55 IBM-Europe, 90 Imports, 32 Industrial extension programs administration of, 93 investment by foreign governments in, 95 panel recommendations regarding, 97 state, 153 Industrial Extension Service (IES) establishment of, 2, 114 panel recommendations regarding, 97 Industrial Innovation Initiatives program, 115 Industry-government collaborative research and development (R&D). See Government-industry collaborative research and development (R&D) Industry-university collaborative research and development (R&D). See University-industry collaborative research and development (R&D) Infrastructure, 41 Innovation. See Technological innovation Insurance, product liability, 149 Invention. See Technology creation J Japan artificial intelligence project in, 193 collaborative R&D programs in, 83-89, 91, 158, 173-174 competitive ability in, 15 Key Technology Center program in, 84-89, 173-174 payments of royalties and fees to, 36-38 work force skills enhancement in, 40 Japan Development Bank (JDB), 85 Japan Industrial Technology Association, 84 Japanese Technology Literature Act of 1986, 154 Japanese Tobacco Company (JNR), 85 JESSI project, 90 K Key Technology Center program (Japan), 84-89, 173-174 L Labor productivity, 5, 95 Legislative request for study, 179-181 Liability insurance, product, 149 Licenses agency listings for 1989, 73 role of university scientists in, 149 technology transfer and timing of, 147 Linear model of technology development, 16 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 55 M Macroeconomic policy, 6 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act of 1987, 154 Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award Program, 66 Managed collaboration, 144 Manufacturers cost of adoption and size of, 15 disparity in technology adoption by, 29 Manufacturing output changes by industry, 28 as percentage of total GNP, 26-27 share of GNP for, 24-25 status of U.S., 21-23 Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTCs), 93-94, 97, 152

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Market failure, 3, 49-51, 109 in adoption of new technology, 51 in pre-commercial areas, 50 stages of, 109 Microelectronics, 54-55 Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC), 80, 159 , 163, 193-194 Military research and development (R&D). See also Dual-use technology implications for, 61 reorientation of priorities regarding, 98 as source of civilian technology, 34-35 Ministry of Industrial Trade and Industry (MITI) (Japan), 83, 84, 86, 88 Minorities, 18 N National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), 53, 194 accomplishments of, 57-58, 60 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 57, 71, 159, 194 National Aerospace Plane, 62 National Apparel Technology Center, 80, 193 National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), 81, 114, 115, 117, 151 National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act (1989), 71, 155 National Cooperative Research Act of 1984 (NCRA), 71, 80, 151, 154 , 157, 193 National Defense Manufacturing Technology Plan, 155 National Energy Strategy, 152 National Heart Institute, 56 National Institute of Mental Health, 56 National Institute of Standards and Technology Authorization Act for FY 1989, 155 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) management of technology adoption programs by, 97 Manufacturing Technology Centers, 93-94, 97, 152 structure and function of, 65-67, 118, 194-195 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 53, 124 biomedical R&D funding by, 55-57, 118, 148 budget of, 70 role in technology transfer, 71, 72, 145, 148-150 National Quality Award, 154 National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976, 153 National Science Foundation Authorization Act for FY 1986, 154 National Science Foundation (NSF) biotechnology research funding by, 56 Engineering Research Centers, 82, 145, 158, 170, 192-193 federal laboratory spending by, 70 industry-university collaborative research centers of, 158, 192 legislation affecting, 154 role in technology transfer, 145 National Science Foundation (NSF) University-Industry Cooperative Research Center program, 82 New Technological Opportunities program, 115 Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Company (NTT), 85 North Carolina Microelectronics Center, 82, 193 O Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 76 Office of Industrial Technology, 154 Office of Research Grants, 56, 57

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 77, 124, 129, 153 Offices of Research and Technology Applications, 71 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, ix, 65, 93, 152, 154-155, 179-180 Optoelectronics Technology Research Corporation (OTRC), 86-87, 174 P Panel on the Government Role in Civilian Technology biographical information regarding, 186-190 conclusions regarding ATP program, 67 regarding expanded mission agency funding, 123-124, 135 regarding technology adoption, 12, 29 regarding technology commercialization, 29 regarding technology policy, 97-98, 114, 135 recommendations regarding creation of Civilian Technology Corporation, 135 regarding dual-use technology, 63-65 regarding establishment of Industrial Extension Service, 97 regarding federal laboratories, 77 regarding SBIR program, 65 regarding technology policy, 96, 97 Patent and Trademark Amendments Act, 71 Patents activity of U.S., 21, 22 agency listings for 1989, 73 legislation regarding, 148 technology transfer and, 147, 148 U.S. receipts and payments for, 36-38 Per capita personal income, 5 Personal income, 5 Pharmaceutical industry, 165-166 Political interference, 60, 118, 130 Pre-commercial research and development (R&D) antitrust regulations and, 157 expanded mission agency funding of, 122-124 federal role in, 109-114, 122 nature of, 19-20, 49 panel conclusions regarding, 12 promotion of investment in, 2-3 support for, viii, 2, 20 President's Council on Science and Technology, 124 Private sector federal laboratory support for, 68-69, 72-76 funding for, 19 investment risk borne by, 134 responsibilities of, 30, 117 success of federal incentives for, 60-61 Private sector collaborative research and development (R&D) advantages of, 158 agenda broadening for, 164 assessment of, 91-92 elements of successful, 161, 162 examples of, 193-194 expected returns of, 161 importance of, 159-161 number of participants in, 164 overview of, 159 technology and information sharing problems in, 163-164 technology transfer and, 162-163 Private sector funding in biotechnology, 56 extent of, 87 incentives for, 50 Product liability insurance, 149 Productivity growth capital investment and, 9-10 demographic shifts and, 10 discussion of U.S., 6-9

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance energy costs and, 10-11 importance of, 5, 122 international manufacturing, 35-36 long-term, 3 research and development spending and, 11 state of U.S., 4-5, 14, 41-42 Public Health Service Act (1944), 56 R Radioastronomy, 13 Research. See also Basic research federal support for basic, 49-52 foreign access to U.S., 52-53 Research and development (R&D). See also Collaborative research and development (R&D); Pre-commercial research and development (R&D) cost in technology-intensive sectors, 34 dispersion of transnational, 33-34 factors in successful joint government-industry, viii-ix government involvement in private sector, 112-113 mechanisms to facilitate pre-commercial, ix military-funded, 34-35. See also Military research and development (R&D) tax credits for, 111-112 transnational, 33 Research Association for the Promotion of Mining and Industrial Technology Act (1961), 83 Research funding in biotechnology, 56 for defense-related programs, 61, 122-123 extent of, 18 for federal laboratories, 68 need for stable, 60 for pre-commercial state of technology development, 30 for private sector, 19 S SAGE air defense program, 54, 55 Science careers, 18, 21 Semiconductor industry research collaboration in, 80, 81, 91 technology commercialization in, 29, 30 Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Research Corporation (SEMATECH) anticipated returns of, 171-172 certification of vendors by, 162 description of, 117, 119, 171, 194-196 establishment of, 114, 115, 170 role in diffusion and adoption of semiconductor manufacturing equipment , 91 Semiconductor Research Corporation, 80, 159 Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program Act of 1988, 155 Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) cost-sharing provisions in, 117 description of, 65 funding for, 2 panel recommendations regarding, 65 technology transfer through, 151 Smith-Lever Act (1914), 54 Software Productivity Consortium, 80, 159 Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), 72 Spain, 90 Specialty Metals Processing Consortia, 152 State and Local Extension Initiatives programs, 94 State governments administration of industrial extension programs by, 93 stimulation of technology transfer by, 153

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Steveson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, 71, 154, 155, 194 Strategic Defense Initiative, 62 Stretch program, 55 Supercomputers, 55 Superconductivity Pilot Centers, 82, 151 Supersonic Transport program, 50 Suppliers, 145 Sweden, 15 Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC), 58-59 Synthetic fuels industry, 58-60 T Tax incentives for R&D, 111-112 Tax Reform Act of 1986, 111 Technological innovation. See also Technology commercialization challenges to U.S. advantage in, 95-96 explanation and discussion of, 12-14 U.S. dominance in, 12 Technology. See also Civilian technology economic return of new, 13-14 problems in sharing information and, 163 structure of postwar, 31-39 U.S. as exporter of, 21 U.S. performance in, 18, 21, 41-42, 108 Technology Administration, 97 Technology adoption explanation and discussion of, 14-15 federal role in, 92-98 panel conclusions regarding, 12, 29 panel recommendations regarding, 96, 97 weaknesses in, 29 Technology commercialization. See also Technological innovation explanation and discussion of, 12-14 of immature technology, 61 interactive character of, 157 role of federal laboratories in, 67, 69. See also Federal laboratories U.S. performance in, 29, 42 Technology Corporation of America Act of 1990, 125 Technology creation explanation of, 12 federal support for, 122 time lag between innovation and, 13, 157 Technology policy characteristics of postwar, 31 panel conclusions regarding, 12, 97-98 panel recommendations regarding, 96, 97 rationale for change in, 3, 5 structure of postwar, 32 Technology policy guidelines overview of, 115-116 regarding cost sharing, 116-117 regarding diversification of investment, 118-119 regarding industry involvement in project initiation and design, 117-118 regarding political interference, 118 regarding program evaluation, 121-122 regarding projects open to foreign firms, 119-121 Technology policy options Civilian Technology Agency as, 124-128 Civilian Technology Corporation as, 128-134 conclusions regarding, 134-136 expanded mission agency funding of pre-commercial R&D as, 122-124 Technology transfer in automotive electronics industry, 150-151 barriers to, 16, 18 beyond industrial laboratories, 144-146 in biotechnology industry, 146-150